ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ON THE PHOTO VOLTAIC VERSUS SIAM SOLAR DISH SYSTEM FOR IMPLICATION TO THAILAND     SOFTLAND AND PO...
Some data came from real world data such as construction cost, material cost, labour cost,inflation rate, interest rate. S...
power generation should become the primary source of energy generation on the future,particularly on the electricity gener...
Douglas can do. The target design of Thai’s government on Solar Dish system would like tohave the peak efficiency at 25%. ...
2. PV- generated electricity does not have nuclear energy’s security- concerns, regardingits waste products.    3. The dis...
purity water and toxic chemicals to produce. PV cells made of materials beside silicon haveother environmental issues, suc...
energy that causes you to cast a shadow) and concentrates or focuses it onto a small area. Theresultant solar beam has all...
Advantages of Solar Dish Stirling Engine   1. Dish engine systems have the attributes of high efficiency, versatility, and...
to support a small utility, the ability to add modules as needed, and a hybrid capability makethe solar dish Stirling engi...
removed by an engine for a fairly                                               short time period. The purpose was        ...
Engine Test    Figure 11 shows the prototype engine at AREF and Figure 10 shows the test result of the10 kW “Siam Solar Di...
Table 3. Actual construction costs for single crystalline photovoltaic 10 kW systems                                    wi...
Figure     13.   Single   Crystalline                    Figure 14. Solar tracker sensor, AREF,Photovoltaic at Naraesuan U...
maintenance cost. The two tables show that both systems had the same percentage ofoperating cost, inflation, and interest ...
Production energy                                same                      same Stand Alone Unit                          ...
Table 9. Total energy capture by PV and Solar Dish                                        PV                              ...
Comparison between Solar Dish and Solar Cell           Table 10. The comparison between Solar dish with solar cell in Thai...
Design Target Characteristics of the “Siam Solar Dish”                        Table 11. Design Target Characteristics [20]...
Generator Type                                        Asynchronous alternator Voltage                                     ...
Part Materials                                Table 13. Part Materials  Descriptions             Material                 ...
Figure 17. MIRO- SUN % total reflection                                  Source: MIRO- SUN [19]SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS    ...
maintenance. Local materials that can find easily in Thailand would induce the world toadopt the Solar Dish Stirling Power...
[19] MIRO – SUN Specification, (2002), MIRO–SUN Corp., Germany.[20] Suravut SNIDVONGS, The Design and Implementation of Sm...
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ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ON THE PHOTO VOLTAIC VERSUS SIAM SOLAR DISH SYSTEM FOR IMPLICATION TO THAILAND SOFTLAND AND POOR SOLAR INSOLATION NATURE

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ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ON THE PHOTO VOLTAIC VERSUS SIAM SOLAR DISH SYSTEM FOR IMPLICATION TO THAILAND SOFTLAND AND POOR SOLAR INSOLATION NATURE

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ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ON THE PHOTO VOLTAIC VERSUS SIAM SOLAR DISH SYSTEM FOR IMPLICATION TO THAILAND SOFTLAND AND POOR SOLAR INSOLATION NATURE

  1. 1. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON ON THE PHOTO VOLTAIC VERSUS SIAM SOLAR DISH SYSTEM FOR IMPLICATION TO THAILAND SOFTLAND AND POOR SOLAR INSOLATION NATURE Suravut SNIDVONGS, EIT member* Vice President, Asian Renewable Energy Development and Promotion Foundation (AREF) 211/ 2 V.S.S Bldg, Ratchadaphisek Rd., Din-Daeng, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand Tel 662 276 7908- 0 Fax 662 276 7913 email airscan@cscoms.com PhD Student, School of Renewable Energy Technology, Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, Thailand. ABSTRACT The detail in this paper is one part of the dissertation development research project on thesolar thermal dish Stirling engine system for a 10 kW power plant with lead acid batterystorage, to be submitted to Naresuan University in Thailand. The project has later been named“Siam Solar Dish” research project. This paper shows a comparison on technicalcharacteristics between general photovoltaic systems and a small solar thermal dish StirlingEngine System, on condition that both systems maintain the same output and storage capacityat 10 kW with lead acid battery. The dish in this paper is a parabolic design and equipped with a solar tracker. The Stirlingengine is a 10 kWe four– cylinder, swash- plate design and features a moving tube type heatexchanger, low offset space, and double acting pistons. The 10 kWe photovoltaic system ispolycrystalline based without solar tracker and for this study both systems are assumed tomaintain the same 250 kWe battery storage. The researcher in this research project believes that Thailand as a developing country isstill far behind on the know how of high technology in related areas of metallurgy, reflector,solar tracking, high efficiency and high sensitivity motor, high temperature seal, etc. Inparticular, the solar insolation capacity in a very moist climate like Thailand, is also very farbelow in comparison to dry country weather. Therefore, it looks quite impossible to designthe above mentioned system in the manner like as being done in other advanced technologicaland well developed countries. Inevitably, “Siam Solar Dish I” will not reach high efficiencylevel in general performance, but the researcher believes that “Siam Solar Dish I”manufacturing cost, operating cost, together with her durability capacity would be wellaccepted in Thailand’s market including many other under developed countries. However,“Siam Solar Dish I” design and calculation have been based on 1,000 W/ m2 solar insolationvalue, which is the international standard design value referred to in Advanced DishDevelopment System 9 kWe (ADDS) [1] One purpose of this research project is to establish the advantage and disadvantage of bothsystems as a guide for the end users to select which system is the best suited for installationsin Thailand, as well as other global markets, in terms of price, maintenance cost, operatingcost, Economy, performance, reliability and efficiency. The comparison in this paper will bepresented in descriptive format, along with relevance photo pictures, graphs, and tables.* The Engineering Institute of Thailand Under H.M. The King’s Patronage 1
