The easy way of developing students' writing skills for first year high school

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for first year students who want to learn more about writing.....enjoy!!

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The easy way of developing students' writing skills for first year high school

  1. 1. The Easy Way of Developing Students’ Writing Skills For First Year High school IMEE MARIE B. SANCHEZ JAECEL AIRISH J. KAHARIAN CONTENTS NEXT
  2. 2. A premier university in CALABARZON, offering academic programs and related services designed to respond to the requirements of the Philippines and the global economy , particularly, Asian countries. BACK CONTENTS NEXT
  3. 3. The University shall primarily provide advanced education, professional, technological and vocational instruction in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, science, engin eering, industrial technologies, teacher education, medicine, law, arts and sciences, information technology and other related fields. It shall undertake research and extension services, and provide BACK NEXT progressive leadership in its area of
  4. 4. In pursuit of the college vision/ mission the college of education is committed to develop the full potentials of individuals and equip them with knowledge, skills, and attitudes in teacher education allied fields to effectively respond to the increasing demands, challenges and opportunities of changing times for global competitiveness. BACK NEXT
  5. 5. Produce graduate who can demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical requirement for the Bachelor of Secondary Education such as: 1. To serve as positive and powerful role models in the pursuit of the learning thereby maintaining high regards to professional growth. BACK NEXT
  6. 6. 2. Focus on the significance of providing wholesome and desirable learning environment. Facilitate learning process in diverse type of learners. 3. Used varied learning approaches and activities, instructional materials and learning resources. 4. Used assessment data, plan and revise teaching – learning plans. BACK NEXT
  7. 7. 5. Direct and strengthen the links between school and community activities. 6. Conduct research and development in Teacher Education and other related activities. BACK NEXT
  8. 8. This Teacher’s Guide “The Easy Way of Developing Students’ Writing Skills for First Year High School” is part of the requirements in Educational Technology 2 under the revised education curriculum based on CHED Memorandum Order (CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology 2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce both traditional and innovative technologies to facilitate and foster meaningful and effective learning where students are expected to demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature, application and production of the various types of educational technologies. BACK CONTENTS NEXT
  9. 9. The students are provided with guidance and assistance of selected faculty members of the College through the selection, production and utilization of appropriate technology tools in developing technology- based teacher support materials. Through the role and functions of computers especially the Internet, the student researchers and the advisers are able to design and develop various types of alternative delivery systems. These kinds of activities offer a remarkable learning experience for the education students as future mentors especially in the preparation of instructional materials. BACK NEXT
  10. 10. The output of the group’s effort in this enterprise may serve as a contribution to the existing body of instructional material that the institution may utilized in order to provide effective and quality education. The lessons and evaluations presented in this module may also function as a supplementary reference for secondary teachers and students. IMEE MARIE B. SANCHEZ Module Developer JAECEL AIRISH J. KAHARIAN Module Developer BACK NEXT
  11. 11. The authors hereby express their heartfelt appreciation and sincerest thanks to the entire wonderful persons who have been an instrument in the completion of this module. To all of their classmates, for always being there in times of needs and troubles; To all of their friends, especially the Mafagvhiguys for giving their hands and shoulders for the authors can lean on; To Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval, their module adviser, for guiding and encouraging them in doing this module; BACK CONTENTS NEXT
  12. 12. To Prof. Ma. Filipina P. Ramos, their module consultant, for her patience in checking the module and giving advises for the module to become more useful; To Dean Lydia R. Chavez, for her support to the authors; To Del for his all-out love, support and care, To their parents, for being supportive in terms of financial and emotional matters; And above all, to the Almighty God, for all the blessings, courage and love he serves to the authors. THE AUTHORS BACK NEXT
  13. 13. VMGOs FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE 0F CONTENTS INTRODUCTION GENERAL OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 1: Writing Effective Paragraphs Lesson 1: Unity in the Paragraph Through the Topic Sentence Through the Supporting Details Through the Clinching Sentence BACK NEXT
  14. 14. Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Lesson 2 Coherence in the Paragraph Logical bridges Chronological Order Space Order Logical Order Structural devices Transitional or Signal Words Pronoun Phrases Repetition of Key Words Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Activity 7 BACK NEXT
  15. 15. Activity 8 Activity 9 Lesson 3 Emphasis in the Paragraph Through Position Through Parallel Grammatical Structure Through Climactic Order Activity 10 Activity 11 Activity 12 Chapter 2: Organizing and Developing Paragraphs Lesson 4 Composing a Paragraph The Paragraph BACK NEXT
  16. 16. Activity 13 Activity 14 Activity 15 Lesson 5 Methods of Paragraph Development Description Definition Classification Cause and Effect Analogy Activity 16 Activity 17 Activity 18 Activity 19 Activity 20 BACK NEXT
  17. 17. Activity 21 Activity 22 Activity 23 Activity 24 Activity 25 Chapter 3: The Composition Lesson 6 Title Lesson 7 Introduction Lesson 8 Body/ Main Text Lesson 9 Concluding Paragraph Activity 26 Activity 27 Activity 28 Activity 29 Activity 30 REFERENCES BACK NEXT
  18. 18. If you are to fulfill the aims of Intermediate Communication Skill as a writing course you must acquire the right attitude to writing as a communication skill. Although it is true that you will have to use references- probably you cannot write without resorting them, you yourself must organize the ideas, facts or opinions you have gathered. Your individuality, your distinct personality will therefore make the difference. Several compositions may be produced by several students on the same subject matter or topic but yours will be different because you are a different person from all the others. To be a good writer you must earnestly, personally, be involved in your subject, even if the subject may be an impersonal one. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  19. 19. Remember that you submit a composition which you have written .That composition will be a reflection of four kinds of abilities on your part. These are: 1. the ability to gather ideas; 2. the ability to examine them critically; 3. the ability to think creatively; and 4. the ability to organize effectively. Your written work is therefore a synthesis of your discoveries. When you weigh these discoveries and draw conclusions from them, then the uniqueness of your personality is revealed. Selecting the materials to be used, deciding how to approach these materials, developing a view point toward it and choosing the right words in which to present it- these are truly personal activities, no matter if the subject is impersonal BACK NEXT
  20. 20. …Therefore, good writing is that which has involved a writer responsible enough to discover his personal context within the subject context and bad writing is that which has not. Writing is a responsibility. Remember that good writing must be awareness by a responsible person of his uniqueness within subject. By “ person “ is meant one who stands at the center of his own thoughts and feelings, concerned to make things happen through the power of the written word with the sense that they begin in him. Thus, writing is a form of self-actualization. This is the reason that it can be very fulfilling. Writing is a creative process but it does not create something out of nothing, rather it uncovers, selects, reshuffles, combines, synthesis already existing facts, ideas, faculties, and skills. BACK NEXT
