INFORMATION TO USERS
This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI
films the text directly from the o...
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
THE ROLE OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL COUNSELOR
IN MALAYSIA AS PERCEIVED BY ADMINISTRATORS,
COUNSELORS, AND TEACHERS: TOWARD RO...
UMI Number: 9630971
UMI Microform 9630971
Copyright 1996, by UMI Company. All rights reserved.
This microform edition is p...
Copyright by
Ching Mey See
1996
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited withou...
Dedicated to my mother, Tay Siew King.
ii
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohib...
ACK N O W LEDG M EN TS
I am grateful to the many people who have made this endeavor possible. I
am immensely grateful to D...
VITA
October 7,1956 .......................................... Bom Segamat, Johor, Malaysia
June, 1980 ......................
TABLE OF CO NTENTS
DEDICATION ...............................................................................................
Perceptions ofthe Role of the Secondary
School Counselor .............................................................. 71...
E. Means and Standard Deviations of the
Actual Role and Importance of the School
Counselor Role as Perceived by
Adminstrat...
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
1. Highlights of the Evolution ofthe Secondary School
Guidance and Counseling Movement in the Un...
PAG E
11. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance
Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Teachers.......................
PA G E
25. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales
for Administrators' Perceptions on Importance of
School Cou...
PAG E
35. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions
of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the
Coordinati...
PA G E
43.Factorial ANOVA of Administrators' Perceptions of the
School Counselor Role by State and Location for the
Consul...
PA G E
51. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the
School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for
the Developme...
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE PAGE
1. Typical Organizational Structure for Guidance and Counseling
Unit in Secondary Schools........
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This study explored the perceptions of secondary school administrators,
counselors, and teachers in...
1. To provide growth and enrichment services by giving the students
opportunities, facilities, and experiences relevant to...
8. Conference with parents service: To provide opportunities for
parents/guardians to discuss career, personal, social, an...
4
Guidance
Division
Counseling
Division
Publication
Board
Library Seminars V isitations Inform ation Guidance
Room
Partici...
The content of school counseling program includes the three components
of guidance, career club, and counseling. The perso...
ambiguity concerning the role of the secondary school counselor that relates to and
influences most of these obstacles. Wi...
professional role they will perform in the school (Terrill, 1990; Remley & Albright,
1988). Therefore, Wilgus & Shelley (1...
the school counselor is defined as a sum total of the functions/duties performed by
the counselor. The actual role refers ...
Counselors' Perceptions. Goodlad (1983) noted that if counselors do not
understand what they are doing, their chances of d...
1. It would enhance greater degree of awareness and understanding
among the educators regarding the professional role ofth...
11
functioning school counselors to ensure that effective guidance and counseling
services are provided.
7. The findings c...
7. To define the role of the secondary school counselor.
12
Research Questions
The research questions developed for this s...
9. Is there a difference among the teachers' perceptions of the actual role
and importance ofthe role of the secondaiy sch...
14
17. Is there a difference among the teachers of different gender and years
of teaching experience regarding their perce...
Guidance is defined as the process of helping an individual understand himselfand
his world (Shertzer& Stone, 1981).
Guida...
(majoring in guidance and counseling). If the teacher does not have any one of the
above, he/she must have been appointed ...
counseling program in Malaysia. The problem statement, significance of the study,
purpose ofthe study, research questions,...
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The purpose ofthis chapter is to review related literature in the United
States of Ame...
movements ofthe late 19th century. Guidance began in the American public
schools much like any other subjects. It was view...
This movement led to the formation of the National Vocational Guidance
Association in 1913.
The single greatest support fo...
psychometric and mental health movements influenced the profession in the
direction of counselor specialists as well as th...
22
focus in helping students make choices about courses of study and school
adjustment problems (Kelly, 1914). The form of...
He observed that the term "choice" in vocational guidance was more frequently
used to describe an event and not a process ...
Prior to 1931, the word counseling was rarely used. Unlike guidance,
counseling in public schools had a 30-year wait betwe...
25
overwhelming and the early extensions of the Parsonian model were simply too
weak and impotent to deal with the demands...
26
disappear as a major consideration in the bulk of the literature and be replaced by a
decade or more of concentration o...
27
this eventual outcome were sown in the 1950s when counselor trainers in
universities carried on the heated debates on d...
I
28
The training institutes had a major effect on the nature of training that
participants received. Pierson (1965) discu...
At this time, school counseling was still a field without a central unifying theme.
There were increasing number of themes...
nonguidance activities such as clerical work, mechanics of class scheduling,
periodic substitute teaching, and routine dis...
Table 1 presents the highlights ofthe evolution of the secondary school
guidance and counseling movement in the United Sta...
32
Table 1
Highlights of the Evolution of the Secondary School Guidance and Counseling
Movement in the United States
Date ...
33
Development of Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in
Malaysia
The development of secondaiy school guidan...
34
guidance for teachers and to start the guidance program in schools. The outcome
of the course was the publication of a ...
35
Section also organized visits to schools to monitor the implementation of guidance
services, carried out research proje...
36
goals so that he may become a happier and more productive member of his society
(Ministry of Education, 1971).
In 1974,...
37
opportunity to attend the preliminary course on guidance for a week during the
school term holidays. This course was ca...
38
Guidance and counseling courses were also being offered in all universities
in one form or another. The goal is toward ...
39
In the midst ofthe guidance and counseling movement, teachers and
officers involved in the helping service have united ...
40
Table 2
Highlights ofthe Evolution of the Secondary School Guidance and Counseling
Movement in Malaysia
Date Event
1938...
41
Guidance and Counseling Services in the Secondary School
Guidance and counseling has undergone about a century of refor...
42
guidance services needed in the secondary schools are: (a) orientation or adaptive
services; (b) appraisal or inventory...
direction necessary to make the maximum adjustment at school, home, and in the
community.
Career development activities oc...
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Dissertation

  1. 1. INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from any type of computer printer. The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Each original is also photographed in one exposure and is included in reduced form at the back of the book. Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6” x 9” black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directly to order. UMIA Bell &Howell Information Company 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor MI 48106-1346 USA 313/761-4700 800/521-0600 R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  2. 2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  3. 3. THE ROLE OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL COUNSELOR IN MALAYSIA AS PERCEIVED BY ADMINISTRATORS, COUNSELORS, AND TEACHERS: TOWARD ROLE DEFINITION DISSERTATION Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree ofDoctor ofPhilosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University By Ching Mey See, B.A., Dip.Ed., M.Ed. * * * * * The Ohio State University 1996 Dissertation Committee Dr. Susan Sears Dr. Robert Warmbrod Dr. Linda Perosa Approved by Advis College ofEducation Department of Educational Services and Research Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  4. 4. UMI Number: 9630971 UMI Microform 9630971 Copyright 1996, by UMI Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. UMI300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, MI 48103 R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  5. 5. Copyright by Ching Mey See 1996 Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  6. 6. Dedicated to my mother, Tay Siew King. ii R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  7. 7. ACK N O W LEDG M EN TS I am grateful to the many people who have made this endeavor possible. I am immensely grateful to Dr. Susan Sears, who is most instrumental to the completion ofthis study. I am truly indebted to my dissertation committee, Dr. Susan Sears, Dr. Robert Warmbrod, and Dr. Linda Perosa. Their generous contribution of time, constant support, and insightful ideas and recommendations are very helpful and fruitful. A very special thanks to Dr. James V. Wigtil, for his understanding, support, and guidance throughout my graduate years. In addition, I would like to thank Mr. Lim Eng Chye for his encouragement, valuable advice, and help during the process of my academic pursuits. I am grateful to the secondary school principals, counselors, and teachers in Malaysia who have participated in this study. My particular appreciation is extended to many friends who contributed their time and knowledge in editing and translating the instrument for this study. I am always grateful to my mother, Madam Tay Siew King, who is my constant source of inspiration. Also to my brothers and sisters who are always there for me and for their unfailing support. My heartfelt appreciation to Ted and Helen Pestel for taking me into their wings and being my U.S. parents. 1U perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  8. 8. VITA October 7,1956 .......................................... Bom Segamat, Johor, Malaysia June, 1980 .................................................... B.A., University ofMalaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia June, 1981 .................................................... Diploma In Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1981 - 1985 ................................................. Teacher, Canossian Convent, Segamat, Johor, Malaysia 1984 - 1988 ................................................. M.Ed., Educational Psychology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1986 - 1987 ................................................. Lecturer, Sultan Idris Teachers Training College, Perak, Malaysia 1987- 1988 ................................................. Lecturer, Language Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1988-Present ............................................. Lecturer, College of Education, University Science Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia FIELDS OF STUDY Major Field: Educational Services and Research Area of Specialty: Counselor Education Cognate: Special Education iv R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  9. 9. TABLE OF CO NTENTS DEDICATION ................................................................................................ i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i VITA i v LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................ v i i i LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................... x i v CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION.................................................................. 1 Background and Setting......................................................... 1 Statement ofthe Problem ...................................................... 5 Significance ofthe Problem .................................................. 