RESEARCH PROJECT  CLICKERTHE NEW DOG TRAINING                          By: Ainhoa Nocete Romero                         Su...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012GRATITUDESI want to start giving thanks to all the people who have made possible ...
CLICKER, the new dog training                   2011/2012                                                                 ...
CLICKER, the new dog training                   2011/2012       3.6.3          Down..........................................
CLICKER, the new dog training                  2011/20128.   BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................
CLICKER, the new dog training       2011/2012       1. INTRODUCTIONThe first thing I thought when I had to raise the topic...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012Kiss is a Golden Retriever of two years old. (see picture 3) I have hadher since ...
CLICKER, the new dog training     2011/2012      2. CLICKER TRAINING METHOD   2.1 History                                W...
CLICKER, the new dog training      2011/2012This is a positive training, so it means that we never use punishment and ther...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012       Being the sound of the click fast and precise the problem of imprecise sy...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012       2.6 Amazing exercises achieved with the clicker   As I quoted already clic...
CLICKER, the new dog training     2011/2012                                       2.6.6 Jumping with a rope               ...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012        3. CONVENTIONAL TRAINING METHOD    3.1 HistoryWorking dogs have always le...
CLICKER, the new dog training     2011/2012   3.4 Disadvantages       Invented with good intentions though, training coll...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/20123.6.5 Boreaus With this exercise we instruct the dog to run in the opposite direc...
CLICKER, the new dog training      2011/2012      4. PRACTICAL TRAINING WITH MY DOGS   4.1 Clicker training with Kiss 4.1....
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012Kiss responds to this exercise very well. She is very fast to eat each piece and ...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012time I throw the apport I click just when Kiss does a half turn with the apport i...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012 4.1.5 Fourth SessionAs the last season took place in a different place I thought...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012     4.2 Conventional training with Iron   4.2.1 The steps to do the apport      ...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012MOTIVATION:                                                          The motivati...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012exercise. Iron is doing it well but we are more advanced with Kiss and the clicke...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012        5. TRAINING RESULTS BASED ON MY PRACTICEIn order to reach some conclusion...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012       With the clicker method the dog uses the brain a lot, and we can see that...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012At the beginning I wanted to try the clicker method with an aggressive dog, but I...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012      6. CONCLUSIONSWe all know that there is always a strong bond between the ow...
CLICKER, the new dog training    2011/2012I have to admit that the clicker training has attracted me since the beginning b...
CLICKER, the new dog training    2011/2012      7. INTERVIEWS    7.1 Interview to Enric BruchEnric Bruch (see picture 30) ...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012What is the difference between the classic conditioning and the operant condition...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012    7.2 Interview to Germán PérezGermán Pérez (see picture 31) is an educator ent...
CLICKER, the new dog training    2011/2012Do you think that the clicker is the best method to train a dog?I do not think t...
CLICKER, the new dog training   2011/2012        8. BIBLIOGRAPHYBooksValeria Rossi, 2006. El Pastor Aleman. Editorial De V...
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Clicker, the new dog training

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROJECT CLICKERTHE NEW DOG TRAINING By: Ainhoa Nocete Romero Supervised by: Rosa Galiano 2nd Batxillerat B INS. Miquel Bosch i Jover Artés, 16/01/2012
  2. 2. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012GRATITUDESI want to start giving thanks to all the people who have made possible to have finished my researchproject. This research has taught me to understand the improvement of the dog training world.Firstly, thanks to Rosa M. Galiano, who has been next to me, day after day, reading and rereading,guiding and supervising me in the research. Now I know a little more about it. I appreciate much heradvice and patience.Also, a very sincere gratitude to all the people who are involved in the dog world, especially those whohave introduced me into this world. This research project could not have been possible without them.They have taught me all that I know now about dog training and have always believed in me. Specialthanks to Enric Bruch, my dog instructor, for being always next to me, and to Germán Pérez, a localdog trainer, for the time and good advice given to me and for showing me what we can achieve withdogs. Finally, but not least, I want to thank Yolanda Alvarez for her constant willing to help me.I cannot forget about my parents either. They have been very patient to me all the time. Both of themhave accompanied me to the different places for the training sessions and helped me with therecording of all the videos and with the photos I am including in the project. They have been giving meconstant encouragement and confidence to move forward with the project and never give up.Finally, I want to express all my love to my two dogs, Iron and Kiss. Without them I could not havedone and proved my research. 2
  3. 3. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 INDEXGRATITUDES .......................................................................................................................................... 21. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 62. CLICKER TRAINING METHOD ...................................................................................................... 8 2.1 History ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 The clicker ............................................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Advantages .............................................................................................................................. 9 2.4 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................................... 10 2.5 Expectatives .......................................................................................................................... 10 2.6 Amazing exercises achieved with the clicker ......................................................................... 11 2.6.1 Basketball ....................................................................................................................... 11 2.6.2 Tidying up the shoes ...................................................................................................... 11 2.6.3 Bowling ........................................................................................................................... 11 2.6.4 Picking up a tissue and closing the bin .......................................................................... 11 2.6.5 Dancing .......................................................................................................................... 11 2.6.6 Jumping with a rope ...................................................................................................... 123. CONVENTIONAL TRAINING METHOD ....................................................................................... 13 3.1 History ................................................................................................................................... 13 3.2 Definition of the conventional training ................................................................................... 13 3.3 Advantages ............................................................................................................................ 13 3.4 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Expectatives .......................................................................................................................... 14 3.6 Basic exercises ...................................................................................................................... 14 3.6.1 Walking with the strap slack .......................................................................................... 14 3.6.2 Sit................................................................................................................................... 14 3