  2. 2. Some data came from real world data such as construction cost, material cost, labour cost,inflation rate, interest rate. Some data came from the researcher’s own experience, togetherwith various referenced facts and figures from many Thai Government Offices’ publishedannouncement [2], such as operation and maintenance cost. Other data came from basicexperiments done either at the universities or at the researcher’s own lab room, that these aresolar insolation, PV data, and Stirling engine test with electric heater. And of course, certaindata also came from simple estimation and prediction calculation such as Stirling engine testwith solar insolation [3].INTRODUCTION Due to the sharp economic growth rate in Thailand for more than a few decadescontinuingly from the past, has thus forced Thailand’s electricity demand to climb up verysharply to the present. By the year 2010, it has been projected that close to 35,000 MWt willbe required to meet the electricity needs of Thailand’s economy. This prediction has beenprepared by Electrical Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) [4]. Presently, Thailand hasinstalled an over all power plant capacity at 22,000MWt from year 1997 where Peak Demandwere merely 17,000MWt. Current Consumption Increasing Rate (Forecasted by EGAT) are tobe: 1. Prediction during I.M.F period 4%/ yr 2. Actual demand during I.M.F period 8%/ yr 3. Prediction during sound economy 16% / yr The Salawin Hydro Power Plant could be completed in the next 50 years under heavyinvestment problems encountered on both parties, i.e. Thailand and Burma [5]. Clearly Thailand’s electricity consumption demand cannot continue without facing stiffenvironmental consequential or otherwise Thailand will have to shift herself from the existingpower generation base from fossil fuels to renewable forms of energy, of which solarphotovoltaic or solar thermal power etc. seems to be an option. If coal remains as cheap as itis today due to its relatively abundant supply, renewable energy sources such as PV cells willhardly gain enough market share to make the efficiency strides necessary to becomecompetitive. If, however, the environmental externalities were to be factored into the cost ofcoal-powered electricity, PV cells would then become comparatively competitive enough tobecome an alternate electricity sources. An internationally proposal of "externality tax" of 0.05 Baht/ kWh or 0.125 c/ kWh(phased in over 20 years) will be added to the price of coal- powered electricity. In Thailand,such a tax would generate almost 200 million Baht or 5 million dollars (1 US Dollar = 40Baht, March 2005) in 20 years, some of which would be used to fund a program to purchasePV cells or solar thermal systems for all government buildings. This would enable PV andsolar thermal manufacturers to scale up production, with more confidence on a large andstable market for their product in Thailand. It is sincerely hoped that part of this incomewould be spent, on some research and development in Thailand, in the fields of PV and solarthermal system technology. The result of these programs would be that the country could begenerating 50% of its electricity with PV cells and solar thermal system by the year 2020. Theemissions saved by making this change could be estimated to an equivalent amount of 10billion tons of carbon from CO2 alone. It has been well known that, the most apparent and direct method of capturing solarenergy is through solar heating and photovoltaic. This direct capture of solar energy for 2
  3. 3. power generation should become the primary source of energy generation on the future,particularly on the electricity generation aspect. [6]. Presently, the world is increasingly turning to PV cells and Solar Thermal Technology tosupply her growing electricity needs, both in well developed countries where efforts are inplace to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and also in developing countries where PV cells arealready competitive as distributed sources of power due to lack of a centralized distributionsystem.[7] However, it is very unfortunate that Solar Thermal Technology has not yet beencompetitive since most of these relevant components and systems are still under commercialdevelopment trend. Not until recently, that the energy and environment problems have simultaneously tobecome the Government’s most serious economical debating issues on a global basis.Therefore, the high efficiency and low pollution engine turns to be needed. The Stirlingengine could respond to such requirement with various excellent characteristics, e.g. highthermal efficiency, multi- fuel capability, and low pollution emitted. Today, low temperaturedifference Stirling engines are expected as power sources with geothermal energy, and hightemperature Stirling engines are to be used as power sources through solar energy. However,the Stirling engine still could not reach the commercial phase as yet, because the engine isstill left with a few further development problems that needed to be tackled. Those are: a highproduction cost, an endurance of a non- lubricated seal device, and a low power to engineweight ratio. Table 1 shows that the sun insolation in Thailand is varying between in 450 to 550 W/ m2whole year round, and the average value is at 500 W/ m2 over the year. We can plot the solarradiation graph from data of table 1 as in figure 1. Table 1. Solar Radiation Data Latitude 14.08 N, Longitude 100.62 E Month Year Diffuse MJ/ m2 Direct MJ/ m2 Total MJ/ m2 Jun 2003 8.89 12.81 18.63 Jul 2003 8.34 10.26 16.22 Aug 2003 9.56 8.78 16.85 Sept 2003 9.44 6.81 16.00 Oct 2003 7.29 11.97 17.94 Nov 2003 6.16 15.87 19.66 Dec 2003 5.22 17.67 19.71 Jan 2004 5.96 13.31 17.27 Feb 2004 6.54 14.81 19.07 Mar 2004 8.21 12.46 19.07 Apr 2004 7.42 15.48 19.72 May 2004 7.90 9.67 15.90 Jun 2004 8.92 8.33 15.51 Jul 2004 10.02 8.94 17.47 Aug 2004 9.74 8.56 17.56 Sep 2004 8.74 7.61 15.77Source:Meteorological Station, Energy Laboratory, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand [8] In this paper, the author has mentioned various referenced operational solar dishefficiency for the example, reference from McDonnell- Douglas system 29.4% which is not10kW systems but this value is the highest record that Stirling engine from McDonnell- 3
  4. 4. Douglas can do. The target design of Thai’s government on Solar Dish system would like tohave the peak efficiency at 25%. However, the author believes that the appropriate targetefficiency design should be 20% because Thailand has some disadvantage, particularly onpoor solar insolation, low technologies, and low quality of materials in comparison to welldeveloped countries. In this paper, calculation has been based on the system which operates24 hrs a day for 365 days per year assumption from lead acid battery storage support. 25 Diffuse Direct Total 20 15 MJ/m2 10 5 0 Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Month Figure 1. Solar Insolation of ThailandPhotovoltaic It has been well known that Photovoltaic systems capture the diffuse solar radiation byusing Silicon Photovoltaic. Figure 2 shows a silicon lattice that contains N- type and P- type.When a layer of N- type silicon is in direct contact with a layer of P- type silicon a PNjunction forms. This PN junction is characterized by a charge depletion region extending intothe N and P materials. Typically the N- type silicon is more heavily doped resulting in alarger extension of the depletion region into the P- type material. In this case, when photonsare incident upon the N- type side of the material as shown in Figure 3, they will exciteelectron- hole pairs (EHPs). Devices are usually designed so that short wavelength photons will excite EHPs in the N-type region, medium wavelength photons will excite EHPs in the depletion region, and longwavelength photons will excite EHPs in the P- type region. The PN junction has thecharacteristic that EHPs formed within a certain volume of silicon as shown in figure 2. The holes move toward the N- type material and the electrons move toward the P- typematerial. This separation of charge creates an electric potential. If electrical contacts areplaced on the front and back of the material, then this potential will drive an electric currentthat will be available to do work.Advantages of photovoltaic cells 1. During operation, PV systems are emissions- free and, as they have no moving parts,are relatively clean and quiet. 4
