SURVEY, CORRELATION & CAUSAL
DR. JOHAN @ EDDY LUARAN
Akmal Binti Ahamed Kamal 2013518657
Fatin Athirah Binti Ismail 2013374739
Maryam Solehah Binti Zakaria 2013932773
Nor Nadia Bt Abdul Razak 2013168885
Nur Nabihah Binti Mohd Nizar 2013151033
Nurul Aina Binti Che Arifin 2013110407
Describe characteristic of
Distribute themselves on
one or more variables
Why are survey conducted?
from a sample at
just one point in time
at different point in
1) Trend study
2) Cohort study
3) Panel study
1. Trend Study
~ A populations whose members may
changer over the time
2. Cohort Study
~ A particular populations whose
members do not change
3. Panel Study
~ use the same sample at different times
Is means a survey should be sufficiently interesting & important
to motivate individuals to respond.
Researcher need to define clearly their objective in conducting
Each question should relate to one or more of the survey
One strategy for defining survey questions is use a hierarchical
What is hierarchical approach?
Steps in survey research
The focus of study in a survey is called the unit of
What is unit of analysis?
As in other types of research, the group of person
that is the focus of the study called the target
There are four basic ways to collect data in a survey
By direct administration to a group
By personal interview
Investigate the possibility of relationships
between only two variables.
Descriptive research- describe an existing
relationship between variables.
Carried out for one or two basic purposes
either to help explain important human
behaviour or to predict likely outcomes.
To carried out to help explain
important human behaviours
or to predict likely outcomes.
Purposes of correlational research
It is to clarify out understanding of
important phenomena by identifying
relationship among variables.
Always investigate a number of
variables they believe are related to a
more complex variables such as
motivation or learning.
Types of correlational research
Selecting a problem
Choosing a sample
Teacher about to study the causes
of the amount of descriptive
behaviours display in class.
Student having difficulty in
mathematic subject. Teacher about
to study the causes of student does
not perform in the subject.
Investigator attempt to determine the cause
or consequences of differences that already
exist between or among group of individuals.
Sometimes viewed, along with correlational
research, as a form of associational research,
since both describe conditions that already
That two groups of individuals
differ on some variable ( such as
teaching style) and then interrupt
to determine the reason for, or the
result of this difference.
The group difference variable in a causal comparative
Either a variable that cannot be manipulated (such
as ethnicity) or one that might have been
manipulated but for one reasons or another has not
been (such as teaching style)
Example: in the effects of a new diet on very young
It is about one of the type of research method that using
comparison between cause and effect. Comparisons can
establish whether something can be explained by the same
causes or not. The difference can be a conclusion but not for
the cause of difference. Interpretation of this kind of method is
limited because these studies are of value in identified possible
causes of observed variation in the behaviour pattern of
This kind of research can be used in prediction about problem
such as, the different achievements of student in the class. If it
about teaching methods, it can be research either it is related
with art multimedia method or the self-learning methods.
Type Of Research
Research objectives are:
To identify the meaning of survey, correlation and
causal comparative research.
To examine the types of survey, correlation and
causal comparative research.
To identify the purposes of this three research
Example Of Research Objectives
Research questions are:
What are the meaning of survey, correlation and
causal comparative research?
What are the types of survey, correlation and causal
What are the purposes of this three research
Example Of Research Questions
What are three (3) longitdinal designed are
commonly employed in survey research?
What are advantages and disadvantages to
collect data in a survey by web- based survey ?
What will you find when you handle correlational
What is purpose of correlational research?
What differences in abilities are caused by
Do you think casual comparative-research can
avoid the bias judgement?