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Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
Lecture7 minerals
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Lecture7 minerals

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  • 1. Minerals
  • 2. Lithosphere: the Solid Earth What’s below the surface: Rocks
  • 3. But what’s inside a rock?
  • 4. Yes, but What’s a Mineral? 1 cm Rock- a natural aggregate of minerals (and/or mineraloids)
  • 5. - a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with a definite chemical composition and characteristic physical properties e.g., quartz, diamond, graphite, talc Mineral
  • 6. Mineralogy <ul><li>= study of the composition, properties, & classification of minerals (Geo 321- offered in Fall) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals id’d by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crystal structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hardness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>streak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. What is a crystalline solid? Are any inorganic solids not crystalline? Glass
  • 8. How do we know a material is crystalline? Self-Similarity Halite Quartz
  • 9. How do we know a material is crystalline? X-ray diffraction
  • 10. Chemistry of the Solid Earth The Big 8 Elements
  • 11. The Earth’s Crust O 46% -2 Si 28% +4 Al 8% +3 Fe 5% +2/+3 Ca 4% +2 Mg 3% +2 Na 3% +1 K 2% +1 Element Abundance Charge 99%
  • 12. SiO 2 - Quartz
  • 13. Silica Tetrahedron SiO 4 What is the charge? Si = +4, O = -2 thus -4 How can that be?
  • 14. (Fe, Mg) 2 SiO 4 - Olivine
  • 15. How old are the oldest rocks on Earth? <ul><li>Given: Sample from Acasta Gneiss in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>It has crystals of zircon that </li></ul><ul><li>contain 238 U. </li></ul><ul><li>238 U is unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>It decays into 206 Pb. </li></ul>ZrSiO 4 ~Fixed chemical formula. But a few U’s can be used To substitute for Zr.
  • 16. How do Minerals Form? - Cooling from liquid (magma) to a solid
  • 17. How do Minerals Form? - Evaporation of a briny liquid - Cooling from liquid (magma) to a solid
  • 18. How do Minerals Form? - Precipitation from a fluid Section of a pipe Mineralized vein - Evaporation of a briny liquid - Cooling from liquid (magma) to a solid
  • 19. Asbestos- fibrous silicate mineral w/ fireproofing qualities Ceiling tiles
  • 20. Asbestos- commercial term, not a geological term Chrysotile- sheet structure no sharp fibres- no hazard Crocidolite- chain structure sharp fibres- BIG hazard The Cost- 50 to 150 billion $ to clean it all up >half of the asbestos is harmless Chrysotile What to Do?
  • 21. What is a rock again? <ul><li>= assemblage of minerals (or mineraloids) in a solid state </li></ul><ul><li>3 types </li></ul><ul><li>igneous </li></ul><ul><li>sedimentary </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphic </li></ul>
  • 22. Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Plutonic Volcanic
  • 23. 1. Igneous rocks ( fire-formed ) <ul><li>= rock that solidified from a molten state </li></ul><ul><li>majority of crustal rock (although it is often covered with sedimentary rocks) </li></ul><ul><li>consists of silicate minerals w/ metallic elements </li></ul><ul><li>“ interlocking grains” </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. granite, basalt, obsidian, pumice </li></ul><ul><li>Magma : molten rock beneath Earth’s surface </li></ul>
  • 24. Granite Basalt Obsidian Pumice

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