9 Purpose ofthe Study ............................................................. 11 Research Questions ................................................................ 12 Definition of Terms ................................................................ 14 Limitations of the Study ........................................................ 16 Summary ................................................................................. 16 H. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................ 18 Development of Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in the United States of America .......................................................................... 18 Development of Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in Malaysia ............................. 33 Guidance and Counseling Services in the Secondary School .............................................................. 41 The Role ofthe Secondary School Counselor .................... 61 v Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  10. 10. Perceptions ofthe Role of the Secondary School Counselor .............................................................. 71 Summary ................................................................................ 78 IE. METHODOLOGY.................................................................. 80 Research Setting .................................................................... 80 Population .............................................................................. 82 Sampling Procedure .............................................................. 84 Research Design .................................................................... 87 Instrumentation ...................................................................... 87 Data Collection ...................................................................... 91 Statistical Analysis ................................................................. 92 IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION............................................ 94 Description and Reliability ofthe Instrument ...................... 94 Demographic Description ..................................................... 100 Discussion ofFindings .......................................................... 109 Summaiy ................................................................................ 152 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................ 159 Summary ................................................................................ 159 Findings .................................................................................. 163 Conclusions ........................................................................... 169 Recommendations .................................................................. 173 Implications.............................................................................. 174 LIST OF REFERENCES .................................................................. 177 APPENDIXES A. A Map of Peninsular Malaysia........................................ 199 B. Approval Letters............................................................. 201 C. Introductory Letter to Sampled Schools....................... 208 D. CRAS............................................................................... 215 vi Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  11. 11. E. Means and Standard Deviations of the Actual Role and Importance of the School Counselor Role as Perceived by Adminstrators, Counselors, and Teachers...................... 245 F. Summary Tables Presenting the Overall Analysis for the Factorial ANOVAs................................ 261 Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  12. 12. LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Highlights of the Evolution ofthe Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in the United States.......... 32 2. Highlights ofthe Evolution of the Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in Malaysia........................ 40 3. Number of General Secondary Schools in Malaysia by State............................................................................. 82 4. Number of Administrators, School Counselors, and Teachers in the General Secondary Schools in Peninsular Malaysia......................................................................... 83 5. Number ofUrban and Rural Schools in Johor, Selangor, Terengganu, and Penang................................................ 85 6. Population (N) and Sample Size (n) of the Study.......................... 86 7. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Pilot-Test..................................... 90 8. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Study............................................ 96 9. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Administrators.............................. 98 10. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Counselors................................... 99 viii Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  13. 13. PAG E 11. Reliability Estimates for the Frequency and Importance Subscales ofthe CRAS for the Teachers...................................... 100 12. Number of Schools and Sample Size by State and Location........................................................................................... 101 13. Title by Administrators................................................................... 102 14. Title by Counselors.......................................................................... 103 15. Title by Teachers............................................................................. 103 16. Gender by Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers.................. 104 17. Self-Reported Age of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers.................................................................................... 105 18. Self-Reported Years of Teaching Experience of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers.................................... 106 19 Views of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of the Role of School Counselor................................ 107 20. Self-Reported Professional Qualification of Counselors................ 108 21. Views of Counselors as to Whether They were Provided with Information on the Role of School Counselor in Their Training............................................................................................ 109 22. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Administrators' Perceptions on Actual School Counselor Role................................................................................ I ll 23. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Counselors' Perceptions on Actual School Counselor Role................................................................................ 112 24. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Teachers' Perceptions on Actual School Counselor Role................................................................................ 113 ix R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  14. 14. PA G E 25. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Administrators' Perceptions on Importance of School Counselor Role................................................................... 115 26. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Counselors' Perceptions on Importance of School Counselor Role................................................................................ 116 27. Means and Standard Deviations of Six CRAS Subscales for Teachers’Perceptions on Importance of School Counselor Role..................................................... 117 28. Comparison of Administrators' Perceptions on the Actual Role and Importance of the Role on the Six Subscales of CRAS........................................................................................... 118 29. Comparison of Counselors' Perceptions on the Actual Role and Importance of the Role on the Six Subscales of CRAS........................................................................................... 119 30. Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions on the Actual Role and Importance of the Role on the Six Subscales of CRAS........................................................................................... 120 31 Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Individual and Group Counseling Subscale of the CRAS......................................................................................... 122 32. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Developmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale ofthe CRAS..................................................................... 123 33. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Assessment and Appraisal Subscaleofthe CRAS........................ 124 34. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Consulting Subscale of the CRAS............................................... 125 x R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  15. 15. PAG E 35. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Coordination and Management Subscale of the CRAS......................................................................................... 126 36. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Professional Ethics, Personal Growth, and Development Subscale of the CRAS............................................. 127 37. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Individual and Group Counseling Subscale of the CRAS.................................................................... 129 38 Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Developmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS...................................... 130 39. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Assessment and Appraisal Subscale of the CRAS................................................................................... 131 40. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Consulting Subscale ofthe CRAS........................ 132 41. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Coordination and Management Subscale of the CRAS.................................................................... 133 42. Summary Data and Analysis of Variance: Perceptions of Administrators, Counselors, and Teachers on the Importance of Professional Ethics, Personal Growth, and Development Subscale ofthe CRAS..................................... 134 xi R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  16. 16. PA G E 43.Factorial ANOVA of Administrators' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by State and Location for the Consulting Subscale of the CRAS................................................ 136 44. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions ofthe School Counselor Role by State and Location for the Developmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS.................................................................... 138 45. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by State and Location for the Importance ofDevelopmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS.................................................. 139 46. Factorial ANOVA of Administrators' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Years of Teaching Experience for the Importance of Professional Ethics, Personal Growth, and Development Subscale of the CRAS.............................................................................................. 141 47. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Years of Teaching Experience for the Developmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS........................................................................................ 142 48. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Years of Teaching Experience for the Assessment and Appraisal Subscale ofthe CRAS.................................................. 143 49. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions ofthe School Counselor Role by Gender and Years of Teaching Experience for the Importance of Consulting Subscale of the CRAS.................................................................... 144 50. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Years of Teaching Experience for the Importance of Coordination and Management Subscale of the CRAS...................................... 145 xii R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  17. 17. PA G E 51. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Developmental, Educational, and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS.................................................................... 147 52. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions ofthe School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Assessment and Appraisal Subscale of the CRAS.................. 148 53. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Importance ofDevelopmental, Educational and Career Guidance Subscale of the CRAS........................................ 149 54. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Importance of Coordination and Management Subscale of the CRAS..................................................................... 150 55. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Importance of Assessment and Appraisal Subscale ofthe CRAS..................................................................................... 151 56. Factorial ANOVA of Teachers' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role by Gender and Age Group for the Importance of Consulting Subscale of the CRAS................... 152 Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  18. 18. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Typical Organizational Structure for Guidance and Counseling Unit in Secondary Schools......................................................................... 4 2. Graphic Representation of Interaction Between State and Location for Administrators' Perceptions of the School Counselor Role in the Consulting Subscale.............................................. 137 xiv R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  19. 19. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This study explored the perceptions of secondary school administrators, counselors, and teachers in Peninsular Malaysia regarding the actual role ofthe school counselor and the importance ofthe role in meeting the needs of the students. The data were collected with a role assessment questionnaire developed by the researcher. This chapter presents the background and setting, statement of problem, significance of problem, purpose of study, research questions, definition ofterms, and limitations of the study. Background and Setting Guidance and counseling in Malaysia began in the schools. It was only in the 1980s that guidance and counseling services became an important part of all the secondary schools in Malaysia. A guidance and counseling unit was formed under the Schools Division in the Ministry ofEducation and a book entitled "Panduan Perlaksanaan Khidmat Bimbingan dan Kaunseling di Sekolah" (Guidelines for the Implementation of Guidance and Counseling Services in the School) was published in 1984 to provide guidelines for counselors to plan, organize, and run the guidance and counseling program in the secondary schools. The general objectives ofthe guidance and counseling program put forward by the Ministry ofEducation are: l of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  20. 20. 1. To provide growth and enrichment services by giving the students opportunities, facilities, and experiences relevant to their abilities and potentials. The services encompass all aspects of personal development. 2. To provide preventive services such as awareness campaigns and preventive education to educate students to avoid activities such as wrong acts, drug abuse, and others. 3. To provide remedial/corrective services or orientation for students with personal, learning, career, social problems, and others. 4. To provide crisis counseling for students who need it. The Ministry of Education also recommends the content of the program. There are basically nine guidance and counseling services: 1. Personal inventory and record service: To collect, keep, evaluate, use, and share information about individuals. 2. Information service: To give information on education, training, career, personal, and social matters. 3. Group guidance and instructional service: To provide developmental guidance through planned and organized activities. 4. Individual and group counseling: To provide instructional, personal, and crisis counseling. 5. Placement service: To assist in educational placement, such as helping students choose elective subjects and co-curricular activities. 6. Consultation and referral service: To provide consultation to administrators, parents, and teachers. Also to make referrals to other professionals when the needs arise. 7. Resource coordination service: To coordinate the resources and activities of students and the community. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  21. 21. 8. Conference with parents service: To provide opportunities for parents/guardians to discuss career, personal, social, and educational development of their children with the guidance and counseling teacher. 9. Evaluation service: To evaluate the effectiveness of the activities and services of guidance and counseling. (Translated text from Panduan perlaksanaan khidmat bimbingan dan kaunseling di sekolah, 1993; 1984). There are no guidelines for the organizational structure ofthe guidance and counseling unit in the secondary schools. However, Figure 1 presents a typical organizational structure for guidance and counseling units found in some secondary schools in Malaysia. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  22. 22. 4 Guidance Division Counseling Division Publication Board Library Seminars V isitations Inform ation Guidance Room Participating Agents: a. School counselor b. Teachers ♦Career Club c. Treasurer d. Six Committee Members for Six Sections a. Chairman b. Secretary * The members of the Career Club are students of forms 4 and 5 (high school) Figure 1. Typical organizational structure for guidance and counseling unit in secondary schools Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  23. 23. The content of school counseling program includes the three components of guidance, career club, and counseling. The person in charge of school counseling is appointed by the principal to run this unit. In the 1960s, he/she was called the guidance teacher or the guidance and counseling teacher. In the recent years, he/she is called the school counselor. All the school counselors are given a list of suggested services they should provide to the school community but their duties/functions are not specified. School counselors are primarily teachers, and the guidance and counseling services that they perform are in addition to their teaching responsibilities. In short, they play the dual role of teacher and counselor in the schools. Although the objectives and content of the guidance and counseling services are specified, the role ofthe secondary school counselor has yet to be defined clearly. There is certainly a need to define the role of school counselors in Malaysia so that the profession is given its due recognition. This study follows the beliefthat the basic ingredient necessary for the survival ofany profession is a consensus of members concerning the role and professional education (Schmidt, 1984). Statement of the Problem Secondary school counselors in Malaysia are faced with many barriers that inhibit their performance. Some of the barriers are: the dual role of teacher- counselor which results in heavy workload and conflict of duties; lack of a clear definition ofthe role ofthe counselors; lack of professional identity and status; inadequate professional training; inadequate budget and facilities; lack of administrative support from principals; an attitude bias ofteachers against counselors; and the misconception of students that they are dysfunctional when they seek out the counselor (Nahrawi, 1983). Generally, it is the issue on the R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  24. 24. ambiguity concerning the role of the secondary school counselor that relates to and influences most of these obstacles. Williams (1993) stated that role ambiguity contributes to role confusion and a lack of clarity about the field of school counseling. Other studies have shown that problems with role ambiguity result in communication difficulties, lack of administrative support from principals, lack of recognition and cooperation from teachers, stress (Falvey, 1987; Holt, 1982), and institutional disharmony (Wittmer & Loesch, 1975). In addition, it is generally agreed that incorrect definition of the school counselor's professional role by administrators, teachers, counselors, students, and others could result in role ambiguity, lack of organizational commitment and decline injob satisfaction on the part ofthe counselors (Harris, 1986; Moracco, Butcke, & McEwen, 1984). Podemski and Childers (1980) noted that incorrect perceptions of the counselor's professional role as an unresolved issue will negatively affect the school counselor's effectiveness. An accurate perception of the school counselor's professional role is essential to maintain the counselor's professional identity and professional stability (Lewis, 1978). A clear perception and a proper definition of the role of the school counselor is not only necessary for the professional identity of counselors and for counselor training programs (Mason, Arnold, & Hyman, 1975), but also helpful to the counselors in adequately performing that role (Podemski & Childers, 1982). Hutchinson, Barrick, and Groves (1986) indicated that a consistent, clearly defined counselor role is essential for a sound counseling profession. Accountability issues can be dealt with when there is clarification of the counselor's role (Hutchinson, Barrick, & Groves, 1986; Hutchinson & Bottoroff, 1986; Ibrahim, Helms, & Thompson, 1983). In addition, if school counselors are to be perceived as effective professional counselors, they must clearly define for themselves the R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  25. 25. professional role they will perform in the school (Terrill, 1990; Remley & Albright, 1988). Therefore, Wilgus & Shelley (1988) encouraged counselors to document their functions, to create visible and well-defined roles, and to carefully evaluate those roles. The ultimate aim of this study is to propose a clear role definition for the school counselors in Malaysia. Drury (1984) noted that the survival of counseling programs within the schools is threatened when the school counselor's professional role and the importance of the role are incorrectly perceived by important groups within the school and community. Herr (1986) mentioned that the existence of counseling positions within the schools will be determined by the importance attached to the counselor's professional role by school district personnel. From an organizational point of view, forces such as the principals, teachers, and counselors themselves work together to determine the counselor's role. Carson (1971) indicated that the counselor's role was largely determined by his/her publics, and the counselor's perceptions of his/her publics' expectations. Therefore, administrators, counselors, and teachers need to communicate adequately regarding how the counselor can make a contribution to the school. The reason for the present study is to explore the perceptions of these three groups of personnel in the school setting on whether the counselor performed the role and if the role meet the needs ofthe students. The information gathered would help the counselors plan and work more effectively in the school community. In Malaysia, the guidance programs have been in the secondary schools since 1963, and a more comprehensive and systematic guidance and counseling program has gained momentum in the 1980s. Although the Ministry of Education has proposed the services that school counselors should provide in the schools, the role description of the counselor has yet to be laid out. In this study, the role of R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  26. 