  4. 4. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 3.6.3 Down.............................................................................................................................. 14 3.6.4 Calling ............................................................................................................................ 14 3.6.5 Boreaus ......................................................................................................................... 15 3.6.6 Aus................................................................................................................................. 15 3.6.7 Apport ............................................................................................................................ 154. PRACTICAL TRAINING WITH MY DOGS .................................................................................... 16 4.1 Clicker training with Kiss ....................................................................................................... 16 4.1.1 The steps to do the apport............................................................................................. 16 4.1.2 First Session .................................................................................................................. 16 4.1.3 Second Session ............................................................................................................. 17 4.1.4 Third Session ................................................................................................................. 18 4.1.5 Fourth Session .............................................................................................................. 19 4.1.6 Fifth Session .................................................................................................................. 19 4.2 Conventional training with Iron .............................................................................................. 20 4.2.1 The steps to do the apport............................................................................................. 20 4.2.2 First Session .................................................................................................................. 20 4.2.3 Second Session ............................................................................................................. 21 4.2.4 Third Session ................................................................................................................. 22 4.2.5 Fourth Session .............................................................................................................. 22 4.2.6 Fifth Session .................................................................................................................. 225. TRAINING RESULTS BASED ON MY PRACTICE ....................................................................... 236. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................ 267. INTERVIEWS ................................................................................................................................ 28 7.1 Interview to Enric Bruch ........................................................................................................ 28 7.2 Interview to Germán Pérez .................................................................................................... 30 4
  5. 5. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/20128. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................ 329. VIDEOS ......................................................................................................................................... 32 5
  6. 6. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 1. INTRODUCTIONThe first thing I thought when I had to raise the topic of my research project was that it had to be aninteresting theme for me. As I love animals, I have had dogs since I was a child. Four years ago Istarted to train my dog in the training field “Els Tres Pins”, in Balsareny, where I still teach my dogsobedience and search of persons. As I am involved in those methods of training I once read aboutclicker, a positive dog training which avoids punishment and establishes a good relationship with thedog for teaching funny exercises. It seemed to me really interesting because it is a different method,which I can work with and teach different exercises to a dog. Therefore, I decided to do some researchon this method and try to apply it with my dogs.With this project I want to prove the validity of clicker. That is to say, to show that it is the best methodto train a dog by comparing the differences and similarities of this training method with traditionalobedience and to describe the close relationship that is created between the dog and the owner duringthis type of training.To prove it, I first wanted to work with dogs with an aggressive conduct but after asking for advice toKaren Pryor, the person who started the clicker in the world of the dog, she told me that aggression indogs is a complex behavior, often with a long history and that the behavior of the owner is often afactor that has to be modified as well, so she did not recommend me this as a research topic for aschool project, as it would take a long time and could be hazardous and the outcomes can often beambiguous.Following Mrs Pryor’s advice, I decided to put clicker training method intopractice by doing the same exercise with my two friendly dogs. One dog isgoing to be taught with clicker and the other one with traditional obedience. Theexercise I am going to do is called apport, in which the dog has to bring me athing, in this case an apport (see picture 1), a device made of wood, sit down 1. Apportand put the apport in my hand.Iron is a German shepherd of four years old. (see picture 2) I havehad him since he was tree months. He is a dog with a lot ofcharacter, he barks to other dogs and he even bit one once, so he isslightly aggressive but very confident. He does all of this to protectme because when I bought him I was fourteen years and for a dogthe age when a human is adult is sixteen years old. At home he isso calm and he is often charming with all the people, and even withhis flat mate dog, Kiss. He plays a lot with her. He is so obedient and 2. Iron.he learns quite fast all the instructions. He is a very good guardian.With Iron I am going to put into practice the apport by using theconventional training. 6
  7. 7. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012Kiss is a Golden Retriever of two years old. (see picture 3) I have hadher since she was two months. She is a very charming dog; she lovespeople and also playing with dogs. When I am working with her, she isvery attentive to whether I have a reward, some goods or a ball forplaying. She is very active but sometimes if there is a lot of noise or ifshe does not know the place where she is she may be a little fearful.With Kiss I am going to put into practice the apport by using the clicker. 3. Kiss.My intention was also to be able to contact with some experienced dog educators like Karen Pryor,Enric Bruch, Mary Ray and Germán Pérez to contribute with their opinion and knowledge to my work.I have record three videos: the first there are the examples of some exercises achieved with theclicker, the second there is all the training steps I have done with Kiss and the clicker training and atlast there is the third video where there is all the training steps I have done with Iron and theconventional training.At first, my intention was to do my project in Catalan, but as I like languages and I want to study themin a near future I have finally decided to do it in English. Besides, most of the research in these fieldsis done in English, as the USA is a pioneer country. 7
