Synthesis across Census’ regions (2010)  PLoS ONE 5(8): e12110.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012110 Mark J. Costello  Univer...
The Census Regions
Census figures <ul><li>2000 - 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>2,700 scientists </li></ul><ul><li>80 countries </li></ul><ul><li>538...
Why now? <ul><li>End of the decade-long Census of Marine Life  with its network of National and Regional Implementation Co...
What we now know <ul><li>about 230,000 marine species described </li></ul><ul><li>Half are crustaceans, molluscs and fish ...
More from the Census Deep-sea dragonfish. Photo: Julian Finn, Museum Victoria Phronima  shrimp living in a salp. Photo: H....
Alien species <ul><li>Most alien species in Mediterranean (Suez Canal effect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by rest of Eu...
Richest regions (in species) <ul><li>Most species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia & Japan >32,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Geographic patterns Poor species – area relationship reflected lack of sampling in offshore areas
Main threats to biodiversity across all regions <ul><li>Top 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss...
Most threatened regions <ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul>...
What we do not know <ul><li>Major gaps in most basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of species in specimen coll...
Recent discoveries Elpidia belyaevi , a new species of sea cucumber from the Arctic deep sea. Photo: Antonina Rogacheva, S...
Marine biodiversity <ul><li>We only see the tip of the iceberg, and  </li></ul><ul><li>it is melting </li></ul>© Ralph A. ...
So what? <ul><li>Knowing what is there opens door to new discoveries  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How nature works  </li></ul></...
Can we afford this research? <ul><li>Can we afford not to? If we do not, then society will lose expertise and knowledge </...
Political significance <ul><li>Baseline for  </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Global...
Solutions? <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Open access’ online species identification guides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pos...
Let’s explore and discover <ul><li>70% of the planet surface is ocean </li></ul><ul><li>60% is deep-sea </li></ul>80% (4/5...
http://coml.org/nric-embargo-video   See the weird and wonderful examples of marine species and their habitats at  From: e...
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Marine Biodiversity - Mark Costello - NRIC synthesis

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  • Marine Biodiversity - Mark Costello - NRIC synthesis