26. the school counselor is defined as a sum total of the functions/duties performed by the counselor. The actual role refers to how often the counselor performed the role. The present study was conducted to determine the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions of the actual role ofthe school counselor and the importance ofthe role in meeting the needs of the students. The need for this study emerged from the concern that if the school counselor's professional role is not accurately perceived by school administrators, teachers and counselors themselves, the counselors' positions in the schools are endangered. Administrators' Perceptions. The role of school counselors vary widely from school to school. The exact role of the counselor in a particular school is frequently determined for the most part by the administrators. The administrators, who are generally principals of the schools are instrumental in formulating both the philosophy and goals of their schools. Salmon (1985) stated that the counselor's role is assigned by the principal which reflect his/her goals and administrative orientation. It is the perception of the administrators which establishes the guidance and counseling functions carried out by the school counselor. Thus, currently the success or failure of the guidance and counseling program in any school depends to a large extent upon the administrators. No matter how great the need, no matter how desirable the program, it cannot function effectively without the full consent and cooperation ofthe administrators (Wrenn, 1979). Because the administrators have this important influence and responsibility upon the role of the secondary counselor, their perception of the counselor's role is of paramount importance. The best guidance and counseling program seems to be a result of collaboration efforts between principals and guidance staffmembers/counselors (Tindall & Sklare-Lancaster, 1981). perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  27. 27. Counselors' Perceptions. Goodlad (1983) noted that if counselors do not understand what they are doing, their chances of doing their work poorly are greatly intensified. Therefore the counselors' perception of their role is important. Accurate perceptions regarding the importance of the school counselor's professional role results in counselors articulating and performing their role effectively (Remley and Albright, 1988; Wilson, 1985). Drury (1984) restated that accurate perceptions ofthe importance of the counselor's professional role would be enhanced among community members and school personnel if counselors articulated the importance of their role. He believed this would enable community members and school personnel to recognize the need to secure counseling positions in schools and to recognize the benefits of the counselor's professional role for students, parents, teachers, and administrators. Teachers’ Perceptions. There is also a need to examine the teachers' perceptions of the school counselor's professional role (Wilgus & Shelly, 1988; Olson, 1983; Valine, Higgins, & Hatcher, 1982). Valine et al. (1982) noted that greater understanding ofthe counselor's professional role by teachers will enhance the teacher's ability to effectively evaluate the role of the counselor. Furthermore, Quinn (1969) noted that the teachers' understanding of the counselor's role would promote a cooperative and professional working relationship between counselors and teachers. Significance of the Problem The study ofthe role ofthe secondary school counselor as perceived by administrators, counselors, and teachers in Peninsular Malaysia is significant because: of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  28. 28. 1. It would enhance greater degree of awareness and understanding among the educators regarding the professional role ofthe school counselor. 2. The study contributes to understanding and determining the role functions school counselors are performing at present and the perceived importance of the role functions in meeting the needs of the students. 3. The knowledge ofthe role of the secondary counselor may ultimately lead to the improvement ofthe guidance and counseling program in the schools. Most important, however, is the fact that when the counselor is aware ofwhat exactly is expected of him/her, he/she functions more effectively. Sarbin points out "a person cannot enact a role for which he lacks the necessary role expectations, and he must move cautiously and uncertainly when the role expectations of others are partly or entirely unknown" (cited in Gardner, 1954, pp. 226-227). 4. The findings can provide a new identity for this group of helping professionals in the secondary schools. The role definition will provide the counselors with a clear description of duties that may result in building a group of professionals who are responsible and accountable for their helping services. By achieving professionalism, there is potential for the position of school counselor to become a full-timejob. 5. The findings can lead to the development of guidelines for teachers training colleges and universities to plan training programs for school counselors. Counselor educators will then be able to provide a more realistic model of the guidance and counseling functions that should be practiced in the secondary schools. 6. The findings can lead to the development ofguidelines for both teachers training colleges and universities to plan the in-service program for R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  29. 29. 11 functioning school counselors to ensure that effective guidance and counseling services are provided. 7. The findings can lead to the development of guidelines for the government to review and revise the guidance and counseling program in the schools and also the job description/position of the counselor in the schools. Purpose ofthe Study The purposes ofthis study have been identified as follows: 1. To describe the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions of the actual role ofthe secondary school counselor. 2. To describe the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions of the importance of the role ofthe secondary school counselor in meeting students' needs. 3. To determine what differences exist among the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions ofthe actual role and importance of the role ofthe secondary school counselor. 4. To determine what differences exist between the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions ofthe actual role of the secondary school counselor. 5. To determine what differences exist between the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions of the importance of the role ofthe secondary school counselor in meeting students' needs. 6. To identify how state and location, gender and years of teaching experience, and gender and age are associated with the differences that exist among the administrators, counselors, and teachers in their perceptions ofthe actual role and importance ofthe role of the secondary school counselor. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  30. 30. 7. To define the role of the secondary school counselor. 12 Research Questions The research questions developed for this study include: 1. What is the actual role of the secondaiy school counselor as perceived by the administrators on each ofthe subscales of the Counselor Role Assessment Survey (CRAS)? 2. What is the actual role of the secondary school counselor as perceived by the counselors on each of the subscales of the CRAS? 3. What is the actual role of the secondary school counselor as perceived by the teachers on each of the subscales of the CRAS? 4. What aspects ofthe secondary school counselor's role are perceived by administrators to be the most and the least important on each of the subscales of the CRAS? 5. What aspects ofthe secondary school counselor's role are perceived by counselors to be the most and the least important on each ofthe subscales of the CRAS? 6. What aspects of the secondary school counselor's role are perceived by teachers to be the most and the least important on each of the subscales of the CRAS? 7. Is there a difference among the administrators' perceptions of the actual role and importance of the role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 8. Is there a difference among the counselors' perceptions of the actual role and importance ofthe role of the secondaiy school counselor on each subscale ofthe CRAS? R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  31. 31. 9. Is there a difference among the teachers' perceptions of the actual role and importance ofthe role of the secondaiy school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 10. Is there a difference between the administrators’, counselors', and teachers' perceptions regarding the actual role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale ofthe CRAS? 11. Is there a difference between the administrators', counselors', and teachers' perceptions regarding the importance of the role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 12. Is there a difference among the administrators from different state and school location regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance of the role ofthe secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 13. Is there a difference among the counselors from different state and school location regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance of the role ofthe secondaiy school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 14. Is there a difference among the teachers from different state and school location regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance ofthe role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 15. Is there a difference among the administrators of different gender and years of teaching experience regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance ofthe role ofthe secondary school counselor on each subscale ofthe CRAS? 16. Is there a difference among the counselors of different gender and years ofteaching experience regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance ofthe role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  32. 32. 14 17. Is there a difference among the teachers of different gender and years of teaching experience regarding their perceptions ofthe actual role and importance ofthe role ofthe secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 18. Is there a difference among the administrators of different gender and age regarding their perceptions ofthe actual role and importance of the role of the secondary school counselor on each subscale ofthe CRAS? 19. Is there a difference among the counselors of different gender and age regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance of the role ofthe secondary school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? 20. Is there a difference among the teachers of different gender and age regarding their perceptions of the actual role and importance of the role of the secondaiy school counselor on each subscale of the CRAS? Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following definitions have been formulated. Counseling is defined as an interactive process between counselors and students or counselors and parents or counselors and teachers. Counselor role assessment survey is an instrument developed by the researcher to obtain information regarding the actual role ofthe school counselor and the importance of the counselor's role in meeting the general needs of the secondary school students in Malaysia. Functions of the secondary school counselor refers to those tasks which the secondary school counselor performs as part of his/her professional duties. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  33. 33. Guidance is defined as the process of helping an individual understand himselfand his world (Shertzer& Stone, 1981). Guidance activities are formalized activities which the school takes to make guidance and counseling operational and available to students (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). Likert scale is a measure assigning 1 to 5 points to categories chosen on a questionnaire. In the present study, the five point scale for how often the counselor performs the stated functions ranges from Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often to Always. The scale for the importance of the stated functions ofthe counselor ranges from 1 to 5 (unimportant to crucially important). Peninsular Malaysia has 12 states and from the south to the north they are Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Federal Territory, Perak, Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang and Perlis. Perception is defined as an individual or group understanding and knowledge of a position, based on previous experiences and assumptions (Harris, 1986). Role is defined as a pattern of professional behavior applicable to an individual or to a professional group. Role of the secondary school counselor refers to the sum total ofthose functions the counselor is expected to perform as part of his/her professional duties. Secondary schools refer to the public secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. The students in the school ranged from ages 13 through 17. Secondary school administrators refer to the currently employed principals, deputy principals, supervisors, student affairs officers, and/or co-curriculum officers ofthe public secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Secondary school counselors refer to the teacher who has a certificate in guidance and counseling or diploma in guidance and counseling or bachelor in education R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  34. 