  5. 5. 2. PV- generated electricity does not have nuclear energy’s security- concerns, regardingits waste products. 3. The distributed nature of PV electricity helps decrease our susceptibility to any attackon the electricity grid, as the electricity can be generated in many places instead of only a fewcentralized power stations. 4. Photovoltaic systems are a modular system as energy demands increase; new PV cellscan be installed as necessary. This type of system avoids the increased generation capacity(and excess costs) that comes with bringing a centralized power station online for a growingcommunity whose demand is not yet in line with what the power station is capable ofproducing. 5. The generation of solar electricity coincides with peak energy demand. (Almostcoincides– there is a time difference– the peak demand typically occur a few hours later thanthe peak solar insolation so that energy storage is required.) If PV systems are connected tothe point of load, this will eliminate long distance power transfers during times of high-energy demand. This decreases transmission costs in addition to creating a more stableenergy supply.Figure 2. Distribution of electrons and holes Figure 3. The anatomy of a PV cellSource:http://acre.murdoch.edu.au/refiles/pv/text. Source:http://www.eere.energy.gov/pv/pvhtml menu.cgi?site=pv&idx=0&body=video.ht mlDisadvantages of photovoltaic cells 1. Photovoltaic cells, however, are not as a dependable source of electricity as on case ofcoal fossil. They can only generate power during the day, requiring either storage or anothersource of power for the electricity needed during the night. Besides, PV cells will notgenerate as much electricity on cloudy days and could be severely hampered if blocked bysnow or debris. 2. PV cells come at high initial environmental costs. According to Thailand’s SEPAregulation, a system with high installation costs in a state without rebates can cost as much asBht 400,000/ kW or $10,000/ kW* (depending on location and the interest rate if a loan wasused to purchase the PV module, this could translate into Bht 18.4/ kWh or $0.46/ kWh* forthe entire lifetime of the PV module) [9]. However, as PV cells require no fuel and have nomoving parts, operational costs are minimal. 3. There is also a high environmental cost to produce solar cells. To actually produce aPV cell requires a lot of energy maintains that the energy buy- back time (the time it takes forthe PV cell to produce as much energy as it cost to produce the PV cell) is 1– 4 years,depending on the location and application [15]. While the silicon used in most solar cells isnot in itself an environmental contaminant, silicon PV cells do require large amounts of high 5
  6. 6. purity water and toxic chemicals to produce. PV cells made of materials beside silicon haveother environmental issues, such as the cadmium (considered a hazardous material to humanbeings) that is used in the production of cadmium telluride thin- film PV cells. However,such a small amount of cadmium is used to produce these cells that even if cadmium telluridePV cells were to become a major source of electricity generation, the amount of cadmiumused in PV cell production would still remain under 10% of the world’s cadmium use [16]. 4. The amount of land required for large- scale solar cell production is anotherenvironmental impact. The area required for 1 MW power plant for 6 hours used at 1,000 W/m2 could be compared among with the other power generation technology as to be estimatedbelow: 4.1 Solar Cell with 5% efficiency will require 20,000 m2 or 12.5 rai** of land per MWe. 4.2 Normally, Solar Trough size 8 x 100 m with 75% thermal efficiency would require4,400 m2, but for shading with multiplier 2.5 the required average will become 11,000 m2 or6.9 rai** of land per MWe. For system with steam engine efficiency of 30% should requirethe same area. *** 4.3 Solar Dish with 29.4% efficiency will require 6,400 to 8,000 m2 or 4 to 5 rai** ofland per MWe. 4.4 Conventional Power Plant normally will require 3,200 m2 or 2 rai** of land per MWe. 5. The amount of waste generated by discarded PV cells will be an issue to be resolved.However, the lifetime of PV cells is expected to be at least 20- 30 years, so waste generationwill lag behind industry growth, allowing time for research into recycling programs. For thePV cells that are disposed of in landfills, leaching is not expected to be a significant issue asmany of PV materials are water insoluble and strongly encased in glass or plastic [12].* 1 US Dollar = 40 Baht, March 2005, ** 1 rai = 1,600 m2*** In Thailand, a newly developed test engine has been tested as [18] the author found thatmuch friction loss in the new developed steam engine with swash plate mechanism could bedecreased!Solar dish A solar dish- engine system, as shown in figure 6, is an electrical generator that “burns”sunlight instead of gas or coal to produce electricity. It collects sunlight to produceelectricity. The major parts of the system are the solar concentrator and the power conversionunit. The solar concentrator tracks the sun, reflecting sunlight into the power conversion unit(PCU). In the PCU, the concentrated sunlight is absorbed on a thermal receiver where it isconverted into heat to power a Stirling engine. The engine then drives a generator producingelectricity. Figure 6. Solar Dish Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/power/pdfs/solaroverview.pdf The dish, which is more specifically referred to as a concentrator, is the primary solarcomponent of the system. It collects the solar energy coming directly from the sun (the solar 6
