Writing Introduction & Conclusion Aimi Syazana Hasnudin CELPAD, IIUM
English essays are linear <ul><li>The main text of the essay has three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction  </li...
General Statement Organisation Statement A. Introductory Sentence Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 ... Concluding Sentence B. Intro...
Begin with a quotation   <ul><li>Although this approach can be overused, it can be very effective when you have an appropr...
Begin with a concession   <ul><li>Start with a statement recognizing an opinion or approach different from the one you pla...
Begin with a paradox <ul><li>In 1959 Vladimir Nabokov's novel Lolita had been banned in several cities as pornographic. To...
Begin with a short anecdote or narrative <ul><li>When the original movie version of Lolita was released in the early 1960s...
Begin with an interesting fact or statistic <ul><li>Joseph Conrad and Vladimir Nabokov -- two acknowledged masters of Engl...
Begin with a question or several questions that will be answered in the paper <ul><li>How could a book now acknowledged as...
Begin with relevant background material <ul><li>Background material should be presented concisely and should be clearly re...
Begin by stating a long-term effect or effects without immediately stating the cause <ul><li>It caused howls of protest fr...
Begin with an analogy <ul><li>Like a hurricane that brings fear and panic along with its powerful winds, uprooting trees a...
Begin with a definition of a term that is important to your essay <ul><li>Avoid simple dictionary definitions. Create an e...
Conclusions <ul><li>The conclusion to any paper is the final impression that can be made. It is the last opportunity to ge...
Summary Closing <ul><li>Many times conclusions are simple re-statements of the thesis. Many times these conclusions are mu...
Close with a Logical Conclusion <ul><li>This is a good closing for argumentative or opinion papers that present two or mor...
Real or Rhetorical Question Closings <ul><li>This method of concluding a paper is one step short of giving a logical concl...
Close with a Speculation or Opinion <ul><li>This is a good style for instances when the writer was unable to come up with ...
Close with a Recommendation <ul><li>A good conclusion is when the writer suggests that the reader do something in the way ...
<ul><li>All information has been extracted from several websites </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>missa...
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  1. 1. Writing Introduction & Conclusion Aimi Syazana Hasnudin CELPAD, IIUM
  2. 2. English essays are linear <ul><li>The main text of the essay has three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction </li></ul><ul><li>A main body </li></ul><ul><li>A conclusion </li></ul>http://www.uefap.com/writing/writfram.htm
  3. 3. General Statement Organisation Statement A. Introductory Sentence Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 ... Concluding Sentence B. Introductory Sentence Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 ... Concluding Sentence C. Introductory Sentence Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 ... Concluding Sentence I. INTRODUCTION II. MAIN BODY III. CONCLUSION Recall issues in introduction; draw together main points; final comment.
  4. 4. Begin with a quotation <ul><li>Although this approach can be overused, it can be very effective when you have an appropriate quotation. That quotation may relate directly to the subject or it may be only indirectly related (and thus require further explanation). Do not force a quotation into this spot; if an appropriate quotation is not available, select another method. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The novel Lolita,&quot; the critic Charles Blight said in 1959, &quot;is proof that American civilization is on the verge of total moral collapse&quot; (45). The judgment of critics and readers in subsequent years, however, has proclaimed Lolita to be one of the great love stories of all time and one of the best proofs that American civilization is still vibrant and alive. &quot;Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul&quot; (11). </li></ul><ul><li>These opening lines of Lolita reveal the essence of Humbert Humbert's complexity and compulsion, his saving grace and his damning passion. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  5. 5. Begin with a concession <ul><li>Start with a statement recognizing an opinion or approach different from the one you plan to take in your essay. </li></ul><ul><li>Many critics have pointed to the unrelenting word games and puns throughout Lolita as proof that Vladimir Nabokov's major concern has always been language and art. Although these subjects certainly loom in all his works, a close examination of Lolita reveals that morality -- the way people treat each other -- is just as major a concern for him as language and art. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  6. 6. Begin with a paradox <ul><li>In 1959 Vladimir Nabokov's novel Lolita had been banned in several cities as pornographic. Today it is required reading not only in literature courses but also in philosophy courses that explore the nature of love. Since its publication, the novel's subject has been recognized to be love, not lust; art, not perversion. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  7. 7. Begin with a short anecdote or narrative <ul><li>When the original movie version of Lolita was released in the early 1960s, Sue Lyon, the young actress who starred as the provocative &quot;nymphet&quot; of the title, was judged too young to be allowed to see the movie in the theater. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  8. 8. Begin with an interesting fact or statistic <ul><li>Joseph Conrad and Vladimir Nabokov -- two acknowledged masters of English prose -- were not even native speakers of English. Conrad's native tongue was Polish; Nabokov's, Russian. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  9. 9. Begin with a question or several questions that will be answered in the paper <ul><li>How could a book now acknowledged as a masterpiece not only of fiction but also of English prose have been banned when it was published? How could a novel that dealt with love and art be thought of as pornographic? Why would a society so mindful of free speech as America ban any book in the first place? </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  10. 