  8. 8. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 2. CLICKER TRAINING METHOD 2.1 History What the dog trainers are calling clicker training is an application of behavior analysis that was initially invented and developed more than thirty years ago, by Keller Breland, Marian Breland Bailey, and Bob Bailey. They are marine mammal trainers who use conditioned reinforcers, usually the sound of a whistle, to train whales, dolphins, seals and polars bears. The concept was first brought to marine mammal parks and to U. S. Navy dolphins trainers in the 1960s by Keller Berland, a graduate student of B.F. Skinner. Skinner was a psychologist who did a studied of the instrumental conditioning (see scheme 5) which is called “Skinner’s cage”. Breland called the whistle a4. Burrhus Frederik Skinner “bridging stimulus”, because, in addition to informing the dolphin that ithad just earned a fish, the whistle bridged the period oftime between the leap in midtank and swimming over tothe side to collect one’s pay. Clicker training is based onthe same principles.Gary Wilkes and Karen Pryor put onall these theories writing the book Dont Shoot the Dog.Whith this book was when this method began to pop tothe majority training animals as chickens, horses, cats,dogs etc. This training method is quite unpopular becauseit is quite new and some people do not know it already. 5. Behavioral theory: operant condtioning. 2.2 The clickerThe clicker is a mechanical device with a metallic tongue which sounds like a loud “click”. There aretwo types of clickers: the traditional one (see picture 6), that is a box and we press directly onto themetallic tongue and the i-clicker (see picture 7), when we press a button which makes the sound. 6. Clicker with metalic tongue 7. I-clicker 8
  9. 9. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012This is a positive training, so it means that we never use punishment and there is only positivereinforcement in a way of a reward after every exercise, the probability that the act will occur againincreases. The orders can be by given by means of a signal or voice. Depending on what we want toachieve we can work with both of it. Food is not a positive reinforcement if the dog is full. In order to bereinforced, the item chosen must be something the subject wants, so it is useful to have a variety ofreinforcers for any training situation. Avoiding something you dislike can be reinforcing, too. Oneextremely useful technique with food or any other reinforcement is the jackpot. The jackpot is a rewardthat is much bigger, maybe ten times bigger than the normal reinforcer, and one that comes as asurprise to the subject. Clicker removes the necessity of giving the reward as quickly as possible. Itallows a little space of time between the behaviors and the reinforcement.that he is doing the exercise well when the exercise is not finished yet. The reinforcer, the click, has tooccur in the very instant the behavior is taking place. We cannot force the dog to do anything; he hasto think about what he has to do so it produces a big psychological tiredness. For that reason, a twentyminutes practice with clicker is like two hours running.   2. Goal approaching. Click to 1. Give order make the dog understand the order 3. Goal achived The first time we click, the dog has not finished the action of “sitz” yet but it i son the way to accomplish the order.Like humans, dogs are right-handed or left-handed, so it will be more easily do the exercises over oneside or the other. We have to look how the dog moves and then we will discover what side is better forit. Like people, dog tends to be right-handed because the owner is but if we teach exercises from allsides the dog will be more balance and flexibileWith all, the clicker does not solve all the problems: some behaviors in animals and people havegenetic components that may be difficult or impossible to modify by training. But with many of life’schallenges, tasks, and annoyances a correct use of reinforcement can help. 2.3 AdvantagesBlew I sum up the advantages I consider there are with the clicker training method.  A conditioning reinforcement is used to reinforce the conduct we want to have and improve it. 9
  10. 10. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012  Being the sound of the click fast and precise the problem of imprecise synchronization is avoided. Clickers allow a fast click response so the behavior is "marked." The clicker sound is distinctive and is used only to mark right behavior, unlike voice responses. Thus, the dog connects the click to the immediately preceding behavior, which makes training much faster.  It works on the majority dogs. For most dogs, learning how to get rewards without concern for punishment is enjoyable. With shy, timid or fearful dogs, clicker training is calm and clear and allows the dog to learn without stress.  A relationship based on positive responses grows more positive. Concentrating on desired instead of undesired behaviors removes fear of punishment and allows the dog to respond with enthusiasm. Dogs are fearful when being trained may evoke anger, guilt or other negative emotions in the owner. Fear of punishment does not increase the bond of the dog to the trainer. Clicker training creates a response that is relaxed and helps have a positive bond.  Demonstrations, research and video documentations prove that clicker training works with chickens, dolphins, cats, dogs and even people. Although many other training methods also work, training in a positive way, without punishment gives clicker training clear advantages over other methods, as we will see later in the dogs trainings. 2.4 DisadvantagesSome of clicker training disadvantages are the followings.  The animal can have hearing problems to listen to the clicker, in this case we can use a scoreboard like lights but it is not as effective as clicker.  The clicker is merely one way to train a dog. Eventually, the dog should obey orders without the clicker. Some dogs become conditioned to the clicker and will not obey verbal commands. Once your dog begins regularly responding to the clicker, gradually stop using it. You do not want to have to carry a clicker around with you at all times.  It can be difficult to hold treats, the clicker and maybe a leash all at the same time. A clicker must be used with good timing, meaning you must click the instant your dog obeys. A delay caused by juggling several objects will undermine the method and will not work so good. 2.5 ExpectativesSeeing what I have been researching, the result expectations for my research will be that: Kiss, thedog trained with clicker is going to learn more quickly the apport and it is going to work better than theother dog, Iron is going to be trained by the conventional training, only with game and orders. 10
  11. 11. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 2.6 Amazing exercises achieved with the clicker As I quoted already clicker is a very good device to train fantastic exercises with the dog. Viewing Duna, Gernán’s dog and Mary’s Ray show I can realised what kind of activities we can raise with a lot of constant and training with the clicker. I also observed that in some exercises the clicker had disappeared and they did not give the reward until the end of the activity because they have pasted some exercises one after the other. I am going to explain some of these exercises below: 2.6.1 Basketball In this exercise the dog has to catch a ball which is thrown by someone, catch it, go to the basketball and dunk it. This activity is called “basket”. (see picture 7) 7. Duna dunking a ball 2.6.2 Tidying up the shoes In this exercise the dog has to catch the shoes tidy up in their case and finally close the case. This activity is called “dentro” and later “tanca”.(see picture 8) 2.6.3 Bowling 8. Duna tinding up the shoes In this exercise the dog has to catch a ball and throw it over the bowls to tomb them, later it has to tidy up the ball to the place where the dog has taken. This activity is called “tira”.(see picture 9) 2.6.4 Picking up a tissue and closing the bin9. Duna bowling In this exercise when the owner says the order “achoo” the dog has to bring the owner a tissue (see picture 10) and then when the tissue is in the bin the dog has to close it. The later exercise is called “toca”.(see picture 11) 2.6.5 Dancing10. Duna taking a tissue This activity consists of playing on music during some exercises. The music and the exercises are coordinated between them. They are simple exercises but the owner and the dog have to be much coordinated. The orders of these activities are done by the owner’s signals. The most famous person involved in this activity is Mary Ray. 11. Duna closing the bin 11
  12. 12. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 2.6.6 Jumping with a rope This is the exercise that I have done with my dog Kiss, like the name indicates it consists of Kiss jumping with me with a rope. I have called this activity “hop”. I have trained in two seasons of ten12. Kiss and I jumping with a rope minutes each and I have had much fun doing it. To do this exercise the first thing I thought was how I could do it and what is the easiest way to teach this exercise to a dog. Then I thought like a dog and I concluded that: I have to divide the exercise in different parts: in the first one I work the jump, so to make Kiss jump I show her a ball in a high position and then automatically Kiss jumps to catch it and then I click.(see picture 13) 13. Kiss jumping with a ball raised In the second part I thought that I had to make the ball disappear, so I make Kiss jump only raising the hand, when she does it I click. (see picture 14) And finally I introduce the rope and when I raise the hand to make the rope roll I say the order hop and when Kiss jumps I click.(see 14. Kiss jumping with the hand picture 12) raised By doing this exercise I have learned to be synchronized with my dog Kiss because we have to jump at the same time. 12