34. (majoring in guidance and counseling). If the teacher does not have any one of the above, he/she must have been appointed by the principal to be involved in student counseling for at least three years. In the present study, they are often addressed as secondaiy school counselors, secondary counselors or counselors. Secondary school teachers refer to the currently employed secondary school teachers in the schools. In this study, they are often addressed as secondaiy school teachers or teachers. Limitations of the Study This study contains the following limitations: 1. The study is limited to 98 general public secondary schools in the four states in Peninsular Malaysia, and using the secondary school administrators, counselors, and teachers in the schools that were randomly selected. Therefore findings cannot be generalized beyond Peninsular Malaysia. 2. The study is limited to those aspects of the role of the secondary school counselor identified by the statements found in the counselor role assessment survey questionnaire used to gather the data. 3. The development of the questionnaire based on the opinions of the faculty members, administrators, counselors, and teachers in the United States may have a cultural bias. Some ofthe items deemed important and appropriate by the above stated professionals in the United States might not be deemed important and appropriate by faculty members, principals, counselors, and teachers in Malaysia. Summary. This chapter presents introductoiy information about the research study. The background and setting of the study describes the current guidance and R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  35. 35. counseling program in Malaysia. The problem statement, significance of the study, purpose ofthe study, research questions, definition of terms, and limitations are pertinent to the study. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  36. 36. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose ofthis chapter is to review related literature in the United States of America and Malaysia so as to gather substantial information which is useful in developing this study. To explore the perceptions of the role of the secondaiy school counselor in Malaysia, there is a need to understand the historical development of secondaiy school guidance and counseling movement in both the United States and Malaysia. This is because the development ofguidance and counseling in Malaysia tends to model that of the United States. Previous studies and discussions regarding the guidance and counseling services offered in the secondary schools and the role of secondary school counselors were reviewed because the researcher believed they would provide insight into the present study. The literature is presented in this chapter by the following areas: development of secondaiy school guidance and counseling movement in the USA; development of secondaiy school guidance and counseling movement in Malaysia; guidance and counseling services in the secondaiy school; role of the secondary school counselor; and perceptions of the role of the secondaiy school counselor. Development of Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in the United States of America The early histoiy of guidance and counseling in the United States was characterized by several series of events that continue to influence the profession today. The beginnings occurred as part ofthe social and educational reform 18 Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  37. 37. movements ofthe late 19th century. Guidance began in the American public schools much like any other subjects. It was viewed initially as something that could be taught by a teacher in a classroom setting to large numbers of students. Educational historians generally credit Jesse B. Davis, a high school principal, for the first effort to systematize guidance into the accepted school curriculum (Miller, 1961; Brewer, 1942). In 1907, he set aside one period per week in English composition classes for vocational and moral guidance. Thus guidance and counseling began at the secondaiy level as a result of the initiation of a school administrator, and not a guidance and counseling professional. The intent was curricular and educational, and viewed largely as an additional function of the classroom teacher. Coincidental with Davis's recognition of the need for planned guidance programs for students, another guidance pioneer arose in an industrial complex on the eastern seaboard. Frank Parsons, often called the "Father of Guidance," established a settlement house for young adults already employed in labor and industry or in need of a job. Although his early work focused on out-of-school young people, his hopes centered on a time when vocational guidance would "become a part ofthe public school system in eveiy community" (Lasch, 1965, pp. 157). Parsons established the Vocation Bureau in Civic Service House in Boston in 1908. This marked the first "institutionalization of vocational guidance" (Ginzberg, 1971, pp. 23). From the initial reports came the notion that vocational guidance should be provided by trained experts and it should become a part of every public school system (Gysbers & Henderson, 1988). The three primary aims recommended for implementation were the consideration of a life-career motive, school assistance injob placement, and a promise of follow-up after placement. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  38. 38. This movement led to the formation of the National Vocational Guidance Association in 1913. The single greatest support for vocational guidance in the early 1900s came from the social reform movement. Tracing the history of vocational guidance movement, most writers agree that the early beginnings of vocational guidance in schools arose from a concern for individuals "who had moved from rural to urban settings or had been victimized by child labor abuses, and it grew out of a general concern for the job satisfaction of American workers" (McDaniels, 1974, pp. 252). This emergence of vocational guidance in public schools was consequently a direct result of rapidly changing conditions in American industry and not quite related to the accepted process of schooling at that time. By 1910, thirty-five cities in the United States had implemented or were working on plans for vocational guidance in their schools (Edwards & Richey, 1947, pp. 752). The growth of vocational guidance in schools, however, was an uphill battle. Even as late as 1937, the Advisory Committee on Education reported that "in at least halfof the cities in the United States of 10,000 or more population there are no vocational guidance programs in the public schools" (Advisoiy Committee, 1938, pp. 112). Nonetheless, there were a number of forces that combined to offset the indifference and opposition to vocational guidance in the first two decades ofthis century (Aubrey, 1977). The early years of vocational guidance in the public schools did not have strong philosophical or psychological support. The Parsonian model of vocational choice was grounded on simple logic and common sense and relied predominately on observational and data gathering skills. This lack of strong philosophical or psychological support soon provided room for influences from the psychometric and mental health movements of the 1920s and 1930s. The emerging perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  39. 39. psychometric and mental health movements influenced the profession in the direction of counselor specialists as well as the assessment and remediation of mental concerns. Baker (1992) stated that psychometrics offered school guidance the tools for assessment and respectability because the tools used seemed so precise and scientific. Psychometrics emphasized objectivity, individual differences, prediction, classification, and placement. With these emphases came tendencies for school guidance workers to rely on testing and information giving as the basis for guidance (Baker, 1992). The mental health movement spawned by Clifford Beer's (1908) book, A M ind ThatFoundItself and Freudian theory were based on ideas of the importance of early development and influence ofthe mind on one's mental health. This movement eventually influenced school guidance and counseling in that there was a newfound interest in the importance of the formative years as the foundation of personality and development. School guidance workers started promoting healthy individual adjustment amongst the students (Baker, 1992). The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and the George Reed Act of 1929 were created to fund vocational education courses, teacher training, and as a by product, guidance activities. However, the impact of these efforts was not widely felt. Although there was focus on the need for guidance services to be provided by professionals, there were no accredited training programs and no widely accepted philosophical and theoretical underpinnings, particularly those that linked guidance to the process of education or the development of the individual over time (Aubrey, 1982a). Vocational guidance shifted gears and moved into the educational guidance movement in the 1920s. Educational guidance was first described by Truman L. Kelly (1914) as an educational activity. The movement advocated activities that perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  40. 40. 22 focus in helping students make choices about courses of study and school adjustment problems (Kelly, 1914). The form of educational guidance promulgated by Kelly owed an early debt to vocational guidance. Early advocates of educational guidance felt a need to redefine guidance as not simply an activity appropriate for occupational considerations but for all of a student's educational experiences as well. The secondary school guidance programs that emerged in the 1920s were often imitations of college student personnel programs that emphasized discipline and attendance (Gibson & Mitchell, 1981). The implementation of compulsory school attendance and the influence of the vocational guidance and mental health movements helped shape school guidance in the direction of a specialty. Proctor (1925) advocated guidance as a means of helping students cope with life forces by providing help in the selection of school subjects, extracurricular activities, college, and vocational school. In short, the concern of educational guidance was to broaden students' horizons through guidance (Koos & Kefauver, 1932; Proctor, 1925). It basically attempted to subsume vocational guidance under the larger umbrella of total life experience. Specifically, educational guidance had two divergent views. One view arose from the necessity for a distributive and adjustive element in schools due to crowding, shortages of administrators, classroom management, an expanding curriculum, and universal compulsory attendance laws. The second view of educational guidance began as a broadening of earlier schemes of vocational and moral guidance and in time gave rise to a view of guidance with less emphasis on vocational aspects. This view would in time evolve into present day theories of developmental and psychological guidance (Aubrey, 1982a). Super (1956) noted that "the concept of development has not until recent years been applied to the study of vocational choice and adjustment" (pp. 249). R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  41. 41. He observed that the term "choice" in vocational guidance was more frequently used to describe an event and not a process that is continuous and cumulative. Super concluded with a plea for more inclusion of developmental psychology and self-concept theory in order for vocational guidance to expand its horizons. The weaknesses mentioned by Super led to the eventual erosion of vocational guidance as a viable theory of intervention. His publication entitled, Occupational Choice: An Approach to a General Theory (Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, & Herma, 1951), revealed the fact that vocational guidance had been operating for years without a defensible theory or research base. Although this volume did not have an immediate impact on vocational guidance in the school, it did have significant ramifications for academic community training counselors (Hummel, 1954). Developmental guidance attempted to engulf career guidance under the theme of human development (Aubrey, 1982). The early ancestry of developmental guidance in schools is traceable to Robert Mathewson (1949). Wrenn (1962) also pointed to a developmental emphasis stating that "counselors need to balance undue caution with a risk-taking orientation which will encourage students to look to the future and to dare to be intellectual and vocational pioneers" (pp. 109). He also discussed social ills such as increasing divorce rates and cultural deprivation, as challenges for the new directions in school counseling. Wrenn's advocacy of developmental goals for the secondary school guidance came with others voicing similar opinions. Dinkmeyer (1967) advocated helping children to know, understand, and accept themselves. Also emphasizing the importance of promoting positive individual growth and development, Zaccaria (1969) pointed out that the emphasis of developmental guidance should be on preventing problems. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  42. 42. Prior to 1931, the word counseling was rarely used. Unlike guidance, counseling in public schools had a 30-year wait between the first recognition of guidance as a legitimate educational endeavor and the use of counseling as a helping technique (Aubrey, 1982). Thus individual counseling gradually emerged as a dominant guidance service in the 1930s and 1940s. The initial impelling force for the introduction of counseling in the schools was vocational guidance. The first technique introduced was trait and factor counseling (Williamson, 1965; Miller, 1961; Bariy & Wolf, 1955; Williamson & Darley, 1937). Williamson (1965) traced the early beginning of trait and factor counseling to French and German concepts of faculty psychology and the work of Hugo Munsterberg (1913), the German founder of American industrial and applied psychology. Williamson (1950) focused on enhancing normal adjustment, helping individuals set goals and overcome obstacles to those goals, and assisting individuals to achieve satisfying life-styles. Influenced by the medical model for treating individuals, Williamson recommended that counseling competencies should include analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, and follow-up (Ewing, 1975; Smith, 1955). The counseling model that evolved from the trait and factor approach came in time to be known as directive or counselor-centered. The 1930s depression and 1940s World War II events put a severe test on the early theories ofvocational choice. Another test ofthese early theories was their applicability to situations resulting from an increase in the United Sates population from 1900 to 1958 of some 97 million people and a doubling of the labor force between 1900 and 1950 (Norris, Zeran & Hatch 1960). Finally, vocational guidance had to deal with the increased opportunities for free public education and the dramatic increase in the number of women entering the labor force. Collectively, these factors were Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  43. 43. 25 overwhelming and the early extensions of the Parsonian model were simply too weak and impotent to deal with the demands ofthe time. The erosion of the dominant trait and factor approach to school counseling began in the early 1940s and was completed within a decade. Ginzberg (1971) saw this period as one involving a shift in guidance technique from one of testing to one of counseling. He further speculated that part of the downfall ofthe trait and factor approach was inevitable "once the academic community in the United States caught up with Freud and Piaget" (pp. 32). Freedom and self-determination was a major factor in changing the direction of guidance and counseling in the 1940s, and the prime mover was Carl Rogers. The writings of Carl Rogers (1961, 1951, 1942) had an enormous effect on school counseling. The so-called nondirective approach emphasized the ability of each individual to resolve problems in the context ofthe proper counseling climate emphasizing the counselor's communication ofgenuineness and unconditional positive regard. Roger's influence had moved school counselors away from being highly directive to being eclectic. In addition, group counseling was emerging as a relatively new idea with some merit for school counseling (Smith, 1955). Before Rogers, the literature pertaining to school guidance and counseling was of a practical nature and dealt with topics on guidance, such as testing, cumulative records, orientation procedures, vocations, placement functions and so on. With Rogers, a sudden change occurred and there was a new emphasis on the techniques and methods of counseling research, refinement of counseling techniques, selection and training of future counselors, and the goals and objectives of counseling. Guidance, for all intents and purposes, would suddenly R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  44. 44. 26 disappear as a major consideration in the bulk of the literature and be replaced by a decade or more of concentration on counseling (Aubrey, 1977). In 1952, the National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) merged with two other professional organizations to form the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA). The American School Counselor Association was formed in 1953 as one of the five original divisions of APGA. The association publishes two widely respected journals for school counselors: (a) The School Counselor and (b) Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. In summary, a thematic view of the guidance and counseling movements in the American schools resembles a patchwork quilt. This is so because of the number of separate and distinct movements that have marked the history of guidance in the schools and the corresponding number of unique movements within the field of counseling. The growing confusion between the fields of guidance and counseling is the difference in their regard for schooling as a means of personal growth. Guidance from its early beginnings in vocational and educational guidance has always accorded schools and teachers a large part in the process of individual growth and development. Counseling, however, has not been this receptive. Commencing with the advent of counseling psychology as a distinct specialty, those in this area have increasingly placed themselves out of the mainstream of education and a partnership with teachers. Thematically, the first four decades of guidance and counseling revealed a rather harmonious relationship between guidance as purpose and direction, and counseling as tool and technique. The 1930s marked the last period in the guidance and counseling movement when counseling would submit to the aims of guidance. Commencing in the 1940s and extending up to the present time, the practice and perpetuation of counseling has become an end in itself. The seeds of R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  45. 45. 27 this eventual outcome were sown in the 1950s when counselor trainers in universities carried on the heated debates on directive versus nondirective counseling. Armor (1969) and Sprinthall (1971) noted that the resolution of this conflict resulted in the school counselors adopting the eclectic model of counseling. If one decade in history had to be singled out to have the most profound impact on school counselors, it would be the 1950s. This period produced major breakthroughs in theory, research, practice, and a professional organization. National and worldwide events shape the future of counselors. In particular, major changes in guidance and counseling happened following the reaction of the American public to the launching of the Russian space satellite named Sputnik 1 in 1957. There was perceived threat of Russian educational superiority and this led to subsequent desire to identify academically talented students and guide them into careers in strategic fields. This occurrence brought about the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958. Based on the recommendation of James Conant (1959) in The American High School Today, the Act provided funding for training institutes to prepare individuals for secondary school counseling (Gysbers & Henderson, 1988). As a result, the numbers of school counselors greatly increased. In addition, this Act also provided testing materials for use in grades six through twelve. The 10 year period directly following the implementation of NDEA, witnessed the greatest growth of guidance and counseling, both in terms of numbers of trained counselors and numbers of schools with guidance services (Poggi et al., 1982). When the financial benefits ofNDEA stopped, guidance services were already strongly entrenched as an integral part of school services and remained an important school service. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  46. 46. I 28 The training institutes had a major effect on the nature of training that participants received. Pierson (1965) discussed five themes central to the NDEA training institutes. They are: 1. Determinism and a free society 2. Mental health and individual responsibility 3. Basic science and supervised practice 4. Teaching and counseling 5. The role ofthe school counselor As guidance and counseling entered the 1960s, the future became promising. The focus at this time was expressed by Gilbert Wrenn (1962) as "that primary emphasis in counseling students be placed on the developmental needs and decision points in the lives ofthe total range of students rather than upon the remedial needs and the crisis points in the lives of a few students" (pp. 109). In the 1960s and 1970s, schools witnessed an upsurge in the popularity of behaviorism and the application of external rewards as methods of teaching, dealing with problem children, and shaping the behavior and attitudes of students. At about the same time, the professional literature began to question counselor effectiveness, with school counselors being censured for not only not helping but doing damage to their clients (Carkhuff& Berenson, 1967). Dissatisfaction was expressed among counselor educators on attempts to teach teachers to be counselors, thus making school counseling a specialization ofthe teaching role (Kehas& Morse, 1971; 1970). An era of declining enrollments in the schools and economic problems across the nation led to reductions in personnel in numerous school districts during the 1970s and into the 1980s. A number of school counseling positions were eliminated, resulting in fewerjobs available for newly trained school counselors. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  47. 47. At this time, school counseling was still a field without a central unifying theme. There were increasing number of themes, all having varying degrees of influence across training programs and among counselors. The newer activist, developmental, service-oriented, and eclectic themes were mixed with the remnants of the trait and factor, adjustment, administrative, and counseling themes. In times ofjob shortages and threats to existingjobs, school counseling was at a loss to define itselfuniformly. So the winds of change led the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) to rename itselfthe American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) in 1985. AACD became American Counseling Association (ACA) in 1992, and ACA has been a part ofthe interdivisional task force with the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and the American School Counselors Association (ASCA), working on plans to improve school counseling. The development of school guidance and counseling in general and secondary school guidance and counseling in particular thus far is unclear and viewed by some as pessimistic. This pessimism can be best explained by the following statement: "Many counselors define their role in terms of the functions they perform, there is variation in these functions, and counselors have been encouraged over the years to consider several different primary roles" (Bakers, 1981, pp. 247). One ofthe issues faced by the school counselors in the 1980s was the matter on counselor role. Gysbers and Henderson (1988) stated that the role definition issue was handled by saying that the role of the counselor cannot be predetermined. In this context, Borders and Drury (1992) stated that legislators, principals, parents, and even some counselors are still confused, if not woefully uninformed about the contributions of school counseling programs and the role of school counselors. As a result, many counselors become identified with Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  48. 