Estimating the Conservation Value of   Open Space Nature Preserves              Aimee Schmidt       North Carolina State U...
Project ObjectivesIdentify conservation quality properties containingexceptional features of significant ecological valueQ...
Presentation SequenceOpen Space Property SelectionEcosystem Service Benefits     Regulation of Climate: carbon sequestrati...
Study Area:Property Selection                Wood Ducks (Triangle Delta Waterfowl photo)
DefinitionsPublicly Managed Open Space is protected land owned andmanaged in the public interest to   protect water quali...
WakeNature Preserves PartnershipMISSION  Provide resources to identify ecologically valuable, publicly owned  open spaces ...
Study Area Selection Criteria• Publicly managed open space in Wake County• Contiguous parcels >16.2 ha (40 ac)• Property d...
Study Area 39 properties — 14,175 ha• 12,655 ha terrestrial habitat• 1,214 ha forested wetlands• 306 ha aquatic habitat
Properties of Interest to WakeNature      included in the Study AreaAnderson Point Park       Lake Myra Open SpaceHemlock ...
Climate Regulation:Sequestration andStorage of Carbon                 Piedmont Beech Natural Area, Umstead Park           ...
DefinitionsSequestration refers to the annual ratecarbon is stored in an ecosystem overtimeStorage represents the mass of ...
Method for Measuring Benefits of          Carbon Sequestration and Storage Sequestration benefit = Ton-C in A-G biomass   ...
Carbon Sequestered in the Study Area144,617 tons (annual est.)$ 8,677,016 in damageavoided @ $60/tonHighest value per hect...
Carbon Sequestered on Properties of Interest                                                  (normalized)          $1,000...
Carbon Stored in the Study Area2,170,264 tons (est.)$ 130,215,840 in damageavoided @ $60/tonHighest value per hectare:Fall...
Carbon Stored on Properties of Interest                                                                           (normali...
Water Purification:Nutrient Retention                      Marks Creek (George Hess photo)
DefinitionsReplacement cost estimates ecosystemservice value by measuring the cost offiltering and chemically treating wat...
Sub-watersheds Transecting the Study Area
Method for Measuring Benefits of                  Nutrient RetentionRetention Benefits = ∑HP (kg of net retention)HP ∙ tre...
Nutrient Retention in the Study Area22,064 Kg of nitrogen retained 5,012 Kg of phosphorus retainedAnnual benefits of:$ 899...
Nitrogen Retention in the Study Area
Phosphorus Retention in the Study Area
Nutrient Retention on Properties of Interest                                                                      (normali...
Biodiversity:Habitat Protection
Protected Plant and Animal Habitat                        within the Study Area                 12                        ...
Extant Species’ Habitat in the Study AreaProtection Status          PropertySignificantly       Mitchell Mill Park (2);rar...
DefinitionsContingent Valuation (CV) measuresexistence value by eliciting statements aboutwillingness to pay for specific ...
Method for Measuring Benefits of             Biodiversity through Habitat Protection WTP = Δ Service Q, Substitute/complim...
Habitat Protection                          Willingness to pay to protect aquatic and terrestrial                         ...
Forested Wetlands in the Study Area          Ecosystem                             Share of                              A...
Biodiversity:Wildlife-associatedRecreationalOpportunities                      Umstead Park (Aimee Schmidt photo)
DefinitionsTravel Cost Method assumes value isreflected in how much people are willingto pay to travel to a siteConsumer S...
Method for Measuring Benefits ofBiodiversity through Recreational OpportunitiesWildlife-viewing Activity Days = 𝒆 Area + M...
Wildlife-associated Recreationin the Study AreaWildlife-viewing activity days       715,037Daily economic impact andWTP fo...
Ecosystem ServicePortfolio Summary                Cheryl Harner photo
Ecosystem Service Benefits in Study Area           Nitrogen Retention    $899,313        Phosphorus Retention     $1,569,3...
Insight andObservations               White-tailed Deer (Photo by Steve Allen)
Costs that quantify service benefits       social       economic       regulatoryValuation methods       direct market tra...
AcknowledgmentsCommittee members Dr. Bob Abt, Dr. George Hess andDr. Toddi SteelmanTechnical assistance from Curtis Belyea...
Thank you        Crow and Hawk (Photo by Steve Allen)
Geospatial Data Resources           Data            Date                               Agency                           19...
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Socio-economic Valuation of Natural Resources found on Public Open Spaces in Wake County, NC

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The intent of this study is to heighten awareness of open space property values expressed through their biological, ecological, geological and social worth. The InVEST valuation program was used to model the benefits of biological carbon removal and nutrient retention. The benefits of carbon sequestration and storage were expressed as the avoided social cost of carbon. The benefit of nutrient retention was expressed as the cost of replacing biological filtration with artificial water treatment. The Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit was used to quantify the benefits of biodiversity and wildlife-associated recreation based on a willingness to pay to observe wildlife or simply know that a species exists.