10. Begin with relevant background material <ul><li>Background material should be presented concisely and should be clearly related to your thesis. A rambling discussion of material only remotely related to your main point will confuse and bore your readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he was born in Russia and lived for many years in England, Germany, and France before coming to America in 1941, Vladimir Nabokov is now considered one of the great American novelists of the 20th century. This opinion, however, is not based solely on his mastery of English prose. His novel Lolita has been said to have captured the essence of American life in the 1950s better than any novel written by a writer born in this country. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  11. 11. Begin by stating a long-term effect or effects without immediately stating the cause <ul><li>It caused howls of protest from the guardians of public morality in the 1950s. Indirectly it helped bring about both artistic and personal freedom in the 1960s. Today it is a recognized classic of art and thought -- Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita . </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  12. 12. Begin with an analogy <ul><li>Like a hurricane that brings fear and panic along with its powerful winds, uprooting trees and disrupting belief in an all-merciful God, so the novel Lolita swept across America in the 1950s, bringing fear and panic that pedophilia would be loosed on the land. Instead, the novel, like a hurricane, blew over trees of thought that were not deeply rooted in American experience, exposing their gnarled premises while helping to clear the way for the artistic freedom of the 1960s. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  13. 13. Begin with a definition of a term that is important to your essay <ul><li>Avoid simple dictionary definitions. Create an expanded definition that explains how the term applies to your topic and essay. </li></ul><ul><li>Every few years the ugly charge of &quot;pornography&quot; is aimed at some novel or movie. Never was the term more inappropriately used than in the case of Lolita, yet the taint of that word still lingers in the minds of many when they hear the book's title. What exactly is &quot;pornography&quot; that it should stir such feelings and be so hated? The problem, of course, is that no one can agree on what pornography actually is. That it has something to do with sex seems clear; beyond that, there is a chaos of opinion. When the small-minded or special-interest definitions are pushed aside, however, we are left with D.H. Lawrence's provocative definition: pornography is anything that &quot;does dirt on sex.&quot; By that definition, Lolita is the opposite of pornography -- it is a celebration of sex and love. </li></ul>http://web.mit.edu/writing/Writing_Types/introstrategies.html
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>The conclusion to any paper is the final impression that can be made. It is the last opportunity to get your point across to the reader and leave the reader feeling as if he or she learned something. Leaving a paper &quot;dangling&quot; without a proper conclusion can seriously devalue what was said in the body itself. Here are a few effective ways to conclude or close your paper. </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  15. 15. Summary Closing <ul><li>Many times conclusions are simple re-statements of the thesis. Many times these conclusions are much like their introductions (see Thesis Statement Opening). </li></ul><ul><li>Because of a charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln and because of the work of two men, Amos Kendall and Edward Miner Gallaudet, Gallaudet University is what it is today - the place where people from all over the world can find information about deafness and deaf education. Gallaudet and the deaf community truly owe these three men for without them, we might still be &quot;deaf and dumb.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Gallaudet University, the only liberal arts college for deaf students in the world, is world-renowned in the field of deafness and education of the deaf. Gallaudet's charter was signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Gallaudet owes its rich history and fame to two men: Amos Kendall and Edward Miner Gallaudet (thesis statement) </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  16. 16. Close with a Logical Conclusion <ul><li>This is a good closing for argumentative or opinion papers that present two or more sides of an issue. The conclusion drawn as a result of the research is presented here in the final paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>As one can see from reading the information presented, mainstreaming deaf students isn't always as effective as educating them in a segregated classroom. Deaf students learn better in a more one-on-one basis like they can find in a school or program specially designed for them. Mainstreaming is just that; deaf students get lost in the mainstream. </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  17. 17. Real or Rhetorical Question Closings <ul><li>This method of concluding a paper is one step short of giving a logical conclusion. Rather than handing the conclusion over, you can leave the reader with a question that causes him or her to draw his own conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Why, then, are schools for the deaf becoming a dying species? </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  18. 18. Close with a Speculation or Opinion <ul><li>This is a good style for instances when the writer was unable to come up with an answer or a clear decision about whatever it was he or she was researching. </li></ul><ul><li>Through all of my research, all of the people I interviewed, all of the institutions I visited, not one person could give me a clear-cut answer to my question. Can all deaf people be educated in the same manner? I couldn't find the &quot;right&quot; answer. I hope you, the reader, will have better luck. </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  19. 19. Close with a Recommendation <ul><li>A good conclusion is when the writer suggests that the reader do something in the way of support for a cause or a plea for them to take action. </li></ul><ul><li>American Sign Language is a fast growing language in America. More and more universities and colleges are offering it as part of their curriculum and some are even requiring it as part of their program. This writer suggests that anyone who has a chance to learn this beautiful language should grab that opportunity. </li></ul>http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/introconslu.html
  20. 20. <ul><li>All information has been extracted from several websites </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>missaimisyazana.wordpress.com </li></ul>
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