  21. 21. The Easy Way of Developing the Writing Skills workbook is intended to enhance the capability of a student in the writing field. This workbook gives ideas or techniques on how you can improve your writing skill. This is also a practical hand on book that can test your study and writing skill. Many people are intimidated by writing. Even so, there are times when writing is the best way to communicate, and oftentimes the only way to get your message across. When writing, be mindful of the fact that once something is in written form, it cannot be taken back. Communicating in this way is more concrete than verbal communications, with less room for error and even less room for mistakes. This presents written communicators with new challenges, including spelling, grammar, punctuation, even writing style and actual wording. BACK NEXT
  22. 22. At the end of this module, the student is expected to: •grasp the meaning of unity, coherence and emphasis in a paragraph; •recognize in simple paragraphs the different ways to achieve unity, coherence and emphasis; •observe unity, coherence and emphasis in paragraph writing; •identify the characteristic qualities of a paragraph and apply them in his own writing; •identify the parts of a composition; •know the characteristics of the structure of a composition; and •write a composition. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  23. 23. Chapter 1 Writing Effective Paragraphs OBJECTIVES: At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: •grasp the meaning of unity, coherence and emphasis in a paragraph; •recognize in simple paragraphs the different ways to achieve unity, coherence and emphasis; •observe unity, coherence and emphasis in paragraph writing; and •identify the characteristic qualities of a paragraph and apply them in his own writing. BACK CONTENTS NEXT
  24. 24. Lesson 1 Unity in the Paragraph Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: •grasp the meaning of unity; •appreciate unity in the paragraph; and •write paragraphs with unity. Unity in a paragraph means oneness of idea. A good paragraph possesses unity when all the sentences develop the topic or central idea. Unity in the paragraph is achieved by the used of: 1. a topic sentence with its controlling idea, 2. supporting details, and 3. a clinching sentence. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  25. 25. 1. Through the topic sentence The topic sentence states the central idea to be developed. It may be expressed or implied. If it is expressed, it is found at the beginning of the paragraph, at the end of paragraph, or anywhere between the first and the last sentences. When placed at the end of the paragraph, it serves us the concluding sentence. If the topic sentence is implied, the central idea is hinted in the developing sentences. Another feature of the topic sentence is the controlling idea, which consists of the keyword/s in the topic sentence. The keyword/s may be part/parts of the topic sentence or it may be the whole sentence. The controlling idea limits the scope of the topic and helps the writer to focus on the topic of the paragraph. BACK NEXT
  26. 26. Sample paragraph that shows the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. A doctor makes the mother feel her baby to give her satisfaction after her birth labor. The mother caresses the new born to give the baby a feeling of love and security that will be the foundation of the self. A son holds the hands of his dying father in a final goodbye. These tactile stimulations oftentimes spell a difference. Topic Sentence: Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. Controlling idea: (words that control or limit the discussion of the topic” touch”)-intimate of, powerful means of communication. BACK NEXT
  27. 27. Sample paragraph that shows the topic sentence in the middle of the paragraph. One night, there went out over the stillness of an evening breeze, out over the chalked hills of Bethlehem, a cry, for the sea was filled its own voice. There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherd and Wise men: Shepherds: those who know they know nothing. Wise men: those who know they do not know everything. Shepherds: poor, simple men who knew only how to tend their flocks. On the other hand, there were the Wise men, not kings, but teachers of Kings. Both of these heard the cry. The shepherds and the wise men discovered wisdom. And the shepherd and wisdom was a Babe in a manger. •Sheen, in Manalo 69 Topic Sentence: There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherds and Wise men. Controlling idea: Shepherds, Wise men, heard the cry. BACK NEXT
  28. 28. Sample paragraph that shows the topic sentence at the end of the paragraph. Before the break of dawn, I leave my workaday world and slip it to a faraway place, away from the terrible traffic, away from the suffocating dust and smog of the crowded city. I sail into the vast expanse of sea, sun and sky. Stretching my feet, I feel my tense muscles loosen and my nerves slacken as I play tug-of-war with the fish that bite my baits. But the great calm surrounding me induces me to doze- off. Beaten, I fold it up and decided to spend the rest of the time savoring an intimate romance with nature and coming face to face with the great unknown. I get to think of myself and my loved ones – my wife and my children, and my one love who is always there for me with these footprints on the sands of my life. Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. Topic Sentence: Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. Controlling idea: relax, recharge mentally, physically, spiritually. BACK NEXT
  29. 29. 2. Through the Supporting Details Supporting details are the sentences that help develop or expand the main idea in the topic sentence. These details that help expand the topic sentence maybe in the form of a description, an example, a comparison or contrast, a classification, etc. BACK NEXT
  30. 30. Sample Paragraph 1 Ouch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. A doctor makes the mother feel her baby to give her satisfaction after her birth labor. The mother caresses the new born to give the baby a feeling of love and security that will be the foundation of the self. A son holds the hands of his dying father in a final goodbye. These tactile stimulations oftentimes spell a difference. Topic Sentence: Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. Supporting Details: - A mother feels her baby after her birth labor. - She touches the baby to give it a sense of love and security. - A son holds his father’s hand in a last farewell. All these sentences support the topic sentence “Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. BACK NEXT
  31. 31. Sample Paragraph 2 One night, there went out over the stillness of an evening breeze, out over the chalked hills of Bethlehem, a cry, for the sea was filled its own voice. There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherd and Wise men: Shepherds: those who know they know nothing. Wise men: those who know they do not know everything. Shepherds: poor, simple men who knew only how to tend their flocks. On the other hand, there were the Wise men, not kings, but teachers of Kings. Both of these heard the cry. The shepherds and the wise men discovered wisdom. And the shepherd and wisdom was a Babe in a manger. •Sheen, in Manalo 69 Topic Sentence: There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherds and Wise men. Supporting Details: the sea, the earth, the great men of earth, the Kings of the earth. BACK NEXT
  32. 32. Sample Paragraph 3 Before the break of dawn, I leave my workaday world and slip it to a faraway place, away from the terrible traffic, away from the suffocating dust and smog of the crowded city. I sail into the vast expanse of sea, sun and sky. Stretching my feet, I feel my tense muscles loosen and my nerves slacken as I play tug-of-war with the fish that bite my baits. But the great calm surrounding me induces me to doze-off. Beaten, I fold it up and decided to spend the rest of the time savoring an intimate romance with nature and coming face to face with the great unknown. I get to think of myself and my loved ones – my wife and my children, and my one love who is always there for me with these footprints on the sands of my life. Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. BACK NEXT
  33. 33. Topic Sentence: Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. Supporting Details: Mentally- enjoy wanton freedom from never- ending job deadlines, hustle and bustle of office rushes drifts away. Physically- stretch my feet; feel intense muscles loosen, great calm dozes me to sleep, Spiritually- savor a romance with nature, come face to face with the Great unknown, and get to know myself my family and God. 3. Through the Clinching Sentences A clinching sentence may be a restatement of the topic sentence, a summary, or a conclusion based on the supporting details. Hence, like the topic sentence and the supporting details, it helps achieve unity. At times, the clinching sentence is also the topic sentence. BACK NEXT
