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# Basic concepts

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### Basic concepts

1. 1. Point of reference• Observational point tied to the motion of an observer.• In Newtonian physics, all motion must be defined in terms of a point of reference.• Relative Motion
2. 2. Point of reference• Is the speed of the ball different relative to the pitcher, the truck driver, and the jet pilot? Why or why not?
3. 3. Point of reference• Trajectory: The path of a moving body.
4. 4. Distance• Distance is the measurement from one point to another. The length of the trajectory• Distance may refer to a physical length, a period of time, or an estimation.
5. 5. Displacement• Displacement ( x) – difference between an object’s final position and its starting position. – Does depend on direction.• Displacement = final position – initial position• x = xfinal – xinitial• In order to define displacement, we need directions.• Examples of directions: – + and – – N, S, E, W – Angles
6. 6. Displacement vs. Distance• Example of distance: – The ant walked 3 cm.• Example of displacement: – The ant walked 3 cm EAST.• An object’s distance traveled and its displacement aren’t always the same!
7. 7. Displacement vs. Distance• An athlete runs around a track that is 100 meters long three times, then stops. – What is the athlete’s distance and displacement? • Distance = 300 m • Displacement = 0 m • Why?
8. 8. Displacement and distanceTo go to school from home... your home Size = length of this arrow your displacement from school home to school A displacement has size & direction.
9. 9. Displacement and distanceTo go to school from home... your home l2 l1 l3 your school Distance = length of path you travelled = l1 + l2 + l3 ( size of displacement)