  7. 7. energy that causes you to cast a shadow) and concentrates or focuses it onto a small area. Theresultant solar beam has all of the power of the sunlight hitting the dish, but is concentratedin a small area so that it can be more efficiently used. Glass mirrors reflect an approximate92% of the sunlight that hits them, are relatively inexpensive, can be cleaned, and last fairlylong in the outdoor environment, making them an excellent choice for the reflective surfaceof a solar concentrator. The dish structure must track the sun continuously to reflect the beaminto the thermal receiver. The power conversion unit includes the thermal receiver and the engine/ generator. Thethermal receiver is the interface between the dish and the engine/ generator. It absorbs theconcentrated beam of solar energy, converts to heat, and transfers to the engine/ generator. Athermal receiver can be a bank of tubes with cooling fluid, usually hydrogen, helium,nitrogen or air, which are the heat transfers medium and also the working fluid for an engine.The engine/ generator system is the subsystem that takes the heat from the thermal receiverand uses to produce electricity. The most common type of heat engine used in dish- enginesystems is the Stirling engine. A Stirling engine uses heat provided from an external source(like the sun) to move pistons and make mechanical power. Large-scale development of these systems will help us address current and futureelectrical power supply needs. The Southwest U.S., Nevada in particular, is an excellentlocation for the development and deployment of Solar dish power generation system becauseof the high intensity of sunlight available. In Thailand, however, the solar insolation is muchlower than in Southwest U.S or in Africa, but it is still in the working range that the enginecould be in operation. Since the Solar Dish Stirling engine will operate wherever the suninsolation value exceeds 200 W/ m2, and the average solar insolation in Thailand is at 500 W/m2, therefore, the solar dish in Thailand could produce a peak power from 9 to 25 kWh atease with twice reflector areas than other high insolation country. These Stirling engines could produce power only when the sun shines. However, Stirlingunits can also be equipped to burn natural gas to produce electricity power when the sun isnot shining, or otherwise the electric energy could be stored in batteries to make use of theelectricity power when the sun not shining. Solar dish engine systems are currently being developed for application in high- valueremote power, distributed system, green power, and other grid- connected markets. Solar dishengine systems convert sunlight’s into electricity at very high efficiencies- much higher thanany other solar technology. The current record held by a Solar Dish- Stirling engine systemshowed that it could be converted to an average of 29.4% [13] of the incident sunlight intoelectrical power. It has been known that an Advanced Dish Development System for RemotePower Applications could provide an opportunity for high-value distributed power (9 B/kWh or 0.225 $/ kWh and higher for some remote applications) and also for commercialdevelopment. The Advanced Dish Development System (ADDS) project in Thailand, called “SiamSolar Dish”, is continuingly under developing and testing of the 10 kW low power to weightratio dish Stirling Project, to address the possibility usage in remote applications’ stand-alone solar home system as the future target use in Thailand’s rural area. This system shouldbring the cost of electric down to 2.5 B/ kWh or 6.26 c/ kWh. as shown in page 9 of thispaper. 7
  8. 8. Advantages of Solar Dish Stirling Engine 1. Dish engine systems have the attributes of high efficiency, versatility, and hybridoperation. High efficiency contributes to high power densities and low cost, compared toother solar technologies. The Stirling engine has better beneficial in comparison to the fueltypes, in two areas: 1.1. Low emission and low pollution. 1.2. High thermal efficiency 2. More than 21,000 hours of a four Stirling engines (10,000 on sun and 11,000 in testcell). [14] 3. Average daily efficiency of 24% conversion of solar energy into electricity. [14] 4. Peak solar power generation of 29.4%. [14] 5. Depending on the system and the site, dish engine systems require approximately6,400 to 8,000 m2 or 4 to 5 rai* of land per MWe. 6. Data from AREF, the initial installed costs of Siam Solar Dish System (Solar- only) isabout 151,000 B/ kWe or 3,775 $/ kWe and 250,000 B/ kWe 6,250 $/ kWe for hybridsystems, in mass production the cost should go down to 100,000 B/ kWe or 2,500 $/ kWe.This relatively low- cost potential is, to a large extent, a result of dish engine system’sinherent high efficiency. 7. Because of their versatility and hybrid capability, Solar Dish Stirling engine systemshave a wide range of potential applications. In principle, Solar dish Stirling engine systemsare capable of providing power ranging from kilowatts to gigawatts when used in large arrayof farm dishes. However, it is expected that dish engine systems will have their greatestimpact in grid- connected applications in the 1 to 50 MWe power range. The largest potentialmarket for dish engine is large scale power plants connected to the utility grid. 8. Their ability to be quickly installed, their inherent modularity, and their minimalenvironmental impact make them a good candidate for new peaking power installations. Theoutput from many modules can be ganged together to form a Solar dish Stirling engine farmand produce a collective output of virtually any desired amount. In addition, systems can beadded as needed to respond to demand increases. Hours of peak output are often coincidentwith peak demand. Although Solar dish Stirling engine systems do not currently have a cost-effective energy storage system, their ability to operate with fossil or bio- derived fuelsmakes them, in principle, fully dispatch able. This capability in conjunction with theirmodularity and relatively benign environment impacts suggests that grid support benefitscould be major advantages of these systems. 9. Solar dish Stirling engine systems can also be used individually as stand alone systemsfor applications such as water pumping. While the power rating and modularity of solar dishStirling engine seem ideal for stand alone applications, there are challenges related toinstallation and maintenance of these systems in a remote environment. Solar dish Stirlingengine systems need to stow when wind speeds exceed a specific condition, usually 16 m/ s.Reliable sun and wind sensors are therefore required to determine if conditions warrantoperation. In addition, to enable operation until system can become self sustaining, energystorage (e.g., battery like those used in a diesel generator set) with its associated cost andreliability issues is needed. Therefore, it is likely that significant entry in stand alone marketswill occur after the technology has had an opportunity to mature in utility and village- powermarkets. 10. Intermediate- scale applications such as small grids (village power) appear to be wellsuited to solar dish Stirling engine systems. The economics of scale of utilizing multiple units 8
