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Introduction to Cloud Computing
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  • 1 minute Cloud = Infinite stack of computers at your disposal Fine-grained, flexible, dynamic, and cost-effective source of computers for any applications
  • introduce the problems that have been addressed in this work, by using an example. Consider a startup company which has a new idea, to deploy a web-based music creation tool, that offers the ability to the users of this tool to compose music and possibly collaborate or sell their creations through this platform. The company wants to bring MusicWave to the market. The idea needs to be deployed on infrastructure. So what are their choices in deploying MusicWave?
  • (1 minute) One solution would be to buy or rent computing power, machines. Two problems with this approach: It requires a big upfront commitment. The company has to spend a lot of money to buy or to rent this equipment, And to subsequently set-it up. They also need to have technical expertise The second problem is the load variability. The number of users of MusicWave will experience load variation over time. As they acquire more Users, their machines will become less able to handle with the load that is experienced, and this can potentially Result in significant delays which will lead to a worse user experience. Moreover, based on experience we know that the average load for such kind of workloads is really small, about 10%, So, the company will pay for resources that are idle most of the time, But at other moments they cannot handle the experienced load.
  • (seconds) The second solution would be to deploy their application on the cloud. Without having any upfront commitment, they could almost instantly get computing power from the cloud, so that they can Serve the current amount of users on Musicwave. Additionally, as the number of users increases, they could easily make the decision to acquire More computing power to serve all the users. And at moments when the load decreases, they could just as easily make the Decision of releasing resources.
  • Now lets just say that MusicWave is indeed launched on a Cloud. What you can see here, is a cloud datacenter, which generates the computing power offered to cloud users, with thousands of machines. Now musicWave will be hosted on only a small part of this datacenter, as an example the machines in green here.
  • But this doesn’t mean that the MusicWave will have these resources for dedicated use! In Cloud systems, the resources are time-shared between multiple users. This sharing allows the cloud provider to better utilize their machines and divide the cost of running these systems between multiple users, and it Subsequently passes the cost savings to the cloud users, by offering non-expensive Computing power
  • (40 seconds) There are also different deployment models. An organization might setup a cloud ontop of their private infrastructure and intended for private use, this is what we call a private cloud On the other hand, we have public clouds that can be used by anyone who has internet access. Also an organization might decide To use some resources from a public cloud, when it’s private cloud resources are not enough, that’s what we call hybrid cloud.

Introduction to Cloud Computing Introduction to Cloud Computing Presentation Transcript

  • IN4392 Cloud Computing Introduction to Cloud Computing Alexandru Iosup Parallel and Distributed Systems Group Delft University of Technology The NetherlandsOur team: Undergrad Thomas de Ruiter, Anand Sawant, Ruben Verboon, …Grad Siqi Shen, Guo Yong, Nezih Yigitbasi Staff Henk Sips, Dick Epema, AlexandruIosup, Otto Visser Collaborators Ion Stoica and the Mesos team (UC Berkeley),Thomas Fahringer, Radu Prodan, Vlad Nae (U. Innsbruck), Nicolae Tapus, MihaelaBalint, Vlad Posea (UPB), Derrick Kondo, Emmanuel Jeannot (INRIA), Assaf Schuster,Mark Silberstein, Orna Ben-Yehuda (Technion), ... February 21, 2013 1 IN4392 Cloud Computing
  • February 21, 2013 2
  • February 21, 2013 3
  • What is Cloud Computing?3. A Useful IT Service“Use only when you want! Pay only for what you use!” Q: What do you use? Q: Why not this level? Q: Why not this level? February 21, 2013 4
  • Agenda1. What is Cloud Computing?2. IaaS Clouds, the Core Idea3. The IaaS Owner Perspective4. The IaaS User Perspective5. Reality Check6. Conclusion February 21, 2013 5
  • IaaS Cloud Computing VENI – @larGe: Massivizing Online Games using Cloud Computing
  • Joe Has an Idea ($$$) MusicWave (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012. Original idea: A. Iosup, 2011.)
  • Solution #1Buy or Rent• Big up-front commitment• Load variability: NOT supported 10% … (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012. Original idea: A. Iosup, 2011.)