48. nonguidance activities such as clerical work, mechanics of class scheduling, periodic substitute teaching, and routine disciplinary matters. Carlson (1991) noted that school counseling has fought long for survival and the fight is not over. Matthes (1992) stated that society's real regard for counselors has never matched its professed regard. The current trends call for a paradigm shift (Gysbers, Hughey, Starr & Lapan, 1992; Gysbers & Henderson, 1988) in terms of how counselors conceptualize their role within the school. The current paradigm centers around the formal organizational structures that link guidance and counseling with the overall school curriculum in a more integral way. As opposed to a model emphasizing guidance and counseling as a collection of services, current terminology typically incorporates the terms comprehensive, developmental and/or balanced counseling program (Vanzandt & Hayslip, 1994; Wittmer, 1993; Baker, 1992). In the recent years, the ASCA leaders have displayed preference for the term "comprehensive developmental counseling" (Hoyt, 1993). The accountability focus is particularly stressed (Gerler, 1992; Gysbers et al., 1992). The state departments of education have recognized the importance of programs that are comprehensive and developmental from kindergarten through grade 12, and have designed training programs and certification requirements to reflect this change (Wittmer, 1993; Baker, 1992). Recent ASCA presidents (Perry, 1991; OBryant, 1990) have placed considerable emphasis on involvement in the legislative process and on public relations to articulate school counseling goals more effectively nationwide. These efforts are having an effect as school counseling is beginning to enjoy some program expansion and renewal (Borders & Drury, 1992). R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  49. 49. Table 1 presents the highlights ofthe evolution of the secondary school guidance and counseling movement in the United States. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  50. 50. 32 Table 1 Highlights of the Evolution of the Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in the United States Date Event 1907 Jesse B. Davis conducts guidance classes in Grand Rapids, Michigan. 1908 Frank Parsons establishes the Vocational Bureau in Boston. 1908 Clifford Beers publishes A Mind ThatFoundItself. 1913 Formation of the National Vocational Guidance Association. 1914 Kelly describes educational guidance. 1917 Smith Hughes Act: To fund vocational education courses and teacher training programs. 1920s Sigmund Freud's ideas begin to influence the mental health professionals and also school counseling. 1920-1930 Number o f school guidance specialists increases in this decade. There are no accepted training or practice standards. 1925 Proctor advocates guidance program to help students make educational and vocational choices. 1929 George Reed Act: To fund vocational educational courses and teacher training programs. 1931 The word counseling started to be used widely. 1937 Williamson and Darley publish the Student Personnel Work: An Outline of ClinicalProcedures and begin the trait and factor approach. 1942 Carl Rogers publishes CounselingandPsychotherapy and begins the era of individual counseling and client-centered therapy. 1945 Changing social environment after World W ar II and influence o f Roger’s writings cause counseling to become the dominant school guidance service. 1949 Mathewson introduces developmental guidance in schools. 1951 Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Hernia publish Occupational Choice: An Approach to a General Theory. 1952 American Personnel and Guidance Association is created. 1953 American School Counselors Association is formed as a division o f the American Personnel and Guidance Association. 1958 National Defense Education Act (NDEA) is passed. 1959 Conant publishes TheAmerican High School Today. 1960s Beginning o f a boom decade in school guidance and counseling. 1962 Wrenn publishes The Counselor in a Changing World. 1970s Beginning of a decade o f declining enrollments in the schools and corresponding reductions in school counselors. 1980s Issue on the role of school counselors is addressed. 1985 American Personnel and Guidance Association changes its name to the American Association for Counseling and Development. 1988 Gysbers and Henderson publish Developing andManaging YourSchool Guidance Program. 1990 An interdivisional task force of representatives from ACES, ASCA and AACD/ACA work on plans to improve school counseling. 1992 Baker publishes School Counselingfor the Twenty-First Century. 1993 Wittmer publishes Managing YourSchool Counseling Program: K-12Developmental Strategies. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  51. 51. 33 Development of Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in Malaysia The development of secondaiy school guidance and counseling in Malaysia is recently compared to the development of secondary school guidance and counseling in the United States. The influence ofthe United States guidance and counseling movement reached Malaysia in a roundabout fashion. The movement was exported to Canada and England during the 1960s and Malaysia, with its colonial ties to the British Commonwealth, indirectly benefited from this movement. As in the United States, guidance and counseling in Malaysia also began in the schools. Its development is closely related to the history of educational practice and problems in the schools. Since British colonial days, guidance and counseling in schools have traditionally been practiced informally, through the system of classroom teachers, house masters, and hostel masters (Othman & Bakar, 1993). According to the Federation of Malaya Annual Report on Education (1955), H.R. Cheeseman, a senior education officer in the British colonial administration, first outlined the need for guidance services in the Report on Vocational Education in 1938. But it was only until 1963, following the visit of R.K. Mackenzie, a Colombo Plan consultant from Canada, was a more structured guidance service introduced in the schools. From 1962-1963, R.K. Mackenzie advised the Ministry ofEducation on the establishment of a guidance unit in the Ministry ofEducation and every State Education Department. He conducted a six-month course on guidance to 11 assistant supervisors of schools from the State Education Departments. It was expected that after completing the course, the participants would return to their own state to conduct in-service courses on Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  52. 52. 34 guidance for teachers and to start the guidance program in schools. The outcome of the course was the publication of a book entitled "Perkhidmatan Panduan di Sekolah" (School guidance services). This book was published in 1966 with the cooperation ofthe Ministry of Education and Dewan Bahasa Pustaka (Language Bureau). Historically, formal guidance services in schools began in 1963 when the Ministry of Education formulated a policy that secondary schools must initiate guidance services. The Ministry ofEducation report stated that "In 1963, it was decided that guidance as a specific function should be introduced in school" (Ministry of Education Report, Malaysia, 1970, pp. 40). In that same year, the guidance movement gained momentum when the Ministry of Education set up the Guidance Section in the Educational Planning and Research Division (EPRD). The Ministry ofEducation then issued a circular in 1964, KP 5209/35/(4), which stressed the importance ofguidance services in schools: "It has been suggested that each primary/secondary school is to appoint one guidance teacher. To ensure the effectiveness of these guidance teachers, it has been decided that they be given approximately twenty-five periods of academic work and be exempted from other activities" (translated text). The Guidance Section in the Educational Planning and Research Division started initiating the guidance services by launching the idea of career teachers in the primary and secondary schools in 1966 (Awang, 1969). The Section then prepared school bulletins that gave explanations of guidance in primary schools. Information on the cumulative record cards, school orientation, understanding the individual child, and problems of transition to secondary schools were circulated. In the context of assisting career teachers in secondary schools, the Section published and circulated a series of bulletins on career guidance. In addition, the R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  53. 53. 35 Section also organized visits to schools to monitor the implementation of guidance services, carried out research projects, and organized seminars and exposure courses for career teachers (Awang, 1969). From 1968, this Section conceptualized guidance as the assistance given to individuals in making intelligent choices and adjustments. It is based on the democratic principle that it is the duty and the right of every individual to choose his own way of life insofar as his choice does not interfere with the rights of others. The ability to make such choices is not innate, but, like other abilities, must be developed and guided. Guidance became an integral part of education because it helps students make their own choice in a way that promotes or stimulates the gradual development of the ability to make decisions independently without undue influence from others (Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 1968). To strengthen the guidance program, the Ministry ofEducation dispatched another official circular KP 5209/30/(13) in 1968 to all the State Education Departments and schools to direct all principals to provide the facilities for the guidance teacher. Unfortunately due to the lack of finance and manpower, the circular was filed and forgotten by most schools. In the early years, the major duties of the guidance teachers evolved around vocational and academic guidance. Since 1971, the counseling function has been introduced. Counseling was defined as a learning process, carried on in a simple one-to-one social environment, in which a counselor, professionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client with methods appropriate to the tetter's need and within the context ofthe total personnel program. The client is guided to learn more about himselfand to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived, realistically defined Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  54. 54. 36 goals so that he may become a happier and more productive member of his society (Ministry of Education, 1971). In 1974, a survey was conducted by the Guidance Unit, Schools Division, Ministiy of Education, to study the status, category, and workload of guidance teachers. The results of the survey showed that in March 1974, 65.7% ofguidance teachers in secondary schools had obtained some training and that 34.4% had not yet been trained at all. More than 60% of guidance teachers had a teaching load exceeding 26 periods per week and owing to the constraints of heavy workload (both academic and co-curricular duties), they had to discharge their guidance duties during school hours or outside school hours or a combination of both. Drug abuse became a serious problem among the youth in 1980s. By 1983, 94,500 drug abusers were identified (Hussin, 1989). Knowing that the drug problem would deprive the country of manpower vital to future development and also bring with it other criminal activities, the government declared drug abuse as a security threat to the nation. The responsibility for combating drugs in the schools were given to the guidance and counseling teachers. This led to the change in the philosophy ofthe guidance and counseling services in schools. The 1980s marked the growth of the guidance and counseling program in the schools. The Ministry of Education published and circulated guidelines to all secondary school counselors presenting the rationale, goals, principles, services, and activities that school counselors should perform (Panduan perlaksanaan khidmat bimbingan dan kaunseling di sekolah, 1993; 1984). In the developmental guidance and counseling services, school counselors were expected to focus on prevention, enrichment, and remediation. From the beginning of 1969, the Ministiy ofEducation embarked on to providing training for guidance teachers in schools. These teachers were given the R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  55. 55. 