  9. 9. to support a small utility, the ability to add modules as needed, and a hybrid capability makethe solar dish Stirling engine systems ideal for small grids. 11. Because solar dish Stirling engine systems use heat engines, they have an inherentability to operate on fossil fuels. The use of the same power conversion equipment, includingthe engine, generator, wiring, and switch gear, etc., implies that only the addition of a fossilfuel combustor is required to enable a hybrid capability. System efficiency, based on thehigher heating value, is expected to be about 30% for a dish/ Brayton system operating in thehybrid mode. [17] 12. The environmental impacts of solar dish Stirling engine systems are minimal. Stirlingengines are known for being quiet, relative to internal combustion gasoline and dieselengines, and even the highly recuperated Brayton engines are reported to be relatively quiet.The biggest source of noise from a solar dish Stirling engine system is the cooling fan for theradiator. Emissions from solar dish Stirling engine systems are zero except from gas which isquite low. Other than the potential for spilling small amounts of engine oil or coolant orgearbox grease, these systems produce no effluent to the environment when operating withsolar energy. Even when operating with a fossil fuel, the steadily flow combustion systemsused in both Stirling and Brayton systems resulted in extremely low emission levels. This is,in fact, a requirement for the hybrid vehicle and cogeneration applications for which theseengines are primarily being developed.Disadvantages of Solar Dish Stirling Engine 1. To control the speed of Stirling engine is not easy such as to increase or decrease theheat temperature or pressure under control by adjusting the phase angle. Some Stirlingengines are designed to maintain a constant speeds whatever the load– these include electricgenerators and water pumps. Other engines require speed variation– acceleration ordeceleration. 2. Stirling engine that operates at normal air pressure has a limited potential fordeveloping power. If an engine is pressurized, however, the output power increasesdramatically.DISCUSSION In Thailand, Figure 8 shows the probe of thermometer at focus point on the solar dishunder testing with Thailand’s poor insolation nature. With Thailand’s normal solar insolationlevel, the system did produce the actual temperature in the range of 550 to 650 ºC as shownin Figure 9. The design and calculation for the “Siam Solar Dish” are based on the standard solarinsolation design value of 1,000 W/ m2. Through this figure, we will proceed to comparewith other world recorded Solar Dish Engine on the aspects of efficiency, and power output,at various solar insolation. 9
  10. 10. removed by an engine for a fairly short time period. The purpose was to prove that, even though Thailand had poor insolation level, the parabolic dish can collect the energy at the same temperature level in comparison to other solar dish station in the world. The only difference may be the collector area should be larger, lower concentration ratio, etc.Figure 8. Temperature tested at Source: AREF, Thailand, Marchfocus point through a stagnation 2003.temperature test with no heat Power Output VS Insolation 18 16 Power Output (kW) 14 12 10 8 6 4 Design Value 2 Test Value 0 0 250 500 750 1000 Solar Insolation (W/m2)Figure 9. The parabolic dish easily Figure 10. Gross system output ofreach the temperature 550 ºC or the “Siam Solar Dish System” onmore. December 2004, projected from aSource: AREF, Thailand, April 4x 5 kW electric heater tests as2003. data to predict for Solar test mode. Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. Figure 11 Stirling Engine at AREF laboratory Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005-03-31 10
  11. 11. Engine Test Figure 11 shows the prototype engine at AREF and Figure 10 shows the test result of the10 kW “Siam Solar Dish”. The original insolation design value of this system is at themaximum level of 1,000 W/ m2. This number based on the standard of ADDS project. Thegraph shows the design insolation values varying from 150 to 1,000 W/ m2 with thecalculated deliverable output varying from 2.5 to 17kWe. The test result shows the insolationvalue varying from 250 to 555 W/ m2 with the actual output power varying from 2.8 to 8.2kW. This result does not exactly coincide with the original design value because Thailandhas lower insolation than in dry weather country with solar insolation varying from 850 to950 W/ m2. However, the “Siam Solar Dish” would start operating from the insolation levelof 250 W/ m2, a bit higher than the original expected design insolation value at 200 W/ m2.Also the maximum power output is merely 8.2 kWe not 17 kWe; due to the above mentionedlower insolation level in Thailand climate. The graph also indicated that the fabricatedsystem could provide more output, if the available insolation values continue to increase.This engine was tested at AREF with 4 x 5 kW electric heaters. The target efficiency value ofthis engine from table 11 is 20%. This test value based on electric heater, as the calibration ofthe engine and ADDS standard. For the real solar test is under the process and expect to havethe efficiency around 20%.Construction Costs All data came from original cost of real construction prototype system at AREF andNaraesuan University, Thailand. Table 2. Actual construction costs for small solar thermal dish Stirling 10 kW system with lead acid battery. Descriptions Bht US $ Designing Fee 100,000.00 2,500.00 Foundation 250,000.00 6,250.00 Space Frame Structure 200,000.00 5,000.00 Reflector Material 60,000.00 1,500.00 Tracking System 150,000.00 3,750.00 Stirling Engine 400,000.00 10,000.00 Generator 10 kW 50,000.00 1,250.00 Control System 100,000.00 2,500.00 Lead Acid Battery 60 kW 150,000.00 3,750.00 Inverter System 10 kW 50,000.00 1,250.00 Wiring System 50,000.00 1,250.00 Total 1,560,000.00 39,000.00 /kWe 156,000.00 3,900.00Notes: 1 US Dollar = 40 Baht, March 2005Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. 11
  12. 12. Table 3. Actual construction costs for single crystalline photovoltaic 10 kW systems with lead acid battery. Descriptions Bht US $ Designing Fee 100,000.00 2,500.00 Foundation 50,000.00 1,250.00 Steel Structure 200,000.00 5,000.00 Single Crystalline Photovoltaic 10 2,000,000.00 50,000.00 kW Charge Controller System 150,000.00 3,750.00 Lead Acid Battery 60 kW 150,000.00 3,750.00 Inverter System 10 kW 50,000.00 1,250.00 Wiring System 50,000.00 1,250.00 Total 2,750,000.00 68,750.00 / kWe 275,000.00 6,875.00Notes: 1 US Dollar = 40 Baht, March 2005Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. Tables 2 and 3 are the actual costs for construction of solar thermal dish Stirling 10 kWwhich is $39,000.00, so, 1 kW of construction cost will be $3,900.00. The plant life is 10years so the depreciation in 10 years will be 39,000/ (10 x 365 x 24) = $0.0445, and theactual costs for construction of photovoltaic 10 kW which is $ 68,750.00. The plant life is 10years so the depreciation in 10 years will be 68,750/ (10 x 365 x 24) = $ 0.785. These figuresbased on economic calculation, the depreciation must calculate from total life, and/that cannot use operation times to be calculated, such as, 6 hours per day. These tables summarizedfacts and figures of the actual construction costs, with available materials in Thailand, for thedish structure, foundation, solar tracker circuit, solar trackers’ drive mechanism, togetherwith the Stirling engine. The generator, cyclo-drive motor, and reduction gear are Mitsubishisupplies, with the reflector from Miro-Sun. The two tables show that both systems have thesame designing fees, same steel structure, same lead acid battery, same inverter system, andthe same wiring system. The total costs Solar thermal dish Stirling engine system will havelower construction costs in comparison to the photovoltaic system, at Bht 156,000.00 or $3,900.00 VS Bht 275.000.00 or $ 6.875.00. Figure 12. Parabolic Dish Structure at Naraesuan University, Thailand. Basic engineeringand calculation for steel structure, foundation done by the author. Steel fabrication work doneby Don Bosco Technical School. Erection and Installation work done by the author and theUniversity staffs. Controller system, Solar Tracker mechanism and circuit design andassembly work by the author. 12