  34. 34. Sample Paragraph 1 Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. A doctor makes the mother feel her baby to give her satisfaction after her birth labor. The mother caresses the new born to give the baby a feeling of love and security that will be the foundation of the self. A son holds the hands of his dying father in a final goodbye. These tactile stimulations oftentimes spell a difference. Topic Sentence: Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. Clinching Sentences: These tactile stimulations spell a difference. {The clinching sentence restates the topic sentence.} BACK NEXT
  35. 35. Sample Paragraph 2 One night, there went out over the stillness of an evening breeze, out over the chalked hills of Bethlehem, a cry, for the sea was filled its own voice. There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherd and Wise men: Shepherds: those who know they know nothing. Wise men: those who know they do not know everything. Shepherds: poor, simple men who knew only how to tend their flocks. On the other hand, there were the Wise men, not kings, but teachers of Kings. Both of these heard the cry. The shepherds and the wise men discovered wisdom. And the shepherd and wisdom was a Babe in a manger. Sheen, in Manalo 69 Topic Sentence: There were only two classes who heard the cry that night: Shepherds and Wise men. Clinching Sentences: The Shepherd and Wisdom was a Babe in a crib (Conclusion based on the supporting details). BACK NEXT
  36. 36. Sample Paragraph 3 Before the break of dawn, I leave my workaday world and slip it to a faraway place, away from the terrible traffic, away from the suffocating dust and smog of the crowded city. I sail into the vast expanse of sea, sun and sky. Stretching my feet, I feel my tense muscles loosen and my nerves slacken as I play tug-of-war with the fish that bite my baits. But the great calm surrounding me induces me to doze-off. Beaten, I fold it up and decided to spend the rest of the time savoring an intimate romance with nature and coming face to face with the great unknown. I get to think of myself and my loved ones – my wife and my children, and my one love who is always there for me with these footprints on the sands of my life. Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. Topic Sentence: Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. Clinching Sentences: Truly, fishing trips relax and recharge me mentally, physically and spiritually. (Summary of the supporting details). BACK NEXT
  37. 37. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 1 Unity in the Paragraph Instruction: Choose the most logical answer and write it on the blank space. 1. Supply the topic sentence. __________________________________________. Even the sky line of the squatter communities and of the more advanced rural barangays is littered with TV antennas. A teleholic society has emerged from the passive influence of the boob tube. The lives of many have been reduced to passivity as their mental energies are refocused away from the harsh realities of existence. The television has inflicted more than that – it has refashioned family relations, stifled intellectual life and transformed leisure into idleness. •TV viewing is a very popular past time activity. •TV has changed the Filipino way of life. •TV viewing has its advantages and disadvantages. 2. Supply the supporting details. Three wishes I have nurtured until now. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  38. 38. 3. Supply the clinching sentence. The television advertisements capitalize on three dominant Filipino consumer traits, namely, cultural schizophrenia, celebrative nature, and belief in miracles. As a people, we were heavily influenced by our colonizers. Spanish and American legacies mixed with our Filipino identity; hence, the cultural schizophrenia. For example, the jeepney emerged from surplus US war vehicles, but it evolved into a rowdy Filipino art. A second Filipino trait is our celebrative nature. We have a penchant for fiestas and despite our trials, we find occasions to celebrate. Hence, advertisements are replete with songs and dances simulating a festive atmosphere. Also, because of this fiesta mood, colorful and fast-paced commercials click. A third trait is our belief in miracles. We go for rags-to-riches stories. We value luck, and hope that it could change our fate; hence the proliferation of contest games in our TV programs.______________________________________________ ______ 1. TV advertisements are effective means of promoting products. 2. Filipinos are fond of TV advertisements. 3. TV advertisements mirror Filipino values. BACK NEXT
  39. 39. Underline the TOPIC SENTENCE and circle the controlling idea. Number the supporting details. Write down the clinching sentences. Tell whether it is a restatement, summary or conclusion. 4. In the beginning, man’s life was dictated by two factors that were beyond his control: night and day, darkness and light. Night brought about an environment in which action had to cease, so man repaired to his cave, wrapped himself with his furs and went to sleep. Or he climbed a tree and made himself as comfortable as he could while awaiting the coming of dawn. Day brought an environment in which action was possible, so he set forth once more to replenish his store, forage or hunt for his food. Night brought passivity, quiescence, and a general slowing down of metabolic and glandular activity. Day brought with it the possibility of action, an increase in metabolic rate and a greater glandular secretion, thus providing him with both energy and incentive. Night and day were the keys to man’s activities. BACK NEXT
  40. 40. Clinching sentence: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Type of clinching sentence: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. Why are some parts of the world rich while other parts are poor? It isn’t brains. No place is dumber than Hollywood, yet its residents are wading in gravy. Meanwhile in Russia, where chess is a spectator sport, the people are boiling stone for soup. Natural resources aren’t the secret either. Impoverished Africa has gold, uranium and oil. Affluent Holland has none of those, and half of her place is even under water. Actually, we know the answer – and if people would just open their eyes to it, the whole world could be rich. All this would be possible because of a simple lesson in history: free markets work. Clinching sentences: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Type of clinching sentence: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  41. 41. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 1 Unity in the Paragraph Instruction: In each pair of sentences, you will find a topic sentence with supporting details. Example: Scientists are expert observers. They make careful notes about their observations. Answer: Scientists are expert observers. For centuries, scientists have spent much of their working lives designing and making instruments to help them pick up messages. One of these instruments is the telescope, which was invented by Galileo Galilei. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ These areas are called the brain stem with its limbic systems, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. Even though the various parts of the brain work as a team, some areas also specialize in certain functions. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  42. 42. One of the best new inventions was a special helmet for divers. Man began to invent new ways for people to stay underwater. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Noise is a continuous threat to the quality of our environment, health, and daily life. It causes permanent damage to the hearing system, so that some people become partly deaf. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  43. 43. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 3 Unity in the Paragraph Instruction: Write an appropriate topic sentence for each paragraph. •In both types of community there is division of labor. In insect societies, certain insects are responsible for production; the workers collect food, while the soldiers defend the colony. In the same way, human group such as farmers and shopkeepers have specialized functions in producing goods and providing services to the community. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ •However, there are at least four things we can do to prevent own mineral cupboard from becoming bare. One is to use more abundant minerals in place of those in short supply. Another is to explore deep in the earth’s crust and under the seas for new sources of minerals. A third, which is related to the second, is to find cheaper methods of mining those deep-lying minerals and of producing ores low in minerals. A forth is to recycle scrap and waste materials. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  44. 44. •Machines are used to plant and pick crops. Some machines are like small, moving factories, on many dairy farms; cows are fed and watered by machines. On some chicken farms, machines give the hens’ food, light and warmth. Other machines collect the eggs, test them and package them. With machines, farmers can produce more food with fewer workers. Large numbers of men and women are no longer needed to work on farms. Many people who once worked on farms now have jobs in factories or other places. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________ BACK NEXT