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Socio-economic Valuation of Natural Resources found on Public Open Spaces in Wake County, NC

  1. 1. Estimating the Conservation Value of Open Space Nature Preserves Aimee Schmidt North Carolina State University March 2012
  2. 2. Project ObjectivesIdentify conservation quality properties containingexceptional features of significant ecological valueQuantify benefits offered through a portfolio ofecosystem servicesIdentify habitat of conservation concern high quality and rare natural communities significantly rare, threatened or endangered species
  3. 3. Presentation SequenceOpen Space Property SelectionEcosystem Service Benefits Regulation of Climate: carbon sequestration Water Purification: nutrient retention Biodiversity: habitat provisioning Wildlife-associated Recreational OpportunitiesSummary of Ecosystem Service BenefitsInsight and Observations
  4. 4. Study Area:Property Selection Wood Ducks (Triangle Delta Waterfowl photo)
  5. 5. DefinitionsPublicly Managed Open Space is protected land owned andmanaged in the public interest to protect water quality preserve natural resources manage production of resources (forest and farmland) preserve historic and cultural property protect scenic landscapes and outdoor recreation opportunities protect public health, safety and welfareElement Occurrences are rare species and habitat suitable toconserve endangered speciesSignificant Natural Heritage Areas identify land and waterresources important for the conservation of biodiversity thatgenerally contain Element Occurrences
  6. 6. WakeNature Preserves PartnershipMISSION Provide resources to identify ecologically valuable, publicly owned open spaces within Wake County, NC and build capacity for appropriate management and long-term stewardship.GOALS • Identify and designate as “WakeNature Preserves” protected open spaces containing important ecological or geological resources • Create public awareness and appreciation of our highest quality natural areas • Conduct natural resource inventories and develop management plans for Preserves • Develop an organized volunteer base of citizen-scientists to monitor Preserves
  7. 7. Study Area Selection Criteria• Publicly managed open space in Wake County• Contiguous parcels >16.2 ha (40 ac)• Property designated as Significant Natural Heritage Area• Extant Element Occurrences seen since 1985• Conducive to enjoying and learning about nature in a contemplative, natural setting
  8. 8. Study Area 39 properties — 14,175 ha• 12,655 ha terrestrial habitat• 1,214 ha forested wetlands• 306 ha aquatic habitat
  9. 9. Properties of Interest to WakeNature included in the Study AreaAnderson Point Park Lake Myra Open SpaceHemlock Bluffs Lake Raleigh WoodsHorseshoe Farm Park Marks Creek Open SpaceLake Johnson Open Space Mitchell Mill Park
  10. 10. Climate Regulation:Sequestration andStorage of Carbon Piedmont Beech Natural Area, Umstead Park (National Park Service photo)
  11. 11. DefinitionsSequestration refers to the annual ratecarbon is stored in an ecosystem overtimeStorage represents the mass of carbonheld in an ecosystem at any givenpoint in timeSocial Cost of Carbon (SCC) reflectsthe price of economic damage causedby releasing additional carbon into theatmosphere CNBC photo
  12. 12. Method for Measuring Benefits of Carbon Sequestration and Storage Sequestration benefit = Ton-C in A-G biomass ∙ Area ∙ SCC landcover classStorage benefit = ∑ Ton-C in 4 carbon pools ∙ Area ∙ SCC landcover classModel: InVEST, v 2.0Datasets: SEGAP Landcover (’01), NHP SNHA-EO (‘11), Wake Open Space (‘10)
  13. 13. Carbon Sequestered in the Study Area144,617 tons (annual est.)$ 8,677,016 in damageavoided @ $60/tonHighest value per hectare:Falls Lake Recreation AreaWake County Open SpaceCrabtree GreenwayTobacco Trail
  14. 14. Carbon Sequestered on Properties of Interest (normalized) $1,000 18 $900 16 $800 14 $700 12 $600 10 Ton-C/Ha SCC/Ha $500 8 $400 6 $300 4 $200 $100 2 $0 0 Lake Myra Hemlock Horseshoe Mitchell Mill Marks Creek Anderson Lake Lake Raleigh Open Space Bluffs Farm Park Park Open Space Point Park Johnson Woods
  15. 15. Carbon Stored in the Study Area2,170,264 tons (est.)$ 130,215,840 in damageavoided @ $60/tonHighest value per hectare:Falls Lake Recreation AreaCity of Raleigh GreenwayUnderhill mitigationDrewry Hills Park