  13. 13. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 3. CONVENTIONAL TRAINING METHOD 3.1 HistoryWorking dogs have always learned to obey commands related to the work that they historicallyperformed. In the twentieth century, formalized dog training originated in military and policeapplications, and the methods used largely reflected the military approach to training humans. 3.2 Definition of the conventional trainingThe conventional training is a method to train dogs based inthe four paradigms (see picture 15): positive punishment(punish), negative reinforcement (leave punish), positivereinforcement (reward) and negative punishment (leaverewarding). 15. The four paradigms With this method we use the choke collar (see picture 16), which is too complete and rather difficult to execute because the trainer has to do four actions, the four paradigms very fast and at the exact moment. The conventional training can be used for obedience and it is so effective in solving 16. Choke collar problems like aggressive dogs, fears, anxiety, dominance, hierarchy,sociability.The orders given are in German so as not to make the dog get confused with daily order because withthis training every time we say an order the dog has to do it because if not then we go backapproximately fifteen steps to what we had worked before. 3.3 Advantages  Dog training collars are a way of teaching pet dogs by correction. Just like a mother dogs fast and timed corrections, the dog training collar works with the same results. Training your pet dog with a collar needs proper preparation and research on training mechanics.  We established a hierarchy which the dog learned that we are the leader of the pack so it will do the order that we desired in any circumstance.  The dog will do the exercise desired in anywhere because the place does not conditioned it. 13
  14. 14. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 3.4 Disadvantages  Invented with good intentions though, training collars end up being misused by people. Misuse of dog training collars can do harm to dogs. 3.5 ExpectativesWith this method I expect to work more slowly than with the clicker because the process is longer butthis method will surely work in any circumstances and in any place because we order the dog to do theexercise. That is to say, every time we order the exercise the dog will do it. 3.6 Basic exercises 3.6.1 Walking with the strap slack In this exercise the dog has to walk next to the owner without drawing. The dog cannot exceed the left leg. The order we are going to use is “Fuss” (foot). Every time we say the order and the dog is not doing it we have to draw and put the dog next to us. We can achieve that the dog does a good “Fuss” without any strap. 17. Walk with the strap slack 3.6.2 Sit This order is called “sitz”(sit), to do this exercise we will say the name of the order and after that we will put the strap and the collar with ninety grades. If the dog does not sit, we can fit a little the dog. With this method we can achieve that while running with the dog, it will sit down when we say “sitz”. 18. “sitz” 3.6.3 Down To do this order we have to say “Platz” (place) and step on the strap at the height of the neck. With this order, while running with the dog we say “Platz” and the dog lies down. 3.6.4 Calling 19. “Plaz” To practice this exercise the most recommended is to have the dog in “sitz” or in “Platz” positions and then with a large strap we call it and trend the strap over us. With constant work we can achieve to call the dog in any situation. 20. Calling 14
  15. 15. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/20123.6.5 Boreaus With this exercise we instruct the dog to run in the opposite direction to us and then we give it the order of “Platz”.3.6.6 Aus 21. Boreaus With this exercise the dog has a motivator in the mouth and it has to lay the motivator when we say the order “aus”.3.6.7 Apport Consists of having the dog in “sitz” position on the left part of the trainer’s body. The dog does not move until we do not say the order “apport”, a sort of wooden headpiece, and throw it for the dog to go after. Once I have said the order, the dog brings the apport in my hands. Over the years it has been quite difficult to do this exercise with the conventional method because the experts tried to punish the dog and it got frustrated and did not want to do the exercise, but nowadays we know that this exercise has to be done with game to motivate the dog so it would like to do the apport. 15
  16. 16. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 4. PRACTICAL TRAINING WITH MY DOGS 4.1 Clicker training with Kiss 4.1.1 The steps to do the apport 1. Load the clicker 2. The dog has to look at 3. The dog has to run over the apport it 4. The dog has to touch 5. The dog has to catch it 6. The dog has to bring it the apport 7. The dog has to put it in the hands 4.1.2 First SessionIn order to work with clicker the first thing I have to do is to load the clicker. This process involvesthrowing a handful of pieces of food (the reward) that in my case will be a hot dog. Every time the dogopens the mouth to eat one I have to click. It is important that I click with every piece and just beforethe dog eats it. With this process the dog learns that after every click I do she will have a reward, apiece of hotdog. This exercise is also done to know that the dog likes the type the reward you aregiving to it. If the dog does not like, I will have to change the reward because the dog has to be verymotivated. As I have already said previously, there are two kinds of reward: food and game. I havechosen food because with food the dog is more concentrated than with game, with the game they getmore excited and active so they could not concentrate so much. 16
  17. 17. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012Kiss responds to this exercise very well. She is very fast to eat each piece and I have to click very fasttoo. I have done it two times with fifteen pieces every time. Kiss loves food and specially hot dogs, so Ido not have to change the reward. I am very happy with her and I am very motivated with theresearch.Once I have loaded the clicker, we can start doing the exercise we want to do, the apport. To start thisexercise, the first thing I have to achieve is that Kiss looks at the apport. It is a small step but theclicker consists of going step by step approaching more over the final objective. Kiss goes directly overthe apport to touch it. Every time Kiss looks at the apport or touches it I click because what I want toachieve is that Kiss gets to understand that she has to work with it and not with another object. I havedone this step four times since Kiss understands it.The next step is to get Kiss catch the apport with the mouth. What I have to do is to wait that shecatches it because she wants it. I cannot say any word and I cannot do anything following the clickerguidelines. The dog has to think. Kiss has spent ten seconds touching the apport but finally she hascaught it. However, the next time Kiss has cracked the apport in spite of catching it. Like before, I haveto wait that Kiss catches the apport right. I have been repeating this step thirteen times because shehas cracked the apport. The first problem I find with the clicker method is that Kiss cracks the apport alot. To avoid this, I have not clicked when she had done it and if she has been cracking a lot of time Ihave removed the apport and I have thrown it another time. I think Kiss cracks it because she likesplaying with the apport a lot and with the clicker training what we want is to work with the apport like anormal object just to bring it to me and not for playing.This problem has appeared because the clicker is a positive training method and in this case Kisslikes more cracking the apport than the hot dog, so obviously she does what she loves and the clickerdecreases its efficiency.After Kiss knows that she has to catch the apport she has to learn that she has to bring it to me. To dothis step, I have thrown the apport further. I am happy with Kiss because she has done it quite well.That is to say, Kiss has taken it but at half way returning to me she has lied it down. It is very importantto click when the dog is coming and not when she drops the apport. The sixth time I did this step Kissput the apport in my hands. It is difficult for the dog to put the apport in the hand and with the clicker atthe first season the dog has put it two times, so I am progressing a lot. I think that with another seasonor two more seasons the exercise will be finished.I have done all this work in six minutes and with six minutes Kiss was so tired that she had the tongueout. Yet, she was psychologically tired not physically. 4.1.3 Second SessionIn this season I have the purpose of finishing the step of Kiss giving me the apport in my hand. In thefirst season Kiss had given me it two times, I think that in this season we will progress more. The first 17