  45. 45. Lesson 2 Coherence in the Paragraph Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: •grasp the meaning of coherence; •appreciate the use of coherence in a paragraph; and •write coherent paragraphs. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  46. 46. The word “coherence”, derived from “cohere”, literally means “to hold together”. If the sentences in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence to effect a unified whole, these sentences should further be arranged in an orderly sequence and linked to one another to ensure a smooth progression of ideas from one sentences to another. In a coherent paragraph, the reader easily grasps the meaning of what he reads because he sees the orderly sequence of ideas and their relationship to one another. There are no gaps in thought. But sometimes, the ideas are expressed in a jumbled fashion or are not clearly linked so that the reader fails to follow the flow of thought in the paragraph. Such a paragraph needs coherence. Coherence is achieved by following 1. Orderly Movement/ Logical Bridges, and 2. Verbal Bridges / Structural Devices. BACK NEXT
  47. 47. 1.Orderly Movement/ Logical Bridges The proper sequencing of ideas in a paragraph maybe of several types a. Chronological order, b. Space order, and c. Logical order. A. Chronological Order Events are arranged on the basis of time, from the past to the present, from the earliest to the latest; from the first stage to the last stage, etc. Narration, process exposition, and historical accounts make use of the time order. Observe the sequencing of the events in the paragraph below. BACK NEXT
  48. 48. The top sizzler of the Las Vegas strip is its casino. As you enter the casino hallway, you notice the eerie, smoky, shadowy taverns and lobbies. The ringing slot machines, chinking of coins and howls and rowdy revelers emanating from the rooms indicate that you are on the threshold of all sorts of gaming machines and card game tables. Watching players for a while win or lose; you observe that the name of the game is chance. Warming up, you dare try your luck. One slot machine, displaying a platter of coins, appears easy to tackle. Just a little jar, you surmise, would push the coins to tumble from the platter edge. Imagining you as a sure winner, you drop a quarter coins, and then lower the machine handle. However, the coins simply fall before the platter. Again, you drop coins, pounding of the glass top to agitate them, yet not a single piece of silver cares to budge. You try another slot machine for good luck’s sake, and still another. The game of chance fever has gotten you. Give up? No way! How are the events in the paragraph arranged? Can you name them? BACK NEXT
  49. 49. B. Space Order The main points are presented in the order of space, such as from the nearest to the furthest (and vice versa); from the inside to the outside, from left to right, from top to bottom, and each of these conversely. Description adopts the space order. The writer chooses a focal point and from it proceeds with the details of his description. BACK NEXT
  50. 50. We made a tour of Rizal’s Manila. We walked around Binondo Street armed with a copy of the Noli Me Tangere and an 1872 map of Manila. We started from the State Investment House on Juan Luna Street (formerly Calle Anloague) where the house of Kapitan Tiago once stood. From there we crossed a creek to the site of the Fonda De Lala Ari where Ibarra spent the night at the beginning of the novel. We walked down Sacristia Street on the side of Binondo church. The sights, smells and sounds of the areas in the 1880’s seemed to be there still. The physical looks might have changed, but the physical outline of the City – its streets, rivers, esteros, and other landmarks – hardly did. In the paragraph, the writer’s focal point is Binondo. How does the writer proceeds with the descriptive details of Rizal’s Manila? BACK NEXT
  51. 51. C. Logical Order This arrangement of ideas is widely used in exposition. It includes any progression of thought in a paragraph which the writer judges as appropriate for expanding a particular topic, with the exception of the time order and the space order. Hence, the paragraph may begin with a general statement (topic sentence), followed by the specific details (supporting details). This is the deductive order. BACK NEXT
  52. 52. The first Cry of Pugad Lawin is a turning point in Philippine history. On account of the Spaniards’ premature discovery of the secret society, K.K.K., Andres Bonifacio gathered his men for a meeting at Kangkong on August 21, 1896. Suspecting that the Spanish authority might have intercepted one of the invitation letters to the Katipuneros sent out by Emilio Jacinto, Bonifacio changed the venue the next day to Pugad Lawin in sitio Bahay Toro, a jurisdiction of Balintawak. More and more people joined the Katipuneros. Here, the momentous period in Philippine history, the first “Cry of Pugad Lawin,” which historians referred to as “Cry of Balintawak,” took place. Bonifacio asked his men to tear their cedulas to signify their determination to fight to the end. This they did. The event marked the start of the armed struggle against the Spaniards and the end of Rizal’s Propaganda Movement. Soon, men from various places like Manila, Caloocan and Novaliches, joined the ranks of the Katipuneros. Not long, the rebels received their “baptism of fire” in a clash against a group of civil guards, leaving one Spanish soldier and two Katipuneros dead. However, the Spanish guards, outnumbered, while the rebels, ill- equipped, the two groups retreated. BACK NEXT
  53. 53. The paragraph uses the deductive order. What is the general statement (topic sentence)? What events lead to the rebels’ “baptism of fire” (supporting details)? Read the paragraph below. Observe how the ideas are arranged. Experiments show that friendly people like bright colors while quiet people like blue and other cool colors. Athletic people like red and self-centered ones like yellow. A man says he “sees red” when he is angry; a girl is often “green with envy” when she has a new dress only “once in a blue moon.” Blue has been associated in our minds with a sort of supersteel; so fine objects are given a bluish tint in order to sell well. Labels and packages colored green do not appeal to farmers who see so much green on the farms. Hospital rooms, on the other hand, are painted green and bright colors because colorful walls make the surrounding more pleasant. In fact, housewives bring plants and flowers into the house in order to make the rooms look like gardens. Color affects people in many ways. BACK NEXT
  54. 54. Another type of logical order is the inductive order, the reverse of the deductive order: the paragraph proceeds with the specific details and ends with the general statement, the topic sentence. In the paragraph, the general statement, the topic sentence, is located at the end of the paragraph. The specific details or the sentences that come before it indicate how color affects people in various ways. The paragraph makes use of the inductive order. The logical order, furthermore, embraces many other ways of presenting the topic: from cause to effect, the vice versa; from the most important to the least important; from the most elaborate to the least elaborate; from the most familiar to the least familiar; from the serious to the humorous; the alternating or opposing pattern of arranging ideas to show similarities or contrasts, etc. BACK NEXT