  • Solution #2 • NO big up-front commitmentDeploy on IaaS Cloud • Load variability: supported Q: So are we just shifting the problem to somebody else, that is, the IaaS cloud owner? (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012. Original idea: V. Nae, 2008.)
  • Inside an IaaS Cloud Data Center (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012. Original idea: A. Iosup, 2011.)
  • Time and Cost Sharing Among Users User C User B MusicWave (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012.)
  • Main Characteristics of IaaS Clouds1. On-Demand Pay-per-Use2. Elasticity (cloud concept of Scalability)3. Resource Pooling4. Fully automated IT services5. Quality of Service February 21, 2013 12
  • Agenda1. What is Cloud Computing?2. IaaS Clouds, the Core Idea3. The IaaS Owner Perspective: How to Deploy a Cloud?4. The IaaS User Perspective5. Reality Check6. Conclusion February 21, 2013 13
  • IaaS Cloud Deployment Models Private Public On-premises Off-premises Hybrid (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012. Original idea: Mell and Grance, NIST Spec.Pub. 800-145, Sep 2011.)
  • Resource Sharing Models MusicWave Grids IaaS CloudsSpace-Sharing Time-Sharing Q: Which one is better?MusicWave OtherApp MusicWave OtherApp OtherAppHost OS Host OS February 21, 2013 15
  • VirtualizationApplications ApplicationsGuest OS Guest OS MusicWaveVirtual Resources OtherApp OtherApp Virtual Resources Q: What is the problem? Q: What to do now? VM Instance VM Instance Virtualization Host OS February 21, 2013 16
  • Virtualization and The Full IaaS Stack Applications ApplicationsApplications Guest OSGuest OS Guest OS Virtual ResourcesVirtual Resources Virtual Resources VM Instance Instance VM VM InstanceVirtual Machine Manager Virtual Machine Manager Virtual Infrastructure Manager February 21, 2013 Physical 17 Infrastructure
  • The Virtual Machine Lifecycle Q: Is this fair? February 21, 2013 18 (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012.)
  • Use Case:Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)• Prominent IaaS provider• Datacenters all over the world Instance Capacity US$/hour• Many VM instance types m1.small 0.10• Per-hour charging m1.large 0.38 c1.xlarge 0.76 February 21, 2013 19
  • Agenda1. What is Cloud Computing?2. IaaS Clouds, the Core Idea3. The IaaS Owner Perspective4. The IaaS User Perspective: How to Use Clouds? How to Choose Clouds?5. Reality Check6. Conclusion February 21, 2013 20
  • Workload MusicWave OtherApp OtherApp OtherApp Load = 4 OtherAppMusicWave Time RunTime= 6 February 21, 2013 21
  • Use Case: Workloads of Zynga (Massively SocialSellingGaming) in-game virtualgoods:“Zynga made est.$270M in 2009 from.”http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/03/zynga-revenue/ Sources: CNN, Zynga. “Zynga made more than $600M in 2010 from selling in-game virtual goods.” S. Greengard, CACM, Apr 2011 February 21, 2013 22 Source: InsideSocialGames.com
  • Use Case: Workloads of Zynga (Massively Social Gaming)Load • Load can grow very quickly February 21, 2013 23
  • Provisioning and Allocation of Resources Provisioning Allocation Load Time February 21, 2013 24
  • Provisioning and Allocation of Resources Q: What is the interplay between provisioning and allocation? Provisioning Allocation Load Time February 21, 2013 25
  • Provisioning and Allocation Policies Q: How many policies exist? Q: How to select a policy? Provisioning Allocation When? From where? When?Where? How many? etc.Load Which type? etc. Time February 21, 2013 26 (Source: A. Antoniou, MSc Defense, TU Delft, 2012.)