    1. 1. Synthesis across Census’ regions (2010) PLoS ONE 5(8): e12110. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012110 Mark J. Costello University of Auckland, New Zealand [email_address]
    2. 2. The Census Regions
    3. 3. Census figures <ul><li>2000 - 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>2,700 scientists </li></ul><ul><li>80 countries </li></ul><ul><li>538 field expeditions </li></ul><ul><li>US$650 million </li></ul><ul><li>24 worldwide media releases to >1,000 media outlets > 50 languages </li></ul><ul><li>2,600 publications </li></ul><ul><li>>1,200 new species+ </li></ul><ul><li>This synthesis paper based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 regional reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 162 authors with support from 200 of their colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of 26 sub-regions </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Why now? <ul><li>End of the decade-long Census of Marine Life with its network of National and Regional Implementation Committees (NRIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Decade of complaints of dwindling expertise in discovering and describing species (taxonomy) </li></ul><ul><li>Decade of evidence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global scale declines in marine populations (90% for some) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct and indirect long-term changes to marine ecosystems , including collapse of fisheries, ‘trophic cascades’, oxygen depletion (dead zones) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What we now know <ul><li>about 230,000 marine species described </li></ul><ul><li>Half are crustaceans, molluscs and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Proportions of taxa vary geographically, so should avoid extrapolation between regions </li></ul>
    6. 6. More from the Census Deep-sea dragonfish. Photo: Julian Finn, Museum Victoria Phronima shrimp living in a salp. Photo: H. Bahena Deep sea octopus, Benthoctopus Gulf of Mexico 2700m Photo : I. MacDonald Venus fly-trap. Gulf of Mexico 1500 m Photo: I. MacDonald Zombie worm. Eats bones dead whales. Photo: Y. Fuijjwara, JAMSTEC Burglar alarm jellyfish and hydroid. Photos: JAMSTEC
    7. 7. Alien species <ul><li>Most alien species in Mediterranean (Suez Canal effect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by rest of Europe, New Zealand, Australia </li></ul></ul>Round goby Chinese mitten crab. Photos: Estonian Marine Institute. Comb jelly. Photo: Ahmed Kideys Seaweeds Codium & Caulerpa. Photo: Enrique Ballesteros, Mario Cormaci
    8. 8. Richest regions (in species) <ul><li>Most species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia & Japan >32,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China >22,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest species endemicity (uniqueness): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand, Antarctica, Australia and South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endemic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ New Zealand and Antarctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28% Australia & South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>20% South America </li></ul></ul>Endemic Mediterranean sea-slug. Peltodoris atromaculata Photo: Marta Coll
    9. 9. Geographic patterns Poor species – area relationship reflected lack of sampling in offshore areas
    10. 10. Main threats to biodiversity across all regions <ul><li>Top 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Other threats </li></ul><ul><li>Alien species, changing temperature, oxygen depletion, acidification </li></ul>Trawl catch and threatened skate Baby skate, Raja asterias Photo’s: Marta Coll
    11. 11. Most threatened regions <ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>China Sea </li></ul><ul><li>All are enclosed seas near high human populations </li></ul>
    12. 12. What we do not know <ul><li>Major gaps in most basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of species in specimen collections not yet described and named </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of species yet to be discovered – probably over 1 million marine species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May only know 20% of all species in the oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper seas and smaller invertebrates least known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge gaps similar in Developed and Developing Countries </li></ul></ul>Photo: Marta Coll
    13. 13. Recent discoveries Elpidia belyaevi , a new species of sea cucumber from the Arctic deep sea. Photo: Antonina Rogacheva, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow Fucus radicans Pereyra et al. 2009. Baltic endemic seaweed. Photo: Lena Bergstrom, Swedish Board of Fisheries Hydatinidae gen. sp. (red-lined paper bubble snail) new species discovered on a sperm whale carcass in the deep sea. Photo Credit: Yoshihiro Fujiwara JAMSTEC
    14. 14. Marine biodiversity <ul><li>We only see the tip of the iceberg, and </li></ul><ul><li>it is melting </li></ul>© Ralph A. Clevenger/CORBIS www.sea-way.org/blog
    15. 15. So what? <ul><li>Knowing what is there opens door to new discoveries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How nature works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential food (and pests!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of biology with benefits to medicine, food processing, new bio- and chemo-technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every enterprise needs an inventory of its stock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species are to natural resources (biodiversity) what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planets and stars are to astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements are to chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear particles are to physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materials are to machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where would our society and life-style be today if our ancestors did not explore nature and document knowledge for future generations? </li></ul><ul><li>How will our descendants judge us? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Can we afford this research? <ul><li>Can we afford not to? If we do not, then society will lose expertise and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Strong public interest in “discovery” </li></ul><ul><li>It is not expensive in the long-term scheme of things </li></ul>
    17. 17. Political significance <ul><li>Baseline for </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Global Ecosystem Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration that marine environment can be included in global assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now have a baseline of we know, do not know; resources and threats; regarding marine biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of marine biologists have collaborated globally to synthesise their knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Solutions? <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Open access’ online species identification guides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive correlation between state of knowledge index and availability of identification guides, and awareness of alien species (potential pests) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable students and public to participate in species discovery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>International collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership from intergovernmental organisations, countries, institutions, and scientific community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing expertise and facilities (e.g. ship-time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement on gaps and priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modernise working practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid open-access publication of data and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher priority for species identification guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of new technologies to increase productivity </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Let’s explore and discover <ul><li>70% of the planet surface is ocean </li></ul><ul><li>60% is deep-sea </li></ul>80% (4/5) of species undiscovered Underwater, underexplored, under-discovered
    20. 20. http://coml.org/nric-embargo-video See the weird and wonderful examples of marine species and their habitats at From: express.howstuffworks.com Photos without attribution are by the author

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