  55. 55. 2. Structural Devices/ Verbal Bridges When the order of sentences in the paragraph has been determined, the writer decides on the verbal bridges to be used. These devices help the reader move easily from one sentence to the next. There are three verbal bridges that are used to achieve coherence. A. Transitional or signal words and phrases; B. Clear pronoun reference; C. Repetition of keywords or their synonyms. A. Transitional or Signal Words and Phrases Transitional words and phrases, known as signal words/phrases, steer the readers’ attention in the right direction. These built-in signals show the relationships between words in a sentence, between sentences in a paragraph, and between paragraphs in a composition. BACK NEXT
  56. 56. Some signal words, phrases, and their relationships they show: 1. To add ideas, use and, moreover, further, furthermore, also, likewise, similarly, too, in like manner, again, besides. 2. To introduce statements opposing the preceding statements, use but, nevertheless, otherwise, on the other hand, conversely, on the contrary, however, still, yet. 3. To show time sequence, use then, now, after that, later, eventually, at the same time, meanwhile, in a few minutes, within an hour. 4. To indicate order, use next, in the second place, to begin with, first, second, finally, in conclusion. 5. To show space relation, use to the right, in the distance, straight ahead, up, above. 6. To indicate a consequence or a conclusion, use hence, consequently, thus, so, for this reason, therefore, as a result. 7. To indicate a repetition of one idea, use briefly, that is to say, in fact, indeed, in other words. 8. To compare, use so, similarly, likewise, in the same way. BACK NEXT
  57. 57. B. Pronoun Reference Pronoun reference, another type of verbal bridge, means the use of pronoun in relation to their antecedent. The pronouns may be personal (I, he, she, it, they); demonstrative (this, that, these, those); and relative (who, whose, whom, which that). Pronoun reference should be unmistakable. Examples: 1. There are some people who simply never give up. They stick it out through thick and thin. They never seem to get discouraged. Keeping the faith, they never lose hope; and eventually, they are rewarded. 2. In summer, Father had his usual two or three weeks of vacation. These were usually spent at cabin in the mountain. These were very memorable moments indeed. BACK NEXT
  58. 58. C. Repetition of Keywords To achieve coherence, the writer repeats the keywords or phrases or their synonyms to clarify the important ideas in the reader’s mind. In a well focused paragraph, the same central term, as well as its synonyms, may come up several times. Such recurrent terms form a network of words closely related in meaning. Examples: 1. I have always looked at life as an exciting adventure. Ever since I was a boy, life has held a great excitement for me. I have been full of dreams. Dreams of leaving my country to go abroad, to the mysterious East. Dreams of achieving anything that is meaningful and worthwhile. 2. The first requirement of education for privacy id to learn how to think - not out loud, but privately. To think does not mean to spend hours in idle daydreaming or in vagrant imaginings. What is meant is systematic reflection, the constant purpose of which the human being is immersed. BACK NEXT
  59. 59. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 4 Unity in the Paragraph Instruction: Read the related paragraph below. Mother Nature, in a punishing mood, delivers a devastating blow in the face of environmental abuse through deforestation; this time, her hard hit victims are the Infanta dwellers as well as their neighbor towns of Quezon province. Illegal loggers, consumed by greed, are blamed for committing against their compatriots the crime of overwater, and to prevent the rapid soil erosion. Trees, equipped with numerous minute cells, have tremendous power to contain water and hold back soil. Is it, therefore, surprising when strong rains rampage down the heavy denuded mountainsides, causing landslides and flooding? These killer calamities exact a heavy toll on lives and property. Many persons are drowned in the deadly floods, or buried alive in landslides debris. Rescuers find difficulty reaching stranded survivors, sick and starved, because of block roads, broken bridges and damaged communications facilities, not to mention the inclement weather conditions that usually interfere with rescue operation. We shudder in the wake of the massive disaster as we come face to face with another “Ormoc” tragedy. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  60. 60. •Express the topic sentence. ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ •What do the supporting details include? ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Do you notice the cause-effect chain of events in the paragraph? ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  61. 61. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 5 Coherence in the Paragraph Instruction: Rearrange the sentences in the following paragraphs according to the paragraph order most appropriate for them. Indicate the sequencing by numbers. State the paragraph order to use. A. (1) It provides us with an indispensable insight into what we were, are, and how we can build a better future. (2) The past is a vital part of our lives and our identity. (3) In our eagerness to accelerate and fast-track our present into future, we tend to downgrade and abandon the past, regardless of its relevance and merits. (4) This legacy consists of precious threads woven into the intricate fabric of our history and our culture. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  62. 62. B. (1) People who live alone tend to acquire pets so that they have “something to come home”: a warm, loving presence to greet them when they open the door to an otherwise empty house or apartment. (2) The presence of an affectionate animal can alleviate the sadness inherent in isolation. (3) In China, there is a thriving business in animal pets to supply the expanding elderly retired population. (4) Retired people, who may have been too busy and preoccupied with their careers to bother with pets in midlife, get animals to share their homes when they no longer go to an office. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  63. 63. C. (1) The rapid pace of urban life subjects juveniles to many demands outside the home. (2) When this happens, the structure of the interpersonal relationships outside the family plays an integral role in shaping the character and lifestyle of the youth. (3) Most of them spend more time with their peers and “barkada” than with their family members. (4) When his peers engage in drugs, sex, alcohol, or petty crimes, it is most likely that the juvenile would also become influenced by these vices. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ D. (1) Wash the gravel thoroughly and smooth across the bed of the tank. (2) Assemble the filter plate and airlift the tube inside your glass aquarium after choosing the right tank that will suit your need. (3) Let the filter run for a couple of hours before you add the plants. (4) Select a range of rocks and wood and carefully arrange them before adding water directly from the top. (5) Introduce your fishes by floating the bag of fishes in the tank for a few minutes. (6) Tilt the net gently and allow the fishes to swim away from the net in their own time. (7) Open the bag and gently ease the fishes out with a net trying to avoid pouring too much water from the bag. BACK NEXT
  64. 64. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ E (1) Exhausted, he eventually managed to build a little hut out of driftwood to protect him from the elements and to store his few possessions. (2) The worst had happened; everything was lost. (3) The only survivor of a shipwreck was washed up on a small uninhabited island. (4) He prayed feverishly for God to rescue him, and everyday he scanned the horizon for help, but none seemed fourth coming. (5) “How did you know I was here?” asked the weary man of his rescuers (6) “God, how could you do this to me.” he cried. (7) But, then one day, after scavenging for food, he arrived home to find his little hut in flames with a smoke rolling up to the sky. (8) “we saw the smoke signal,” he replied. (9) Early the next day, however, he was awakened by the sound of a ship that was approaching the island. (10) It had come to rescue him. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  65. 65. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 6 Transitional Words Instruction: Fill in the blanks by picking out from the list below the correct signal words. naturally in addition Nevertheless yet hence therefore Everyone knows that newspapers are very important; 1_________ the business of putting up a newspaper has become a very important affair. A daily newspaper has several important functions; 2__________ great care is taken to ensure these functions. It has to gather a lot of news; 3_________ it has to utilize a wide selection of news to be published. It has to determine which news more space and 5_________ utilize the utmost economy in using this space. The editor must comment editorially important news; 6___________ the editor does not speak out in his name but reflects the opinion of the majority. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  66. 66. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 7 Transitional Words for example but therefore further Instruction: Choose a signal word to fill up the blank. Doctors have found that the way a drug is given can be important. The commonly prescribed antibiotic tetracycline is one example. It is completely absorbed when injected in a vein or muscle and fairly well absorbed in pill form on a empty stomach 1_________ because the presence of food in the stomach interferes with absorption, patients are advised to take tetracycline before meals. 2__________ drugs are not absorbed equally after injection into different muscles. 3__________ doctors now pay more attention to the site at which drugs are injected. 4___________ in the case of a drug called lidocaine, which is used in the treatment of heart rhythm abnormalities, studies have shown that it was absorbed faster following its injection into the deltoid muscle in the arm than into a muscle in the leg. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  67. 67. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 8 Pronoun Reference Instruction: Fill the blank with the appropriate pronoun. Someone once wrote: “The adventure is in getting there.” Once one has “arrived” so to speak, then boredom sets in. 1_________ is why successful people can never seem to stop. 2_________ can never seem to have enough success. It is as if 3_______ are addicted to 4________ and need to drive on in search for more. Long after 5________ have “made 6________,” 7________ continue to push. When asked why, 8________ tell you that 9________ isn’t the money. And 10________ isn’t. What pushes 11________ on and on are the challenges 12_______ meet and the joy of overcoming 13________. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  68. 68. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 9 Repetition of Keywords Instruction: In the following paragraph, pick out the words and phrases that echo the idea of gymnasium and write them down in the space provided. To the Greeks, who get the credit for inventing it, gymnastics was the naked sport (the word “gymnos” means “nude”) and the phrase “naked sport” manages to be both evocative and correct. There is something pure about gymnastics, something so elemental that the sport seems beyond either corruption or adornment. The athletes do not work against an opponent or against some arithmetical measure of time, distance, or weight. The gymnast works instead against the body’s natural limits, with little protective clothing or equipment to help when courage or talent fails. The apparatuses of gymnastics are basic and symbolic, nothing more than artificial tree limbs, level tumbling lawns, and imitation saddles. When the sport advances, it is (for the most part) because a single athlete is able to make his or her body do something that no one has ever done before. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  69. 69. Lesson 3 Emphasis in the Paragraph Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: •grasp the meaning of emphasis; •appreciate the use of emphasis in paragraph writing; and •write paragraphs with emphasis. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  70. 70. Unity, coherence, and emphasis are the qualities that make a paragraph effective. Unity is concerned with what ideas to include; coherence, with how ideas should be arranged and linked; and emphasis, with how important ideas can be made prominent. Ideas in the paragraph can be made emphatic through: (1) position in the paragraph, (2) proportion (in the discussion), (3) the use of parallel grammatical structures, (4) the repetition of key ideas, and (5) the arrangement of ideas in a climatic order. Repetition of keywords has been taken up in connection with coherence; emphasis through proportion is best shown in compositions; hence, the discussion here focuses on the three devices only, namely, emphasis through position, use of parallel grammatical structures, and arrangement of ideas in a climatic order. BACK NEXT
  71. 71. 1. Emphasis through Position Important ideas can be given prominence by placing them at the beginning or at the end of the paragraph. The beginning of a paragraph calls attention to itself just by being first; the end of the paragraph assumes importance because it is usually the concluding statement and gives the final word about the paragraph. Paragraphs following the logical order (inductive and deductive) make use of emphasis through position since the topic sentence is placed either at the beginning or at the end of the paragraph. Sample paragraphs 1 and 2 (Unity in the Paragraph) show this device – emphasis through position. BACK NEXT
  72. 72. Example 1 A paragraph adapted from “What’s Wrong with Global Warming?” illustrates emphasis through position. The topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph is made prominent by its position. The world had experienced much warming and we loved it. Between AD 900 and 1300, the earth warmed by about one-and-a- half degrees according to the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, and the most favorable climates in human history. Food production surged because winters were milder and growing seasons longer. Key agricultural regions experienced fewer floods and droughts. There was more rainfall, but it evaporated faster. Death rate declined in many places partly because of the decrease in hunger, and party because people spent less time huddled together in damped smoke-filled hovels that helped spread tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. BACK NEXT
  73. 73. Example 2 Below is the last paragraph of the reading selection, “The Divine Romance.” The emphasis through position is achieved by putting the topic sentence at the end of the paragraph. Then why a life of suffering and why an existence that led to the hard bed of the cross? Why the shedding of the last drop of blood? For something like the same reason that there are more birds than necessary for the needed song of man, more grains of sand than are necessary for seashore. Love that is real loves even to the point of sacrifice, in fact loves even to the end, which is the giving of one’s own life. Christ loves to that extent, for “greater love than this no man hath that he lay down his life for his friend.” BACK NEXT
  74. 74. 2. Emphasis through Parallel Grammatical Structures Grammar structure refers to a unit of thought such as a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence. Parallel structure refers to the use of similar grammar structures to express ideas in a series. This device is effective in achieving emphasis because the repetition of similar grammatical structures calls attention to the idea, thus, giving it prominence. 1. Parallel word structures • Pride, greed and mistrust are the acids that corrode human relations • Attitude, more than education or intelligence, determines success. 2. Parallel phrase structures • Happiness is found in the simplicity and modesty of life, in the piety of the Angelus, in the sincerity of our devotion to our God and our country. • Amidst the din of the roaring flames, of the thundering guns, of the maddening crowd, he seemed to hear the anguished call of his brother soldier BACK NEXT
  75. 75. 3. Parallel clause structures Each of us likes to belong to some groups of tightly knit people Where we are known and accepted, Where we are committed to each other, Where we are loyal and honest to one another. 4. Parallel sentence structures •Give me land. Land to own. Land unbeholden to any tyrant. Land that will be free. •Give me land for I am starving. •Give me land that my children may not die. BACK NEXT
  76. 76. 3. Emphasis through Climactic Order To achieve emphasis through climatic order, the series of ideas are arranged in an ascending degree of importance or interest. Examples One night there went out over the stillness of an evening breeze, out over the white chalked hills of Bethlehem, a cry, a gentle cry. The sea did not hear the cry, for the sea was filled with its own voice. The earth did not hear the cry, for they could not understand how a child could be greater than a man. The kings of the earth did not hear the cry, for they could not fathom how a King could be born in a stable. Note the ascending order of importance: The Kings of the earth The great men of the earth The earth The sea BACK NEXT