  18. 18. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012time I throw the apport I click just when Kiss does a half turn with the apport in the mouth. But when Ihave clicked, she has laid the apport in the floor. The second time I wait for Kiss to get close to me butshe has come only a meter and she has laid down and started to crack the apport, so I have goneover there and I have taken the apport off to avoid Kiss played with it. Finally, on the same day Kisshas done the exercise well giving me the apport in the hands two times. However, other times later onshe has laid down to crack another time. The problem I am seeing is that kiss loves more playing withthe apport than the reward, the piece of food. After three times doing the same I realize that when Iclick every time Kiss drops the apport where she stays in.I spend another time doing six minutes training but Kiss is too tired and she has not the intensity like atthe start. She is not motivated enough to continue. 4.1.4 Third SessionThis season takes place in a different place than the others. It is important to change the locationbecause now Kiss does not pay the same attention to the training compared with the other times. Shehas distracted so much and I do not like how she is working.22. First place we trained in. 33. Second place we trained in. 24. Third place we trained in. My yardWasteland EEls tres pinsThe first time I throw the apport she goes over it but one time she does not take the apport and shestarts to smell and does not do the exercise correctly. When she seems to bring it to me, she drops itto the floor next to me instead of giving it to me in the hands. The second time I throw the apport, shepicks it and starts to run with the apport in the mouth, playing with it and then starts to crack it and runanother time. She does it three times more. The last time Kiss brings me the apport, she drops it onthe floor, so in this season Kiss does not give me the apport in the hands any time.I am desperate because it seems that we are going back. I ask for advice to Enric Bruch, a teacher inthe “Reial Societat Canina de Catalunya” and in his fields training “Els tres pins” located in Balsareny.Enric says to me that to solve this problem with the clicker I have to click correctly every time Kissdrops the apport in the floor once she brings it, as she will associate that she has to approximate moreto me. After practicing the exercise several times now I want to do another one: this time I do not haveto click and show my hands until Kiss catches the apport from the floor to put it in my hand. 18
  19. 19. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 4.1.5 Fourth SessionAs the last season took place in a different place I thought that Kiss is conditioned with the habitualplace where we train, so I have decided to change the place every time I train. This season takesplace in my yard.My expectative with this season is to solve the problem of Kiss not giving me the apport in the hands. Ihave clicked when Kiss had the apport in the mouth and I have caught it until the apport has touchedthe floor. The first time I have achieved it and I have been practicing lots of time to ensure that Kisshas learned it. This season is the first time in which Kiss does not know what to do when I give theorder. Two times Kiss stays still without doing anything only thinking. Ever it is good that dogs do it.When Kiss knows well how to give the apport in the hands I introduce the exercise in the sit positionand end it too. At the beginning I have problems to hold Kiss still but in the end I have no problems.This season is the longest one until now, as we have worked over thirteen minutes but when I finishedthe dog was with a lot of energy. It was incredible! 4.1.6 Fifth SessionThis last season takes place in my garden. At first Kiss is reviewing it but at last she decides to beconcentrated and work.In this season I do not work on anything in particular. I do only the complete exercise five times tomake sure that Kiss has understood it well. At first she makes some mistakes, like she doesn’t give meit in the hands or cracks the apport a little, but as soon as we have fixed these problems fast, she hasdone all the exercise good.I have finished the apport with the clicker training and Kiss has responded to all quite well and wehave had a good time doing 19
  20. 20. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 4.2 Conventional training with Iron 4.2.1 The steps to do the apport 1.Aus2. Playing with the motivator 3.Bring it with the strap 4. Sit with the motivator 5. Aus with the motivator6.Playing with the apport 7. Bring it with the strap 8. Sit with the apport 9. Aus with the apport 4.2.2 First Session To train the apport with the conventional method first I have to practice another exercise that I need during the apport. This exercise is called “aus” and it means “leave/drop” in German. This exercise is very simply. I have to play with my dog with a motivator and when the dog is so excited I have to say the order “aus” and incentive with the choke collar until he drops it. It is important to leave the dog look forward to the game every time we do this exercise. That is to say, the dog starts with a motivation and during the exercise this motivation goes up so we have to stop doing the exercise before the motivation goes down another time. 20
  21. 21. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012MOTIVATION: The motivating has increased since the first time we started. Start playing another time finish – “aus” Finish – “aus” Start playingIron learns it very well and fast. We practice ten times and he knows how to do it very well. I don’thave any problem. The first time I do it, Iron takes thirteen seconds to drop the motivator but after thefirst time at the next ones Iron is much faster and very good.The exercise of the apport with the conventional training is done with game. The dog does thisexercise playing and without forcing, the only moment in which we slightly force the dog is when wesay the order “aus”. I have to play with Iron with a motivator. That is to say, I have to run after the dog,fight with him… Iron loves playing and we have played a lot until he comes to me to fight with him, atfirst he plays with himself. In this first step I introduced the order “aus” too so that the dog learns thatevery time I get the motivator I am going to throw it again immediately and continuing playing. As Ironhas been practicing “aus“ before, he does it very well and this is why I introduce the order “sitz” next.To practice that, when Iron brings me the apport he has to sit down with the apport in the mouth.Sometimes this step can be rather difficult if the trainer does not move the motivator. By saying theorder “sitz”, the dog will leave the motivator before it sits and this will be incorrect. So when Iron sitswith the motivator in the mouth, I say the order “aus” to make him leave it in my hands. He does it verywell.When I consider that Iron knows well all we have been practicing today: “fight”, “sit” and “aus”, I do allthe three exercises: first I throw the apport and Iron goes over it and brings it to me. Then I fight a littleto increase his motivation, I say “sitz” and finally I say “aus” and the dog gives the apport to me. I havedone two times the three steps and they have worked out well today.With Iron I have trained seven minutes and he is tired too, but the difference is that he is physicallytired not psychologically like Kiss was. 4.2.3 Second SessionI have started playing with the dog for two minutes to increase his motivation, and then I introduce the“sitz” and the “aus” like I did in the first season. As he has done it well, I have introduced the sits at thebeginning of the exercise so Iron has had to stay in sits until I have thrown the motivator. Then he hasgone over it, he has come to me, I have fought a little and have said “sitz”. Finally the order “aus” and Ihave started another time the exercise. I have done this lots of times.This practice is much more slowly than with the clicker, as I have to repeat lots of time the same 21