  13. 13. Figure 13. Single Crystalline Figure 14. Solar tracker sensor, AREF,Photovoltaic at Naraesuan University, ThailandThailand Table 4. Operating Costs and Production Costs/ kWh for solar thermal dish Stirling 10 kW with lead acid battery for 10 years period in Thailand. Descriptions Bht/ kWh US $/ kWh Power Plant Cost 1.78 0.0445 Operation Cost 10 % * 0.178 0.0044 Inflation 7 %* 0.125 0.0031 Interested 15 %* 0.27 0.0067 Maintenance Cost 15 %* 0.27 0.0067 Electrical Cost 2.62 0.0655Notes: 1 US Dollar = 40 Baht, March 2005, *Thai’s standard Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005.Table 5. Operating Costs and Production Costs/ kWh for Single Crystalline Photovoltaic 10 kW with lead acid battery for 10 years period in Thailand. Descriptions Bht/ kWh US $/ kWh Power Plant Cost 3.02 0.0755 Operation Cost 10 %* 0.30 0.0075 Inflation 7 %* 0.21 0.0053 Interested 15 %* 0.45 0.0113 Maintenance Cost 30 %* 0.91 0.0227 Electrical Cost 4.89 0.1223Notes: 1 US Dollar = 40 Baht, March 2005, *Thai’s standard Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. Table 6. Solar dish power technology projected cost. Descriptions US $ Power Plant Cost / kW 2,900 O&M / kWh 0.02 LEC year 2000 - 2010 / kWh 0.086- 0.13 to 0.04-0.06Source: Sun Lab DOE/GO-10098-563, April 1998 [14] Table 4 and 5 show the actual operation and production cost of both systems in Thailand.This costing value was calculated on a 365 days at 24 hours per day of operation for 10 yearsbasis. The pre- assumed percentage values were based on the researcher’s own experienceand frequently used facts and figures available in Thailand’s normal and practical operatingcost, inflation, interest rate, and maintenance cost. The operating cost, Inflation, Interest, andthe related Maintenance Cost came from the percentage times the power plant cost. Theelectrical cost will be the sum of power plant cost, operation cost, inflation, interested rate, 13
  14. 14. maintenance cost. The two tables show that both systems had the same percentage ofoperating cost, inflation, and interest rate. Photovoltaic system has higher maintenance costthan solar thermal dish Stirling because the spare parts of photovoltaic are much moreexpensive than solar thermal dish Stirling, as this Stirling engine was local made in Thailandby the author et. al. The photovoltaic system would provide the electrical cost at 2.62 Bht/kWh or $0.1223 / kWh and the Solar thermal dish Stirling will produce electricity at 4.89Bht/ kWh or $0.0655/ kWh cost. Table 6 shows world wide recorded concentrating solar dish power technology projectedcost from April 1998. [15] The cost of power plant per kilowatt is US $ 2,900 from table 2;the cost of power plant in Thailand March 2005 cost US $ 3,900. These cost if considerinflation rate 7% for 7 years would become US $ 1,460 added to the cost of the year 1998, sothe price will then become 4,660 which is much higher than the “Siam Solar Dish” at US $1,760. Furthermore, the “Siam solar dish” had the battery and the inverter included in thecost, which should be discarded, because in normal operation the system will operate onlyunder the a.c. mode so the total price on “Siam Solar Dish” should go further down to US $3,400 instead of 3,900.Performance From Tables 7 and 8, with the same power peak output, 10 kW, the PV system willrequire more area to install system than Solar dish Stirling by two times. The efficiencybefore inverter and battery PV system will be 10% but Solar Dish will be 25% that is 2.5times much higher than PV system. The efficiency of battery and invert for both systems arethe same so the total efficiency of PV system is going down to 8.55% compare to Solar Dishwhich is 14.25%. The power plant costs per kilowatt PV are much higher than solar dish 1.75times. The total electrical price produced from PV system will be around 4.89 B/ kWe (0.12$/ kWe) and Solar Dish will be around 2.62 B/ kWe (0.06625 $/ kWe) as no maintenancecost from foreign technology, but only technology develop in side the country. This makecost of spare parts lower, even the engine has moving part but the life time of the parts willlast longer. Both systems have quite the same reliability as they have same sun insolation,same location, same capacity of battery 250 kW and same inverter. The only different wasthe method to convert energy to electricity; PV system has lower efficiency to convert energyto electricity than Solar Dish system. A solar hour in Thailand is approximate 6 hours, from 9.00 am to 15.00 pm. Solar cell 10kW systems required 100 m2 of solar collector area. Solar Dish 10 kW system required 50 m2of solar collector area. Data from table 8 can plot the graph as shown in Figure 15. Table 7. Comparison between PV versus Solar Dish 10 kW power plant for 24 hrs/ day operation with lead acid battery in Thailand Descriptions Solar Dish Stirling Photovoltaic Land Area m2 120.00 120.00 2 Operation Area m 50.00 100.00 Hour of Operation/ year 8,760.00 8,760.00 Efficiency % 25.00 10.00 Battery Efficiency % 60.00 60.00 Inverter Efficiency % 95.00 95.00 Total Efficiency 14.25 8.55 Cost / kWe 156,000.00 275,000.00 Electric Price B/ kWh 2.62 4.89 Technology 90 % made in Thailand High Technology, just assembly in Thailand 14
  15. 15. Production energy same same Stand Alone Unit same same Energy receiver Direct Diffuse Method of conversion Concentration Non- Concentration Direct Pollution Impact None None Indirect Pollution Impact Some SomeSource: Frequently Asked Question about Solar Cells NSTDA, [16] and AREF, Thailand, March 2005. Table 8. Energy capture by PV versus Solar Dish with same land area Diffuse Direct Dish @ Mon PV@ 8.55% kWh/ m2 14.25% MJ/ m2 kWh/ m2 MJ/ m2 kWh/ m2 kWh/ m2 Jun 8.89 2.47 0.21 12.81 3.56 0.50 Jul 8.34 2.32 0.20 10.26 2.85 0.41 Aug 9.56 2.66 0.23 8.78 2.44 0.35 Sep 9.44 2.62 0.22 6.81 1.89 0.27 Oct 7.29 2.03 0.17 11.97 3.33 0.47 Nov 6.16 1.71 0.15 15.87 4.41 0.63 Dec 5.22 1.45 0.12 17.67 4.91 0.70 Jan 5.96 1.66 0.14 13.31 3.70 0.53 Feb 6.54 1.82 0.16 14.81 4.11 0.59 Mar 8.21 2.28 0.19 12.46 3.46 0.49 Apr 7.42 2.06 0.18 15.48 4.30 0.61 May 7.90 2.19 0.19 9.67 2.69 0.38Remark: Data from year 2003– 2004Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. Figure 15. Solar Dish VS Solar Cell with same collector area 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 kW/m2 0.5 Solar Dish 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 PV 0 Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Month From table 8 can plot the graph as shown in Figure 15 for Solar Dish VS Solar Cellwith same collector area. This figure show the energy received by each system during eachmonth of the year. 15