  16. 16. Carbon Stored on Properties of Interest (normalized) $14,000 250 $12,000 200Social cost of carbon per hectare $10,000 Ton-C per hectare 150 $8,000 $6,000 100 $4,000 50 $2,000 $0 0 Hemlock Lake Myra Mitchell Mill Horseshoe Marks Anderson Lake Lake Bluffs Open Park Farm Park Creek Open Point Park Johnson Raleigh Space Space Woods
  17. 17. Water Purification:Nutrient Retention Marks Creek (George Hess photo)
  18. 18. DefinitionsReplacement cost estimates ecosystemservice value by measuring the cost offiltering and chemically treating water tomeet quality standardsNutrient export is excess nutrient runoffinfluenced by slope and landcover classNutrient retention reflects filtration efficiencyof landcover (plants and soil)Water treatment costs reflect EEP offsetrates applied to excess nitrogen andphosphorus reaching surface water in theNeuse and Cape Fear watersheds
  19. 19. Sub-watersheds Transecting the Study Area
  20. 20. Method for Measuring Benefits of Nutrient RetentionRetention Benefits = ∑HP (kg of net retention)HP ∙ treatment cost($) sub-watershedwhere the net retention of each nutrient is summed as it makes its way down thehydrologic pathway (HP) to the pour point in each sub-watershed.Model: InVEST, v 2.0Datasets: SEGAP Landcover (‘01), USGS Hydrology (‘11), NRCS Soil (‘06), Precipitation (‘71-’00), Evapotranspiration (‘04), NHP SNHA-EO (‘11), Wake Open Space (‘10)
  21. 21. Nutrient Retention in the Study Area22,064 Kg of nitrogen retained 5,012 Kg of phosphorus retainedAnnual benefits of:$ 899,329 @ $ 40.76/kg (nitrogen)$ 1,569,354 @ $ 313.10/kg (phosphorus)Most valuable properties per hectare:Anderson PointFalls Lake Recreation AreaLittle River Open SpaceLake Myra Open Space Upper Tar Guthrie (NCEEP photo)
  22. 22. Nitrogen Retention in the Study Area
  23. 23. Phosphorus Retention in the Study Area
  24. 24. Nutrient Retention on Properties of Interest (normalized) $350 9.0 8.0 $300 7.0 $250 Nutrient retention 6.0Replacement cost $200 5.0 $150 4.0 3.0 $100 2.0 $50 1.0 $0 0.0 Anderson Point Lake Myra Mitchell Mill Horseshoe Hemlock Bluffs Lake Raleigh Marks Creek Lake Johnson Park Open Space Park Farm Park Woods Open Space Open Space Nitrogen Retention Benefit ($/ha) Phosphorus Retention Benefit ($/ha) N Retained (Kg/ha) P Retained (Kg/ha)
  25. 25. Biodiversity:Habitat Protection
  26. 26. Protected Plant and Animal Habitat within the Study Area 12 45% 40% 10 35% Share of EOs Countywide 8 30%Number of EOs 25% 6 11 20% 4 15% 6 10% 5 5 2 4 5% 0 0% Significantly Threatened Endangered High quality Species of rare species species species resources special [DOT] concern State Protection Status Source: NC Natural Heritage Program ( August 2011)
  27. 27. Extant Species’ Habitat in the Study AreaProtection Status PropertySignificantly Mitchell Mill Park (2);rare Lake Johnson (1)Threatened Mitchell Mill Park (2) Marks Creek (1);Endangered Mitchell Mill Park (2)High quality Mitchell Mill Park (2)(imperiled)Special concern Mitchell Mill Park (1)Source: NC Natural Heritage Program( August 2011)
  28. 28. DefinitionsContingent Valuation (CV) measuresexistence value by eliciting statements aboutwillingness to pay for specific ecosystemservices based on hypothetical scenariosExistence Value is placed on simply knowingsomething exists even if you will never see oruse itBenefit Transfer is the adaptation of economicdata from study sites under certain resourceand demographic conditions to a site withsimilar characteristicsConsumer Surplus is the monetary differencebetween actual price paid and the maximumone would have been willing to pay
  29. 29. Method for Measuring Benefits of Biodiversity through Habitat Protection WTP = Δ Service Q, Substitute/compliment, Site characteristics, Research procedure Aquatic Habitat Benefit = 𝒆 MHI + Baseline WQ + Δ Fish population ∙ Households Δ WQ(spp.) Terrestrial Habitat Benefit = 𝒆 Area + CV(OS + spp. habitat) Wetland Service Benefits = Service ∙ 𝒆 MHI + Area + CV(service) Species’ Preservation Benefit = +Δ (spp.)+ CV(bird spp.) ∙ HouseholdsModel: Defenders of Wildlife Habitat Estimation Toolkit , v1.0Datasets: SEGAP Landcover (‘01),NHP SNHA-EO (‘11),US Census (‘10), Wake Open Space (‘10)