  22. 22. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012exercise. Iron is doing it well but we are more advanced with Kiss and the clicker. 4.2.4 Third SessionI start this season in the sit position, with Iron more relaxed to achieve that he can do the exercisecorrectly in the beginning. I suppose that as I have not motivated him, Iron has not come to bring methe motivator. Therefore, when he has come instead of finishing the exercise I have played with him tomotivate him more. When I thought he was motivated enough I said the order “sitz” and after “aus”.He takes his time to bring the motivator but he finally does.I start another time the exercise with the dog in the position of “sitz” and I throw the motivator. Thistime he brings me the apport but he stays in a distance of a meter so that I cannot touch it. As it is notthe first time he does, it is becoming a problem. The solution is to tie the motivator and pull it over themeter he does not want to come to or to increase his desire of coming to us to play, which is what I willdo in this season.As I have been practicing a lot with the motivator, I have solved the problem and Iron does all theexercise quite good. I think it is time to change now the motivator for the apport. So I do the samework with the apport and the results are that Iron starts playing with it alone and does not give me anyattention, so I fight a little with him with the apport in my hands and I finish the season ratherfrustrated. 4.2.5 Fourth SessionAs I have seen that Kiss does not work in another place that it is not the first place we have practiced,I change the place with Iron too, to see if with him it will occur as well or not.In this season to work with the apport is so good. The only problem I have had is that with the apportIron has not come the latest meter so I had to tie it. This solution has worked out very well, I havedone it four times and Iron has done the exercise perfect. I am very proud of him.The last time we have practiced today was with the apport untied and Iron has done it well. We cansee that Iron has worked as well as is the other place we started practicing, so Iron has not beenconditioned by any place. 4.2.6 Fifth SessionThis last season took place in my garden. At first I motivated Iron, and then I prove the exercise withthe apport lied to make sure that he done it well and next we did all the exercise: he did it very well. Ihave practice the apport seven times and all of them Iron did it good. I have finished the apport withthe conventional method and it has worked very well and I have learned a lot and Iron too. 22
  23. 23. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 5. TRAINING RESULTS BASED ON MY PRACTICEIn order to reach some conclusions for my research I have divided my dogs training sessions intothree practical parts, which I summarize below.In the first part I have planned an exercise to practice a little with the clicker and have fun with my dog.The exercise worked out very well and I have learned how to think like a dog to teach an exercise inthe easiest way. Now I can say that a dog can learn difficult exercises whenever we can divide them ineasy parts that include simple exercises.In the second practical part I have proved the clicker training by doing an exercise with the apport, anexercise that we can do with any other method, too. Here we can see that the clicker is a good methodto train but there are some exceptions with some commands (in my case at the end of the exercisewith the apport the dog does not sit down and with others methods we can accomplish it)After practicing with the clicker I can conclude that this method depends a lot on the educator. Thishas to be a professional to do a perfect exercise because, as I have said before, it is very important toclick at the exact moment to do the dog understand the exercise well. It is indispensible to be calm,concentrated, motivated to work and to learn and obviously willing to have a great time with the dogs.In the third practical part I have worked with my dog Iron using the conventional training to compare itwith the clicker. I have done the same exercise with the apport and the dog has done the exercisewell.Seeing all the work done with my dogs I can conclude that:  At the beginning of my research project my expectations were that the clicker training would work better and faster than the conventional method. However, the obtaining results are that with the clicker method the dog learns quickly but we have some problems, for example Kiss was distracted in many places or it cracked the apport, because it is quite difficult to click at the exact moment we have to, whereas with the conventional training we have to repeat more the steps but we do not have so many problems. It took more or less the same period of time to do the exercise with the two methods and both of them are equally effective.  The clicker method works well, but as it is based in the operant conditioning when we practice we have to be cautious because Kiss has been conditioned by a place to work and she did not work at the beginning in any other place, only at the conditioning one. Thus we have to change the location sometimes to ensure that the dog is not being conditioned. With the conventional training we do not have this problem, because the dog will obey us in any place because that is not a conditioning method. 23
  24. 24. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012  With the clicker method the dog uses the brain a lot, and we can see that long practicing creates psychological tiredness. That is to say, after seven or eight minutes of working the dog is tired and we have to stop. What is much better is to practice this method a little each day. However, in the conventional training we do not have this problem because the dog does what we say without thinking, as we simply oblige it to do the command we have said.  In the conventional training we are doing mostly obedience so the dog always does what we say to do and therefore it will work every time. The clicker method is not the same. In it the dog does the exercise because it wants the reward, but if the distraction is higher than the desire of the reward, the dog will not do the exercise, so we cannot say that the dog will do always what we want to do.  As I said before, with the clicker method I have not achieved to do the “sitz” position in the end of the exercise. Every time Kiss brings me the apport she leaves it down before I can say the command “sitz”. Despite not having completely finished the exercise with the clicker, as I wanted, I am proud of the work done in general. However, with the conventional training, Iron sat since the first session because I introduced it when I was playing with the motivator.Comparing the two training techniques and viewing the results I have to say that these two forms ofworking are totally opposite, as they have different steps and approaches. However, I must concludethat the two methods I have put into practice have worked out well. I cannot say that there is a methodbetter than the other because it is not true. My conclusion is that the essential is to study the type ofdog, its character and what we want to achieve. We have to think a little and choose the best methodaccording to each type of dog and even combine some methods, if convenient.The results with a method or another may depend on the dog you are training in part, but to prove themethod of the clicker I have not chosen any dog in special. However, now that I have finished thepractice part with my dogs I can say that if I were at the beginning of my project I would put intopractice the clicker with Iron and the conventional method with Kiss instead. In this way I would havesolved, for example, the problem I first had with Kiss, that of instead of bringing me the apport the dogstarted to play with it. It would have been an advantage because the apport with the conditionalmethod is done with game and Iron is not so active so he could be more attentive to work with theclicker. With all, both methods have worked out well and this proves their validity.I have not seen that I have established a better relationship with my dogs with one or the othertraining, either. It might seem that the exercises done with the clicker are friendlier, but in my case Ihad the same close relationship with them two while training. I think that it depends on the love wegive to our dogs and how we take care of them which makes a good relationship owner-dog. 24
  25. 25. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012At the beginning I wanted to try the clicker method with an aggressive dog, but I decided to do thetraining with my two dogs. I must say that the clicker is not a valid method to work with all breeds ofdogs and especially with genetically aggressive dogs, since their behavior cannot be changed with theclicker because their motivation to have to fight to other dogs is stronger than the motivation of thereward of the instrumental conditioning, that is to say, the clicker. There is some research on theclicker done with dogs that are aggressive because they have fear. In this case, the conduct of themcan be fixed with the clicker, because these dogs do not want to fight for pleasure if not of fear and towork with the clicker can extinct this behavior. 25