  • Use Case:Two Provisioning Policies,Compared Startup OnDemand February 21, 2013 Villegas, Antoniou, Sadjadi, Iosup. An Analysis of Provisioning and 27 Allocation Policies for Infrastructure-as-a-Service Clouds,
  • Use Case:Two Provisioning Policies,ComparedMetrics for comparison• Job Slowdown (JSD ): Ratio of actual runtime in the cloud and the runtime in a dedicated non-virtualized environment Q: Charged cost vs Total RunTime?• Charged Cost (C c )• Utility (U ) February 21, 2013 Villegas, Antoniou, Sadjadi, Iosup. An Analysis of Provisioning and 28 Allocation Policies for Infrastructure-as-a-Service Clouds,
  • Use Case:Two Provisioning Policies,ComparedWorkloads Uniform Increasing Bursty February 21, 2013 Villegas, Antoniou, Sadjadi, Iosup. An Analysis of Provisioning and 29 Allocation Policies for Infrastructure-as-a-Service Clouds,
  • Use Case:Two Provisioning Policies,ComparedEnvironments System Hardware VIM Hypervisor Max VMsDAS4/Delft 20 Dual quad- 64 core 2.4 GHz 24 GB RAM 2x1 TB storage FIU 7 Pentium 4 3.0 7 GHz 5 GB RAM 340 GB StorageAmazon EC2 unkown/various - 20 February 21, 2013 Villegas, Antoniou, Sadjadi, Iosup. An Analysis of Provisioning and 30 Allocation Policies for Infrastructure-as-a-Service Clouds,
  • Use Case:Many Provisioning Policies,ComparedJob Slowdown (JSD) Q: Why is OnDemand worse than Startup? A: waiting for machines to boot February 21, 2013 31
  • Use Case:Many Provisioning Policies,ComparedCharged Cost (C c ) Q: Why is OnDemand worse than Startup? A: VM thrashing Q: Why no OnDemand on Amazon EC2? February 21, 2013 32
  • Use Case:Many Provisioning Policies,ComparedUtility (U ) 33
  • Agenda1. What is Cloud Computing?2. IaaS Clouds, the Core Idea3. The IaaS Owner Perspective4. The IaaS User Perspective5. Reality Check: Who Uses Public Commercial Clouds?6. Conclusion February 21, 2013 34
  • The Real IaaS Cloud VS http://www.flickr.com/photos/dimitrisotiropoulos/4204766418/ Tropical Cyclone Nargis (NASA, ISSS, 04/29/08)• “The path to abundance” • “The killer cyclone”• On-demand capacity • Not so great performance• Cheap for short-term tasks for scientific applications• Great for web apps (EIP, web (compute- or data-intensive) crawl, DB ops, I/O) February 21, 2013 35
  • February 21, 2013 36(Source: http://www.cca08.org/files/slides/w_vogel.pdf)
  • Zynga zCloud: Hybrid Self-Hosted/EC2 large scale• After Zynga had• More efficient self-hosted servers • Run at high utilization• Use EC2 for unexpected demand February 21, 2013 (Sources: http://seekingalpha.com/article/609141-how-amazon-s-aws-can-attract-ugly-economics and 37 http://www.undertheradarblog.com/blog/3-reasons-zynga-is-moving-to-a-private-cloud/)
  • Other Cloud Customers • 218 virtual CPUs • 9TB/2TB block/S3 storage • 6.5TB/2TB I/O per month February 21, 2013 38 (Source: http://markbuhagiar.com/technical/businessinthecloud/)
  • Agenda1. What is Cloud Computing?2. IaaS Clouds, the Core Idea3. The IaaS Owner Perspective4. The IaaS User Perspective5. Reality Check6. Conclusion February 21, 2013 39
  • Conclusion Take-Home Message• Cloud Computing = IaaS + PaaS + SaaS• Core idea = lease vs self-own • On-Demand, Pay-per-Use, Elastic, Pooled, Automated, QoS• The Owner Perspective • Time-Sharing • Virtualization• The User Perspective • Variable workloads • Provisioning and Allocation policies• Reality Check: 100s of users http://www.flickr.com/photos/dimitrisotiropoulos/4204766418/ February 21, 2013 40
  • Thank you for your attention!Questions? Suggestions?Observations? More Info: - http://www.st.ewi.tudelft.nl/~iosup/research.html - http://www.st.ewi.tudelft.nl/~iosup/research_cloud.html - http://www.pds.ewi.tudelft.nl/ Do not hesitate to contact me… Alexandru Iosup A.Iosup@tudelft.nl http://www.pds.ewi.tudelft.nl/~iosup/ (or google “iosup”) Parallel and Distributed Systems Group Delft University of Technology February 21, 2013 41