37 opportunity to attend the preliminary course on guidance for a week during the school term holidays. This course was carried out until 1982. Many seminars and workshops for guidance teachers at that time were conducted with the aid provided by UNICEF until 1972 when the aid was terminated. Since 1974, the Schools Division has managed the task of organizing seminars and in-service courses for guidance teachers, but the implementation of programs was slow due to the lack of personnel and funds. The organization of a more comprehensive and systematic program to train guidance and counseling teachers in schools gained momentum in the 1980s. The Ministry of Education sent officers overseas to pursue courses on guidance and counseling. In view that it was costly to do so, the role of training guidance and counseling teachers was given to the Specialist Teachers Training College. The Specialist Teachers Training College introduced a one-year course leading to a certificate in guidance and counseling. In 1981, the Specialist Teachers Training College made it compulsory for all teacher trainees to take a course in guidance and counseling. One year after that, the Teacher Education Division introduced an eight-week certificate course in guidance and counseling for teachers. The course was conducted during the holidays. Due to the encouraging response, more and more teachers training colleges started to offer in- service holiday courses. In 1984, the Specialist Teachers Training College started a six-month full-time course leading to a special certificate in guidance and counseling for those teachers who had completed the in-service holiday course. Four years later, the Teacher Education Division (Ministiy ofEducation, 1988) introduced a guidance and counseling curriculum, amounting to 18 hours, as an introductory course for all teacher trainees at the teachers training colleges (Othman & Bakar, 1993). R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  56. 56. 38 Guidance and counseling courses were also being offered in all universities in one form or another. The goal is toward training school counselors. The Faculty of Education in the University of Malaya has offered guidance and counseling as an elective subject in the diploma in education course since 1967. As of 1977, the School ofEducational Studies, University Science Malaysia offered a compulsory guidance and counseling course in their teacher education training program. The Faculty of Education in the National University of Malaysia also offered an elective course on guidance and counseling to students pursuing the diploma in education (Othman et.al., 1981). In 1975, the National University of Malaysia began to offer courses on guidance and counseling to the final-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (Othman et. al., 1981), and from 1980, this university started a program offering a diploma in counseling for teachers and officers who are involved in the helping service. From 1981, the Agriculture University of Malaysia introduced a four-year course in the bachelor of education, majoring in guidance and counseling. The counseling courses that are offered in all the universities bear a striking resemblance to the counselor education program in the United States. This is because most ofthe faculty members attached to these counseling programs were educated in the United States and have their doctorates in counselor education. From the teacher training perspective, it can be assumed that most teachers trained either from the teachers training colleges or universities would have the basic knowledge in guidance and counseling. In schools where there is no trained counselor available, one o''these teachers may be appointed by the principal to take the counselor role. He/She may then be send for in-service courses to acquire more training in the field. R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  57. 57. 39 In the midst ofthe guidance and counseling movement, teachers and officers involved in the helping service have united to form the MAVOGA (Malaysian Vocational and Guidance Association) and PERKAMA or Persatuan Kaunseling Malaysia (Association of Counselors in Malaysia). The majority of the members in these two associations are school counselors. MAVOGA was established in 1973. Its functions are basically to organize seminars, workshops, exhibitions, and competitions related to vocation and career. "Panduan" or guidance newsletter is one of its publications. PERKAMA was initiated in 1980 and its focus is basically to advance the professional practice of counseling in Malaysia. Its aims are to encourage and assist research in counseling; promote the growth of knowledge, understanding, and acceptance of counseling in the multicultural context of Malaysia; maintain high standards of professional ethics; enhance the professional development of members; and foster identity, harmony, and cooperation among its members through sharing of information and experiences. In spite of the emphasis given to guidance and counseling in schools, to this day, there are no full-time counselors appointed in the secondary schools. The present scenario of counseling in all the Malaysian secondary schools is the availability of one or two counselors but he/she has the dual role of teaching and counseling. Table 2 displays the highlights ofthe evolution of the secondary school guidance and counseling movement in Malaysia. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  58. 58. 40 Table 2 Highlights ofthe Evolution of the Secondary School Guidance and Counseling Movement in Malaysia Date Event 1938 Report on Vocational Education. 1963 Mackenzie introduces a more structured guidance service in the schools. 1963 Guidance Section in the Educational Planning and Research Division is established 1963 Ministry ofEducation formulates a policy that all secondary schools initiate the guidance services. 1964 Ministry of Education issues a circular KP 5209/35/(4) that all secondary schools appoint a guidance teacher. 1966 Ministry ofEducation and Language Bureau publish a guide book entitled Perkhidmatan Panduan di Sekolah (School Guidance Services). 1966 Guidance Section launches the idea of career teachers in the primary and secondary schools. 1968 Ministry of Education issues a circular KP 5209/30/(13) directing all principals to provide facilities for the guidance teacher. 1968 Focus is on vocational and academic guidance. 1969 Ministry of Education embarks on the model to provide preliminary training for the guidance teachers. 1970s Ministry of Education sends officers overseas for professional training and also work at providing training for the guidance and counseling teachers locally. 1971 Introduction of counseling into the program. 1973 MAVOGA is established. 1980 PERKAMA is initiated. 1980s Efforts to build the counselor education programs in teachers training colleges and universities. 1984 A book entitled "Guidelines for the implementation of guidance and counseling services in the school" is published by the Ministry of Education. 1993 "Guidelines for the implementation ofguidance and counseling services in the school" is revised by the Ministry ofEducation. Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  59. 59. 41 Guidance and Counseling Services in the Secondary School Guidance and counseling has undergone about a century of reforms and experiences in the United States, which has resulted in so much writings in this field. This has made United States a source of reference for many developing countries including Malaysia. Guidance and counseling exists as an accepted part of the school system. Spaziani and associates (1973) stressed that the philosophy of an educational opportunity for all youth emphasizes the need to assist students in personal development, education, and career planning. These combined activities were provided to assist every student to live and learn effectively in the school, and to grow, develop and become as fully assured and capable a person as possible (Alberta Department of Education, 1986). Guidance, counseling, and career development are basically the three services found in schools. The school counselors therefore have the responsibility of carrying out these services. This, when expressed in terms of duties or functions of the counselor becomes a role description. Arbuckle (1970), Peters and Farwell (1967), and Thompson and Poppen (1979) used the word "guidance" as a concept (mental image), as an educational construct (intellectual synthesis), and as an educational service (actions taken to meet a demand). Conceptually, guidance involves the utilization of a point of view to help an individual; as an educational construct, it refers to the provision of experiences which assist students to understand themselves; and as a service, it refers to organizational procedures and processes to achieve a helping relationship. Shertzer and Stone (1981) collected definitions of guidance from the literature available at the time and concluded that overall, guidance is the process of helping an individual understand himselfand his world. Makinde (1984) proposed that the Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  60. 60. 42 guidance services needed in the secondary schools are: (a) orientation or adaptive services; (b) appraisal or inventory services; (c) informational or distributive services; (d) planning and placement services; and (e) follow-up, research, and evaluation services. Rogers (1961) referred to counseling as a series of direct contacts with the individual which aims to offer assistance in changing attitudes and behavior. Rogers further stressed that effective counseling consists of a definitely structured, permissive relationship which allows the client to gain an understanding of himself/herselfto a degree which enables him/her to take positive steps in the light of new orientation. Perez (1965) defined counseling as an interactive process conjoining the counselee who is vulnerable and who needs assistance, and the counselor who is trained and educated to give this assistance. The goal of which is to help the counselee learn to deal more effectively with himself/herselfand the reality of the environment. Arbuckle (1970) gave a broad definition of counseling as helping the individual to clear away the entangling and hampering tentacles so that he/she can be what he/she really is, and contribute more both to selfand to others. Rogers (1962) maintained that the purpose of counselors should include guidance and counseling, that is to enhance the personal development and the psychological growth towards a socialized matured client. Miller (1978) said that counseling represents only one ofthe services to be found in a guidance program. Along the same line, Makinde (1984) viewed guidance as the body of psychotherapy, and counseling as the soul or heart without which a self- understanding person cannot be produced. In short, the counseling service is the brain and heart of the guidance program. It represents a part of the total process of guidance which is helping individuals achieve the self-understanding and self­ R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
  61. 61. direction necessary to make the maximum adjustment at school, home, and in the community. Career development activities occur in either or both of guidance and counseling. Students learn that career development is a life-long process of choosing career paths and roles in life by identifying their own characteristics, needs and interests, and matching them with the occupational and leisure demands and opportunities in their lives. Guidance activities typically explore the nature of personal interests and how to compile information about one's own characteristics, how to explore occupations, how to identify and use sources of information about careers and post-secondary education, and how to go about planning a course of action leading in a career direction. Counseling in career development is intended to assist the individual student to clear up ambiguity and resolve uncertainty about personal strengths, limitations, and directions to pursue (Alberta Department of Education, 1986). The guidance and counseling services proposed by different authors may differ but generally they do cover the pertinent services. Poggi and associates (1982) described the school guidance and counseling program as providing services such as individual counseling; group counseling; group guidance; educational planning, course selection, and placement; career guidance and counseling; appraisal; consultation; coordination, liaison, and referral; evaluation; research; public relations; and professional renewal. Chiles and Eiben (1983) proposed the same guidance and counseling services in schools but they are grouped under 11 categories such as individual counseling; group counseling; group guidance; educational planning and course selection; career guidance and counseling; appraisal; consultation; coordination, R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

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