  16. 16. Table 9. Total energy capture by PV and Solar Dish PV Solar Dish Month 2 kWh/ m kW kWh/ m2 kW Jun 0.21 126 0.50 150 Jul 0.20 120 0.41 123 Aug 0.23 138 0.35 105 Sep 0.22 132 0.27 81 Oct 0.17 102 0.47 141 Nov 0.15 90 0.63 189 Dec 0.12 72 0.70 210 Jan 0.14 84 0.53 159 Feb 0.16 96 0.59 177 Mar 0.19 114 0.49 147 Apr 0.18 108 0.61 183 May 0.19 114 0.38 114 Average 108 148.25 Battery 60 % 180 247.08 Figure 16. Total Energy Capture by PV and Solar Dish 350 300 250 200 Solar Dish Kw 150 100 50 PV 0 Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Month From table 9 can plot the graph as shown in Figure 16 for Total Energy capture byPV and Solar Dish. This figure show the net energy received by each system during eachmonth of the year. 16
  17. 17. Comparison between Solar Dish and Solar Cell Table 10. The comparison between Solar dish with solar cell in Thailand. Descriptions Solar Dish Solar Cell Technology 90% made in Thailand Imported high technology, not ready to make in Thailand, Only assembly. Production Electric Electric energy Stand Alone Large Small Unit Energy receiver Direct Diffuse Method of Concentration Non-Concentration conversion Pollution None None Electricity A.C. D.C Inverter None Needed Construction Normal Very High Cost Operation Medium Easy Maintenance Low High Cost B/ kWh 2.62 4.89Source: AREF, Thailand, March 2005. In table 10 show the comparison between Solar Dish with Solar Cell in Thailand forProduction of Energy, Size, Can stand alone or not, Method of Energy received, Method ofpower conversion, Pollution, Type of electricity produce, Required inverter or not,Construction cost, Operation, Maintenance cost, Cost of produce energy per kilowatt. According to the present technological capacity available in Thailand, it is apparent thatthe “Siam Solar Dish” could be fabricated fairly easily locally in Thailand by Thai’sengineers and technicians. However, the Single Crystalline Photovoltaic cannot yet bemanufactured in Thailand. It could only be assembled inside the country with availablefacilities. Both systems can produce electricity, where as the Stirling/ generator can producedboth AC and DC, while the PV can produce only DC. Solar Dish can be stand alone unit upto a very large system capacity, while the PV will be installed in Thailand only as a verysmall system to an individual household unit. Solar Dish requires direct radiation withconcentrator but PV use only diffuse radiation without concentrator. Both systems emit nonpollution. PV always needs the inverter to produce AC, which is normally considered to beinferior environmental characteristics, while Solar Dish is not necessary to do so. Solar Dishhas lower construction cost, maintenance cost, and less area requirement than PV. However,the operation procedure for PV is much simpler than Solar Dish. Cost of electricity producedon Solar Dish is 2.62 Bht/ kWh or 0.0655 $/ kWh. And 4.89 Bht/ kWh or 0.1223 $/ kWh forPV. This data is based on the information gathered from AREF in March 2005. Additionally, the author choose MIRO-SUN as the solar dish reflector material becausethey have the reflectance > 90 % as shown in figure 17. This data came from theirspecification sheets [19]. This material has light weight, durable, and can be used out door. 17
  18. 18. Design Target Characteristics of the “Siam Solar Dish” Table 11. Design Target Characteristics [20] Dish Structure Type Delta Truss Diameter 8.4 m System Height 10 m Focus 4 m Maximum Wind Load 160 Km/hr Normal Working Wind 65 Km/hr Load Life Load 50 Kg/m2 Service Load 15 Kg/m2 Foundation Type Concrete design for Soft Land Solar Concentrator Type Fixed focus facets Receiver Direct Illumination Area 55 m2 Number of Facets 64 Reflective Surface 0.5 mm Aluminum MIRO-SUN Reflectance [19] > 90 % Stirling Engine Type Double-Acting Working Gas Helium/ Nitrogen/ Air Max. Expansion gas 600 C (+/- 5 C) temp Compression space gas 40– 80 C (+/- 5 C) temp Thermal Efficiency 40 % Power Control Variable Pressure Engine Weight 300 kg * No. of Cylinders 4 Means Pressure 0.25, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa Maximum Pressure 2.5 Mpa Engine Displacement, 1300 x 4 cc. Bore, mm. 150 Stroke, mm. 50 Speed, rpm 500 - 1500 Cooling type Oil Cooling Output Power 10.5 kW Max Solar Insolation 1000 W/ m2 ** Min Solar Insolation 200 W/ m2 Target Peak Efficiency 20% Tracking System Tracking System H-Bridge 2 axis Power to Track 0.746 kW x 2 Speed Control Mitsubishi Inverter Gear Ratio 1:7200 Motor speed 900 rpm 18
  19. 19. Generator Type Asynchronous alternator Voltage 3 Ø 380 V 50 Hz Poles 6 R.P.M 900 Efficiency 95% Power Generate 10 kW* Excludes PCU and mounting facilities ** Designed value Table 11 shows the design target characteristics of Siam Solar Dish Stirling 10 kWand Table 13 shows part of materials used to make the Stirling Engine, Prototype. Afterconstruct this system the tested result will use to compare with these characteristics. Theauthor hopes the test results will close to this design data approx 85 %. The system now stillunder test and wait for final setp. Table 12. System Characteristics and Specifications of ADDS Characteristics and Specifications Mod 1 Overall Diameter (m) 8.8 Focus (m) 5.448 Mirror projected area (m2) 64 Elevation Tracking range -20 to 84 degrees Elevation & Azimuth Drive Speed 38 degrees/min Tracking structure weight 1,275 kg Pedestal & Azimuth Drive Assy. 831 kg SOLO 161 Weight 455 kg* Foundation and (aperture) weight 3,320 kg (71.55 kg/m2) Operation Wind Up to 56 km/hr Operating Temperature Range -29 ºC to 50 ºC Operating Humidity 100 % Survival Wind any dish Attitude Up to 80.5 km/hr Survival Wind at stow position Up to 145 km/hr Survival humidity 100 % Site conditions Windy, Rain, Hot* Includes PCU and mounting facilities.Source: The Advanced Dish Development System Project, Proceeding of Solar Forum 2001,Solar Energy, April 21-25, 2001, Washington, DC. 19
  20. 20. Part Materials Table 13. Part Materials Descriptions Material Reason to choose Type Power Piston Aluminum Light weight, easy to machine, low price Power Piston Synthetic Stronger, Withstand friction, low price Seal Rubber Piston Rod Arc chrome Hardened, Withstand friction, reasonable Steel Price Power Piston Stainless No Rust, High Pressure, easy to machine, Housing low price Engine Base Steel Easy to machine, very low price Swash Plate Steel Easy to machine, very low price, strong Engine Shaft Steel Easy to machine, very low price, strong Cooler Bronze Good heat transfer, reasonable price Displacer end Stainless High Temperature, easy to machine, low price Displacer Stainless High Temperature, easy to machine, low price Displacer seal Bronze High Temperature, good lubricate with out oil Regenerator Stainless High Temperature, easy to find, low price Displacer Stainless High Temperature, easy to find, low price Housing Heater Stainless High Temperature, easy to find, low price Piston Rod Seal Synthetic Stronger, Withstand friction, low price Rubber Fly Wheel Steel Good mass, easy to find, low price Table 14. Polycrystalline Module Specification Model PV- MF120EC3 Cell Type Polycrystalline silicon 150 mm square No. of Cell 36 in series Maximum power rating Pmax 120 W Open circuit voltage Voc 22.0 V Short circuit current Isc 7.36 A Maximum power voltage Vmp 17.6 V Maximum power current Imp 6.82 A Maximum system voltage DC 780 V Fuse rating 15 A Output terminal Terminal block Dimensions 1425x608x56 mm Weight 11.5 kgSource: Mitsubishi [18] 20