  77. 77. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 10 Emphasis in the Paragraph Instruction: Read the paragraphs and find out how the important ideas are emphasized. Underline the part that is emphasized, and on the blank, write which device for emphasis is used. through position, through parallel structure, or through the arrangement of ideas in climatic order 1.Suddenly there came a loud “pop”, then another, and still another. Then screams and noise of scampering feet and shouts of panic ensued. Everybody seemed to be running anywhere or nowhere. Shrieks and cries of fear rent the air. Pandemonium broke out. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.All of us know the story of the triumph of light over darkness, of life over death, and of heaven over hell. It was the vindication of a seemingly unreasonable faith. It was the glorious resurrection of a Leader. Today, on the commemoration of that Resurrection, we can humbly declare our faith and hope in our own resurrection, in our own inevitable victory. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  78. 78. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.The slaves who built the pyramids were kept at work with a whip. They had no choice about what work they did, how they did it, how long they did it. Similarly, how much choice is there for the people who work in the offices and factories? Often they take what they get and do what they are told. Governments pass laws to control how long they can be made to work, but everybody knows these can be circumvented with overtime and contract work. Device / s _________________________________________________________ Paragraph 4, 5, 6 and 7 are adopted from Howard Dee’s “Preparing for the Coming of God’s Kingdom.” 1.Christmas is a time to reflect, to pause, and to listen in the silence of our hearts to what Jesus wants to tell us by His coming. We have begun the third millennium of our Savior’s birth. We have reached the fullness of time in a Second Advent that has been foretold for ages. We have sensed the immediacy of the moment, but blinded by material goals, we have been oblivious of the signs of the times heralding the coming of God’s Kingdom. Device / s _________________________________________________________ As we scan the world’s landscape, we can readily see that we are living in a grave moment of human history with perilous threats upon our civilization. We see long-honored social norms and institutions breaking down. We see the family, the basic cell of society, gravely threatened by social cancer. We see moral and ethical values collapsing BACK NEXT
  79. 79. 1. In a raging storm of immorality and criminality. We see politics and public service devoid of high principles, losing their noble purpose and mission. We see materialism and secularism becoming the common denominators of social behavior and goals. We see liberal capitalism and its unbridled market forces ruling the world economy, undermining authentic human development, and causing irreversible damage to ecological bio-systems that support life on earth. We see sex, violence, and drugs wantonly exploited with dire consequences to society and human behavior. These are signs of faith in retreat. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.Genocide and ethnic cleansing threaten the demise of entire populations while abortion kills 60 million lives in a year. Even fully viable infants in their mother’s wombs are no longer safe from abortion that the American Cardinals call virtual infanticide. In addition, unclear warheads and missile systems proliferate among warring nations. A Nobel laureate describes the nuclear standoff as a “complete balance of terror.” Never in human history has man’s survival been so threatened as now, twenty centuries after the Savior’s birth. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.By denying God’s rightful place in every human activity in arts and sciences, in politics, in business, in the home, in the workplace, and even in the human thought, man strips himself of the grace of God’s protection. He renders himself defenseless against the evil forces of the Netherland. He threatens his own self-destruction. He causes the eternal loss of his soul. Device / s _________________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  80. 80. 1.No other feast reflects the Filipino character better than Lent. In its stark and somber ambience, in its pathos and celebratory air, in its extremes of season and emotion, Lent presents powerfully the Filipino case: people that seem to relish in the martyrdom of history, but nevertheless prevail against the vicissitudes of fate. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.In times of tragedy or accidents, compassionate people quietly leave offerings of flowers left by total strangers are an uplifting sight. While flowers are offered to the sick, to the dying or to the dead, they nevertheless signify vibrance, exuberance, upliftment and, ultimately, hope. They convey a message that all is not lost, that there is a reason to celebrate or to be alive, that hope abounds, that there are fellow human beings who care. Device / s _________________________________________________________ 1.While obviously not as exuberant as flowers, candles don’t necessarily indicate grief. While often associated with morbidity, candles can also mean hope that something or someone may pull through an impending sad fate, that victory against a mishap, a disease or evil will somehow prevail. As the now trite saying goes: “Why curse the darkness when you can light a candle?” The lightning of a candle is a statement, a stand, a resolve, and a vigil. Device / s _________________________________________________________ BACK NEXT
  81. 81. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 11 Emphasis in the Paragraph Instruction: Here is a paragraph written almost entirely in simple sentences. Read the paragraph carefully and determine the relationships that exist between the ideas expressed. Then, rewrite the paragraph, making it coherent and effective by using the devices you have just learned. The Negritos have one main amusement. It is the dance. It is understandable. The Negritos world is dominated by spirits. They must be pacified with sacrifices. The Shaman or Babaylan is the local medium. He sees to it that mens are interpreted properly. He is the main performer of the tribes’ dances. They are often done in a trance. The Negritos have dances for all occasions. There is the courtship dance. The male circles a female. The female dances meekly and submissively. There is a male-female dance, it is called Acubac. It is danced to a monotonous song. It is called Inalug. It is sung by village women. There is the Baduc. The dancer wields a Kampilan. There are the Potato dance, Bee dance, Torture dance and war dance. Most of the dances are not only for entertainment. They are for thanksgiving and celebration. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  82. 82. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 12 Emphasis in the Paragraph Instruction: Make your own interesting and effective paragraph one about one of the cultural minorities in the Philippines. Be sure to apply the principle of emphasis that you just have taken up. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________ __ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  83. 83. Chapter 2 and Developing Organizing Paragraphs OBJECTIVES: At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: • comprehend the structures and characteristics of the paragraphs developed. • listen as you comprehend, organize, and conceptualize ideas. • identify the kinds, parts and purpose of the paragraph. • write paragraphs illustrating each method of paragraph development. • enhance your reading skills. BACK CONTENTS NEXT
  84. 84. Lesson 4 Composing a Paragraph Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: •grasp the meaning of paragraph; •identify the parts and kinds of a paragraph; and •write paragraphs. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  85. 85. THE PARAGRAPH A paragraph may be a sentence or a group of related sentences about a single topic. It may stand alone or be a part of a larger composition. Its length is dependent on is purpose which may be any of the following: Kinds of Paragraph Purposes Introductory paragraph to announce or lay down the topic Transitional paragraph to announce or present a shift or transition from one thought to another Developmental paragraph to amplify and develop an aspect of the topic Paragraph of dialogue to present lines of characters and the narrator in a storytelling discourse Concluding paragraph to end a composition BACK NEXT