  30. 30. Habitat Protection Willingness to pay to protect aquatic and terrestrial habitat to ensure species’ survival Willingness to pay to increase a bird species’ population through habitat protectionRCW (Steve Allen photo) Protection Annual Value Aquatic habitat $ 22,327,620 Terrestrial habitat 603,285 10% increase in bird species’ population 17,610,138 Benefits of Habitat Protection $ 40,541,043
  31. 31. Forested Wetlands in the Study Area Ecosystem Share of Annual Value Function Total ValueBird watching opportunities $ 2,351,518 48%Water purification 1, 682,604 34%Habitat provisioning 428,542 10%Flood prevention 303,500 6%Amenity 106,832 2% Wetland Service Value $ 4,872,966 Little River (NC Div of Water Quality photo)
  32. 32. Biodiversity:Wildlife-associatedRecreationalOpportunities Umstead Park (Aimee Schmidt photo)
  33. 33. DefinitionsTravel Cost Method assumes value isreflected in how much people are willingto pay to travel to a siteConsumer Surplus measures enjoymentreceived from visiting a site or knowingthat a species exists.Economic Impact represents dollarsspent by visitors that ripple through local,regional and state economies generatingadditional sales, income and employment
  34. 34. Method for Measuring Benefits ofBiodiversity through Recreational OpportunitiesWildlife-viewing Activity Days = 𝒆 Area + MHI + Wake residentsDaily Viewing Value = Trip expenses + c. surplus + Economic impact VisitRecreational Benefits = Daily Viewing Value ∙ Wildlife-viewing Activity DaysModel: Defenders of Wildlife Habitat Estimation Toolkit , v1.0Datasets: SEGAP Landcover (‘01), NHP SNHA-EO (‘11), US Census (‘10),NHP SNHA-EO (‘11), Wake Open Space (‘10)
  35. 35. Wildlife-associated Recreationin the Study AreaWildlife-viewing activity days 715,037Daily economic impact andWTP for wildlife viewing $ 55Annual Recreation Benefit $ 39,327,035
  36. 36. Ecosystem ServicePortfolio Summary Cheryl Harner photo
  37. 37. Ecosystem Service Benefits in Study Area Nitrogen Retention $899,313 Phosphorus Retention $1,569,354 Carbon Sequestration $8,677,016Wildlife-associated Recreation $39,327,035 Wildlife Habitat Protection $45,414,039 Carbon Storage $130,215,840
  38. 38. Insight andObservations White-tailed Deer (Photo by Steve Allen)
  39. 39. Costs that quantify service benefits social economic regulatoryValuation methods direct market transactions net willingness to payGround-truth data geo-spatial imagery scientific research Barred “hoot” owl (Photo by Jody Hildreth) benefit value transfer
  40. 40. AcknowledgmentsCommittee members Dr. Bob Abt, Dr. George Hess andDr. Toddi SteelmanTechnical assistance from Curtis Belyea, Rich Gannon,Dr. Alexa McKerrow, Mike Templeton, Dr. Heather Cheshire,Manu Sharma and Stacie WolnyJohn Finnegan, NC Natural Heritage ProgramMichael Kirschman, Nature Preserves & Natural Resources,Mecklenburg County Park & Recreation
  41. 41. Thank you Crow and Hawk (Photo by Steve Allen)
  42. 42. Geospatial Data Resources Data Date Agency 1997- Prism Climate Group, Oregon State UniversityPrecipitation 2001 http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsEvapotranspiration 2004 http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/. Biodiversity & Spatial Information Center, USGS NC CooperativeNC SEGAP Landcover 2001 Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, NCSU. http://www.basic.ncsu.edu/segap/Wake County Public Open 10/10 Wake County GIS Department wakegov.com/gisSpaceOpen Space - NHP SHNA Datasets compiled by Dr. Cheshires GIS class (Spring 2008 ) to 2008and EO intersection assess potential natural areas in Wake County. WakeNature wikiSignificant Natural NC DENR, Div. of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage 2008Heritage Areas Program, Raleigh, NC. nconemap.orgNatural Heritage Element NC DENR, Div. of Parks and Recreation, Natural HeritageOccurrences 8/11 Program, Raleigh, NC nconemap.org Biodiversity & Spatial Information Center, USGS NC CooperativeHUC-10 Watersheds 2008 Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, NCSU. http://www.basic.ncsu.eduDigital Elevation Model United States Geological Survey 10-meter National Elevation 4/11(DEM) Dataset. http://seamless.usgs.gov Soil Survey Staff, NRCS. March 2003 soil survey geographicSoil Depth and Plant 2006 (SSURGO) database for Wake County, NCAvailable Water Content http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov

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