  21. 21. Figure 17. MIRO- SUN % total reflection Source: MIRO- SUN [19]SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The “Siam Solar Dish System (SSDS)” was designed to meet Thailand weatherenvironment, such as: humidity, solar insolation, soft land, and wind load, etc. Theconstruction cost, maintenance cost, interest rate, inflation rate, and its related operating cost,used in the calculation work in this research project, were based on the researcher’sexperience, together with the general normal practical construction facts and figures used bycontractors in Thailand. The author of this research design project has performed thecalculation work on the parabolic structure, delta truss column support and delta truss ring,geodesic dome, thin shell reflector thickness and foundation, specially, designed for soft landcountry, including the calculation work on the Stirling engine system by himself. Themechanical structure and the engine were fabricated by Don Bosco Technical School underthe author’s supervision. The author and his staff have managed the erection and installationwork of the system at Naraesuan University Thailand to compare with the PV system at thesame location. The author also designs and assemblies the circuit of solar tracker and sensorincluding the tracker drive mechanism by himself. The system is now under testing forreliability and endurance. Figure 10 shows the test of Stirling engine 10 kW with 4 x 5 kW electric heaters and usedthe standard from ADDS [1] as shown in Table 12, which had the same capacity 10 kW,design their system with solar insolation 1,000 W/m2 to compare with author engine. Itpredicts that author engine should have the power output 17 kW at 1,000 W/m2. In table 11,Design Target Characteristics of Siam Solar Dish show the peak efficiency 20% at max solarinsolation 1,000 W/ m2 and min solar insolation 200 W/ m2. As Thailand has poor insolationlevel, the engine can be started at 250 W/ m2 to 555 W/ m2, actual output power varying from2.8 to 8.2 kW. The target efficiency value of this engine from table 11 is 20 %. This testvalue based on electric heater, as the calibration of the engine and ADDS standard. For thereal solar test is under the process and expect to have the efficiency around 20%. It could be drawn to conclusion that Thailand solar insolation level can work well withboth systems. Solar dish will however use less collector area than PV for a half to producethe same output power. The initial construction cost of solar cell is much more than solardish system. The cost of electricity for solar cell is much more than solar dish by two times.With battery it can make solar dish system operate at night with out using other fossil fuel, sothe system will be zero percent pollution emission. The author in this project had found that the technology could be optimized, if there is thewell design of Solar Dish Stirling Generator by matching with the criterion of the end users.It can be reduced cost, increased performance, high endurance, easy to operate and minimum 21
  22. 22. maintenance. Local materials that can find easily in Thailand would induce the world toadopt the Solar Dish Stirling Power Plant faster than their expected.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was prepared by Mr. Suravut SNIDVONGS, Vice President, AsianRenewable Energy Development and Promotion Foundation, EIT member, a PhD Student,School of Renewable Energy Technology, Naraesuan University, Pitsanulok, Thailand. Theauthor would like to acknowledge the assistance and guidance of Asian Renewable EnergyDevelopment and Promotion Foundation Dr. Sub.Lt. Prapas Limpabandhu Deputy Ministerof Foreign Affair, Mr. Sutas AROONPAIROJ and staffs, the Engineering Institute ofThailand members who provided a critical review of this research through its various stages,including Dr. Chavalit THISAYAKORN IEEE Valued Senior Member, and EIT Fellowmember and her EE Chief Director, and the Naraesuan University Staffs, especially the DonBosco Technical School staffs for their fabrication and construction work on the prototype.Finally, the author would like to thank the numerous industries to provide information forthis research.REFERENCES[1] Richard B. Diver The Advanced Dish Development System Project, Proceeding of Solar Forum 2001, Solar Energy, April 21-25, 2001, Washington, DC. Page 2.[2] A. Chitapanya, Economy of Thailand, Annual report, Bank of Thailand, Oct 30, 2004.[3] V. Vannasorn, The report of Stirling Engine 10 kW, Asian Renewable Energy Development and Promotion Foundation , Bangkok, Thailand, Nov 4, 2004.[4] S. Toowattana, Thailand’s electricity demand in the future conferences, Electrical Generating of Thailand. May 3, 2004. p20.[5] S. Toowattana, Thailand’s electricity demand in the future conferences, Electrical Generating of Thailand. May 3, 2004. p35.[6] The U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Renewable Energy Technology Characterization (Topical Report 109496,1997;http://www.eere.energy.gov/power/pdfs/techchar.pdf), p. 1-5.[7] Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Solar Power Solutions: A Business Case for capturing Total Value(2002;http://www.resourcesaver.com/file/toolmanager/O63F 30134.pdf), p. 11.[8] Meteorological Station, Energy Laboratory, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.[9] BP Solar, Solar Science, http://www.bpsolar.com/ContentPage.cfm?page=15;2002 (July 2003).[10] K. Zweibel, Thin Films, Past Present and Future, http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/documents /thinfilm.html; 1997/4 (16 July 2003).[11] T. Bruton et. al,Toward 20% Efficient Silicon Solar Cells Manufatured at 60MWp per Annum, http://www.bpsolar.com/ContentDocuments/154/4pl-e1-01.pdf ; paper presented at WCPEC-3, 16 May 2003 [BP Solar].[12] The Energy Information Administration, Energy in the United States: 1635-2000: Electricity, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/eh/frame.html (16 July 2003).[13] Rachel Waldemar, A proposal to generate 50 % of the United States’ electricity needs from solar power by the year 2100, Energy and Material Flows in Human Society. Page 4.[14] SunLab, SAND2001-2530P, August 2001.p 2.[15] Markets of Concentration Solar Power, Concentrating Solar Power Technology Studies and Project Cost, Sun Lab DOE/GO-10098-563, April 1998.[16] Frequently Asked Question about Solar Cell, NSTDA, Third Published 2004.[17] W. Peter Teagan, PhD, Review Status of Markets for Solar Thermal Power Systems, May 2001. page B-52.[18] Mitsubishi PV Module PV-MF120EC3, Mitsubishi Electric.htm, Jan, 2005. 22
  23. 23. [19] MIRO – SUN Specification, (2002), MIRO–SUN Corp., Germany.[20] Suravut SNIDVONGS, The Design and Implementation of Small Solar Thermal Dish Stirling Power Plant 10 kW with lead acid battery storage in Thailand. 12 th Solar Paces International Symposium, oxaca, Mexico, 6 to 8 October, 2004, p 9. 23

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