  86. 86. PARTS OF THE PARAGRAPH A paragraph is built in this manner: The main idea which is the author’s point of view about the topic is expressed in a topic sentence which is usually found at the beginning, in the middle or in the end of the paragraph. It contains the topic and the comment of the writer about the topic. Sometimes, the main idea is implied and the reader has to infer it from the whole paragraph. All other elements of the paragraph are called supporting details which amplify the main idea by providing explanations, examples and details that help clarify the main idea. These are the major supporting details that discus the key points of the topic sentence, or minor supporting details that give more specific details to amplify the key points. BACK NEXT
  87. 87. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 13 Main Idea and Supporting Details Instruction: Read the paragraph below and analyze. What I have found with autistic individuals and especially my niece whom I have observed from the age of six months, is that it takes very little to overstimulate them. Their environment should be very orderly, calm and monochromatic. Mary, a previous post, had mentioned blue and green as being good colors and she is correct. These colors calm, relax and nurture. But more than these colors, you need to have a LOT of negative (blank) space in these rooms with light neutral colors as Mary suggested. Use bright colors as accent colors in the form of pictures and/ or seasonal display but be careful even with that, don’t use very much. Surfaces with strong value contrast, especially flooring, can cause problems; the autistic person sometimes does not see a black and white tiled floor as black and white, but the white tile as the floor and the black as a hole and will be afraid to walk on it. The flooring should be close in value and hue to the walls. It has been very enlightening working so closely with my niece and observing her progress. As a side line she has had sound therapy and it is a miracle what that has done for her. Questions: 1.What is the paragraph all about? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ 1.What is the author saying about the topic? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ 1.Give two supporting details that explain the topic sentence? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  88. 88. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 14 Parts of a Paragraph Instruction: Identify the following parts of a paragraph found in the selection. Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading? First, it keeps you awake. (And I don’t mean merely conscious; I mean wide awake). In the second place, reading, if it is active, is training, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed…. a. topic ___________________________________ ___________________________________ b. topic sentence ___________________________________ ___________________________________ c. major supporting details ___________________________________ ___________________________________ d. minor supporting details ___________________________________ ___________________________________ BACK CONTENT NEXT
  89. 89. Date: ______________________________ Name:______________________________ Teacher: ___________________________ Year Level/ Section: __________________ Score: _____________________________ Activity 15 Topic VS. Topic Sentence Instruction: Put a check mark (/) before the line if it is a topic sentence and a cross (×) if it is only a topic. ____ 1. Interviewing a dynamic personality ____ 2. Interviewing is a dynamic and interactive process ____ 3. When the dawn breaks into morning ____ 4. The dawn breaks into morning ____ 5. Computers speeds up the processing of information ____ 6. The latest computer model in town ____ 7. Writing a paragraph is like building a house ____ 8. Building a house with a strong foundation ____ 9. Listen before you write the key points ____ 10. Note-taking is an important tool in learning BACK CONTENT NEXT
  90. 90. Lesson 5 Methods of Paragraph Development Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: •identify the different methods of paragraph development; •appreciate the use of paragraph development; and •apply different methods of paragraph development in writing compositions. BACK CONTENT NEXT
  91. 91. Two Types of Description There are two types of description: (1) informative or objective and (2) artistic or subjective. Informative or Objective Description As the term suggests, this type of description gives information of facts as it pictures out a person, place or thing in accurately chosen words. It may be a long prose or a brief statement. It is intellectual in form and content. It is usually used in writing science and geography books, travel brochures, classified ads, police reports and judicial proceedings. ARTISTIC OR SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION Artistic or subjective description gives pleasure to the reader while stimulating his imagination. It presents the creativity of the author as he expresses his moods, passions, opinions, and feelings through vivid words. BACK NEXT
  92. 92. Example: A slight wind came, stirring the curtains, bringing shadows in the room. Although it was a cloudless day, I was suddenly afraid. Afraid, not sad. Now I thought, I see the dark apparition Rich had talked about. I thought of Father and Mother, the car skidding over the cliff, of the faces of the two of them in the faded photograph tucked neatly beneath the glass top of Auntie Tita’s dresser. I thought of Rich caught up in his own mortal fear. And I, who had not given him one word of comfort when he needed it, gave one to myself. BACK NEXT
  93. 93. DEFINITION When we speak or write, it is likely that a listener or a reader may not fully understand our message because of some terms that may be differently interpreted by the latter. Since a word may have several meanings, it is important to clarify the meaning we have in mind. For example, to a student, the word “class” may mean “a scheduled lesson” or “a group of students attending a scheduled instruction under a teacher.” To a sociologist, the word “class” may refer to “a particular group of persons in a society or community on the basis of their economic or political status.” The process of clarifying the meaning of a term is called definition. Simple terms may be easily explained by giving a synonym or an explanatory phrase. Another way would be by explaining the meaning in a sentence. In a sentence definition, the speaker or writer expresses the nominal definition or dictionary meaning. This is also known as a formal definition which contains three elements: BACK NEXT
  94. 94. 1.the term to be defined, 2.the group or class to which the term belongs; this is known as the genus, and 3.the characteristics of the term that distinguish it from the other members of the group or class; this is known as the diffirentia. In a sentence definition, use the term in its singular form as the subject; and the genus and the differentia as the predicate. Introduce the distinguishing characteristics by a relative pronoun. Avoid using the term in the differentia; for example, “Definition is the process of defining a term”. Defining in this manner has not clarified at all the term “definition”. State the sentence in the present tense following the format: BACK NEXT
  95. 95. Table 3. Format of a Sentence Definition TERM GENUS DIFFERENTIA 1. Ecumenism is any movement which promotes better understanding among differing religions. 2. A muezzin is a Moslem crier who calls the people to pray at the proper time. 3. A pomegranate is a round fruit with a thick, red rind and many seeds covered with red, juicy pulp that can be eaten. 4. A computer is an electronic device that accepts and stores data, accesses and retrieves data, performs certain operations on the data and presents the results of those operations. BACK NEXT
  96. 96. Extended Definition However, some terms are complex. Technical and abstract that their meanings may not easily be explained in one sentence. A paragraph or a series of paragraphs are needed to expound the meaning and this explanation is known as an extended definition. In this case, the sentence definition serves as the topic sentence. You can now write an extended definition using synonyms, examples, details or description; giving what the term encompasses (inclusion; stating what it is not (negation); giving its causes, effects and uses; by comparison and contrast, analogy and analysis. CLASSIFICATION It is a routine activity for a student to put his things for school in their proper places for easy access and retrieval, in the same way as he does with his clothes inside a closet. He arranges his books, notes, pens and other paraphernalia in a manner that he can easily find these things whenever he needs them. BACK NEXT

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