  26. 26. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 6. CONCLUSIONSWe all know that there is always a strong bond between the owner and the dog. Dogs can form newbonds with humans at any stage of their life. For instance, a dog, which has moved to a training centreto be trained for a specific purpose, once trained it will begin working with its owner. Such a dog hasspent time with different humans, all of whom have established a bond with the animal, but the closestbond will be formed with the last human in the chain, its owner.Therefore, a dog-owner must have a good understanding of the canine mind and a responsiblebehavior, especially in training. I think this is the basic foundation for a strong bond. An abusive ownermay have a dog which is often quite obedient, but through fear and this is not what we would call abond, it is merely a respect of position which all dogs possess.Having said that, one of my goals during all the training sessions with my dogs, Kiss and Iron, hasbeen to make my dogs be obedient through fun and positive rewards either with the clicker trainingtechnique or with the traditional one. I have tried real behaviors with my two dogs and seen how theclicker and the traditional training techniques work.All the expectations with the clicker training were promising but I wanted to put them into practice andthis is what I did with Kiss. I can state now at the end of my sessions that the clicker is a very powerfulreinforcer of behaviors and as I prefer to work on a positive rather than a negative system I think theclicker is a good system to move on to obedience. The concept is simple, you only click if the dogdoes what you wanted it to do. If the desired behavior is not achieved, no click, no treat. If the dogdoes the desired behavior, click and treat. It is just that simple.I was very glad to be working on the clicker training technique because despite all the repetitivetraining tasks my dog thought we were playing, when in fact it was working. I have discovered thatthere are many commands I can use with the clicker. It can be used for many everyday activities, infact. There have also been some failed commands during the sessions, of course, but with failedcommands I had to rethink what I was asking the dog and if the command was too complex or the dogjust did not seem to be interested in that particular thing I was working on. Then I tried and changed it.There are times when obviously the command is not going to work at a particular moment. Ithappened to me with Kiss, but changing to something else does not mean that I have failed, it justmeans for that moment it was not working. I have learned to move on to refine what I wanted to doand get closer to the final desired result. With the clicker you shape the behavior until you get the finalresult that you wanted. 26
  27. 27. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012I have to admit that the clicker training has attracted me since the beginning because it deals with therelationship dog-owner from a totally different point of view. The clicker training is based on theachievements and not the mistakes. It is based on the solution, not the problem. The clicker method iscentered on training the desired behavior and reinforcing it, instead of punishment. To most dogtrainers, the clicker training is not a training method, it is quite a philosophy: to reinforce what is goodand not to pay attention to what is badly done, to divide the tasks into little steps and reinforce eachsmall achievement.I wanted to train my dog for obedience, but the result is that I have been having good time doing it andthat I am happy with my dog behavior. My dog Kiss was motivated all the time with the clicker, awaitingto guess what I would make her do when I pressed the clicker device. She was in the mood of playingwith me and the clicker.I have also trained the traditional training technique with my other dog, Iron. In fact, today, there aremany trainers who still use traditional methods. They are still based on the same methods firstdeveloped more than 60 years ago, and have not been adapted to current knowledge of behaviorproblems in dogs.With all, I have seen that the trainer has also success with this type of training, but probably becausethe punishment methods suppress behavior. In fact, I have achieved everything I wanted to do withIron with the traditional method, too. However, this method may have some risk: if a trainer continuallyuses corrections or repeatedly increases the level of correction in order to get the command (such asswitching to aversive choke collars), causes injury to the dog, or causes the dog to scream in pain orfear, the dog is not learning and is not being trained.Summing it up, many of the professional trainers who originally learned through the use of traditionalmethods have switched to the use of positive reinforcement methods such as the clicker. If the samelevel of accomplishment can be achieved using positive methods, why not try positive methods first? Iwould recommend to train your dogs with the clicker training as I have learned a lot about the dogsand I have had a great time with them. Besides, this training method is especially effective to doabilities with dogs.At last, I want to say that the dog world is a big and complex one and that there are lots of opinionsand theories regarding training methods for obedience. I think that the best is to be willing to learn andhave good fun with the dog and choose, depending on the type of dog you want to train, the mostappropriate method, in which both the trainer and the dog feel confident and happy and form a strongbond. 27
  28. 28. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 7. INTERVIEWS 7.1 Interview to Enric BruchEnric Bruch (see picture 30) was initiated in the world of the dog in 1982.He is the author of the book “Manual del gos de rescat per rastre amb elmètode Ercbuli” This book is based on the positive training. He is themanager and the trainer of the group of research and salvation of the RedCross. He is the teacher in the “Reial Societat Canina de Catalunya” and athis fields training “Els tres pins” located in Balsareny. 30.Enric Bruch i RabatWhat does it mean that the clicker is a positive training?A positive training is the training without any punishment, that is to say, we cannot say the word “no” inthe clicker training and we cannot scold the dog. We have to reward every good behavior. The clickeris a stimulus to tap, which means that the dog has to do what we want and after every click we have togive the reward, the award can be game or food.Is the clicker the best method to educate a dog?It depends on the activity we want to do. To train a dog is one of the best methods but it is not unique.The clicker training is the best method to educate all therapies dogs and to do abilities. However, totrain a dog for the everyday life, that is to say, that the dog have a good behavior at home and at everyday walking depends on the external stimuli that the dog received. If the dog likes more the externalstimuli, then the clicker stops working when the external motivation is above the reward motivation.What types of relationship we have with the dog when we are training with the clicker?We established a very narrow relationship and from the point of view of affective relationship is betterthan a relation that we can established with another conventional training. This relationship is overbecause the dog is more relaxed because it never thinks that we are going to scold so it is very quiet.How we can know the difficulty of the exercises?It is difficult to do a rating. At first when we want to do an exercise we will see the work we are going tohave. Depending on the exercise we want to do it will have previous exercises; a base we can workwith. There are obviously some exercises which initially you can see they will be difficult to face with.Sometimes there are dogs that for example to catch an object will be easy for them because they arelikely to catch objects but there are other dogs that will have more difficulties because they wouldtouch the object but they would not catch it at all. Therefore, saying that one exercise may be difficultfor all the dogs is false because it is going to depend on the kind of dog. For example, to stay on twolegs with a small and agile dog will be easier that doing it with a big and heavy dog. 28
  29. 29. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012What is the difference between the classic conditioning and the operant conditioning, the clicker?Classic conditioning is an answer that the dog cannot control. For example, Pavlov was a Russianpsychologist who was awarded the Nobel prize in Physilology or Medicine in 1904. He was the first todescribe the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning experiments with dogs whichinvestigated that a dog cannot control salivation, when he is shown food the dog gives a salivationanswer. In the operant conditioning the dog can control the answer because it can decide to do or notthe exercise. In both types of conditioning, after the desired response of the dog we have to give areward to the dog. Classic conditioning can solve frightened problems and all kind of things.When has the clicker started?Clicker started with the dolphin training, form here it has been evolved with different animals andpeople. Zoos, for example are using clicker for getting blood from lions and other animals. The lionputs its head near the bars in its cage and after every injection shot the zoo vets click and give the liona reward. It is a gadget that works quite well.How do we have to do to realize an apport with the conventional training?Apport is an exercise which involves game and a little bit part of obligation, so if the dog does not likeplaying it is not advising to use it because it is not going to work.One starts playing with the dog with a motivator. You run after him, he escapes, he is in movementbecause you play with him… At the moment the dog starts coming with you to fight with it start to work,you throw it and the dog comes to fight. The problem is that the last meter the dog never comes at all,then you have to tie the dog and with the rope you come in tight to the dog, then you fight and you letthe dog run another time and the dog understands the game of fight and run. Then you introduce theorder “sitz” and after the “aus” (exercise done before starting the apport). The last step is when thedog stays in “sitz” position next to the owner, then he brings the apport when the owner says andbrings it in the hand. One time the dog learns it with the motivator we have to change it to the woodenapport.What is the pure clicker?The best stage to work with the pure clicker is when dogs are puppies because the pure clicker consistof clicking to every behavior the dog does on his own and once we have all the behaviorism rewardedwe stop clicking in the bad behaviors, the ones we do not want to be done by the dog. 29
  30. 30. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 7.2 Interview to Germán PérezGermán Pérez (see picture 31) is an educator entitled by “Reial SocietatCanina de Catalunya”. He loves dogs and learning about them. He has twodogs, Sean and Duna, with opposites characters, so he knows differentmethods of training because he is practicing with them. With Duna, a Boxerfemale of 6 years old, he does lots of activities with the clicker. 31. Germán Pérez PazWhat is for you the clicker training?The clicker training for me is an alternative to the classical training in which you can teach someabilities to the dog and some curiosities to entertain yourself and entertain the dog and at the sametime improve and confirm some behaviors.What it is basic in a positive training is to be calm and not to get nervous. If the dog fails an exercisewe can leave it for another day.What are your objectives working with a positive training?My objectives are to confirm behaviors that are of my interest and that the dog has very clear and todo it by means of the positive reward. I think it is much effective to do certain abilities that at the sametime they are sometimes used to have a little bit more of control over your dog without punishment,only rewarding.Where and when did you know first about the clicker training?I first knew about it at the training field of Balsareny Els tres pins through Enric Bruch who over 2007he started to talk about it and started practicing too.How much time do you dedicate to work with your dog Duna?Well, I always have to combine it with my everyday life. So it goes by stages, there are some stages inwhich I work a lot and there are some in which I work less or nothing but we could say that twice aweek and in short periods of time.Could you explain how you organize the exercises to be easier to learn?First of all, I think about the exercise, an exercise of a level appropriate for the dog, which could beeasy to understand. I always think about the exercises from lowest to highest difficulty and after that Itry to tie the exercises between them considering that they are similar. For example I start with all theexercises with balls and I take them out slowly.To do a good organization of an exercise it is essential to think like a dog, to see what is difficult oreasy. 30
  31. 31. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012Do you think that the clicker is the best method to train a dog?I do not think that it is a unique method, as the clicker is a signal that links the action of doing the rightexercise by the dog with the arrival of the reward. That is what motivates the dog, but if one day thereward is of a lower interest than going to play with another dog or anything else, of course this iswhen this method ceases to be effective on the dog. So I think that it is good to have a good basicobedience done by obligation and after that we always can add the training clicker.As you use the conventional training with your dog Sean, do you notice some difference in therelationship owner-dog when you are working with them or at home?Beyond everyday’s life working I do not feel any difference, the two dogs are awaiting for me, I seethem happy, I feel that they love me, they want to be with me and they want to play, etc. I do not thinkthat any dog has any trauma at all or they are unmotivated for anything.At the time of doing exercise I do not feel anything either because Duna works with food and Seanwith game so they like their reward. I have encouraged the qualities of each dog with their interest.Concerning aggressive dogs, do you think that it is effective to deal with them with any trainingmethod?First of all, we always have to see and study why the dogs have aggressive behavior towards otherdogs. First, we have to know the reason and from here we have to establish a work plan to improvethis conduct or behavior. If at the beginning there is not a factor that is conditioning this behavior Ithink that any training can be valid studying the reaction that may have the dog, If we notice animprovement it means that we are on track and of course we can continue working in this way but ifwe do not improve we can try to work with another training. What I think is that what is important is theresult and this will always depend on the type of the dog and the type of the reason the dog has forthat behavior, but if we have a good result the training we have done is effective.What level do you want to achieve with each training?I have never thought about that before. What I want is to progress every day a little bit more and try,above all, to learn a lot about my dog and me, so I do not have any goal.What I think is interesting to do is that each owner thinks about which method or methods with his dogis the best, as I am not a supporter to one single method, What is important is not to hurt the dogphysical or psychologically and to study always what type of dog you are training and what method. 31
  32. 32. CLICKER, the new dog training 2011/2012 8. BIBLIOGRAPHYBooksValeria Rossi, 2006. El Pastor Aleman. Editorial De Vecchi, S. A. U. BarcelonaKaren Pryor, 2002. Don’t shoot the dog The mew art of teaching and training. Ringpress books.GloucestershireMary Ray and Justine Harding, 2006. Haz de tu perro una estrella con el clicker. Kns ediciones S.C.Santiago de CompostelaJosep M.Aràn and Manuel Güell, 2009. Psicologia. Editorial Teide SA. BarcelonaOn-line documentsMary Ray. Clicker training. [on line]. Abaible at: <http://www.clickertraining.com/> [Accessed: 15 July2011]Ourblogtemplates, 2008. The clicker training dog. [blog]. Abaible at: <http://www.clickercompany.blogspot.com/> [Accessed: 27 July 2011]Demand Media, inc., 1999 Dog clicker training. [on line]. Abaible at: <http://www.ehow.com/dog-clicker-training/> [Accessed: 18 September 2011]B.F Skinner Foundation, 2005. A Brief Biography of B.F. Skinner. [on line]. Abaible at: <http://www.bfskinner.org/BFSkinner/AboutSkinner.html> [Accessed: 29 October 2011]Wikipedia, 2011. Clicker. [on line]. Abaible at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clicker> [Accessed: 4Novemeber 2011]Anglia Ruskin University, 2011. Harvard system of referencing guide. [on line]. Abaible at: <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm> [Accessed: 2 January 2012]Hound dog drule, 2012. Obedience training. [on line ]. Abaible at: <http://hounddogsdrule.com/k9-classroom/obedience-training/> [Accessed: 6 January 2012] 9. VIDEOSAmazing exercises achieved with the clicker, 2012. [video] Directed by Ainhoa Nocete. BarcelonaKiss trained with the clicker training, 2012. [video] Directed by Ainhoa Nocete. BarcelonaIron trained with the conventional training, 2012. [video] Directed by Ainhoa Nocete. Barcelona 32

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