CHAPTER 8 Food SourcesVIT E and K onlyVITAMIN E Seed oils = major source wheat germ oil One of the most misused and controversial nutrients vegetable oils because of many erroneous claims for its healing nuts and seeds powers in variety of ailments whole grains egg yolk Discovery leafy green vegetables 1922- female rats and male rats were sterile unless Toxicity lettuce wheat germ and dried alfalfa were added to their diet large doses may increase time required for blood 1924- called this fertility vitamin, vitamin E coagulation 1936 - vitamin E was isolated from wheat germ oil and symptoms: called it alpha tocopherolgreek of child-birth and to o headache carry o fatigue o weakness Absorption and metabolism o blurred vision o temporary nausea Best absorbed on the presence of fat o flatulence Conditions that interfere with fat absorption: o diarrhea o Bilary tract disease o Pancreatic insufficiency VITAMIN K o Excessive mineral oil digestion Intestinal absorption is between 20-30% 1931 – chickens were protected from bleeding when Vitamin enters lymph unchanged they were fed fish meal that was not extracted with Attaches to lipoproteins as they are being transported ether to bloodstream and become tocopherol 1935 – found that VitK was essential for blood Stored in: coagulation o Adipose tissue o Muscle Chemistry o Liver Derivative of 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (in smaller amounts): K1& K2 o Natural forms o Heart o Yellowish ols o Uterus o Unstable in UV light o Testes o Easily destroyed by strong acids and o Adrenals alkalis o K1 – occurs in green plants Function o K2 - produced by bacterial synthesis in intestine Antioxidant- limits free-radical chain reactions o K3 – menadione; synthetic form of VitK Protect body cells from lipid peroxidation Make cell membranes more stable Absorption Prevents fat from becoming rancid Requires bile and pancreatic juice **vitE requirement is proportional to the amount and the Can also be synthesized by bacteria in GI tract in degree of unsaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in diet jejunum and ileum = less polyunsaturated fat, less vitE required Function Deficiency Aids in blood clotting (main function) Rare Assist in Ca+ absorption If present, due to congenital or malabsorption disease Lowers risk of kidney stones Anemia - For premature infants born w/ inadequate reserve of vitE Deficiency Treatment Rare 30-100mg daily may be prescreibed Only occurs in individuals with GI disorders Minor symptoms such as mausea and intestinal **breastfed infants have VitK due to immaturity distress appears when ingesting 300IU per day of liver and thus newborn babies are given Vit K suppelements and aor the mother is requested to
eat recommended amount of green leafy • Fluoride content of teeth increases rapidly during vegetables daily early mineralization periods and continues to increase with age, but at a slower rate. Food Sources • Metabolism - Distribution • Found in both extracellular and intracellular fluids of Spinach soft tissues but at very low concentrations. Broccoli • Found in saliva, 0.01 ppm. Cabbage – Play a part in maintenance of fluoride Lettuce concentrations in the outer layer of tooth Vegetable oils enamel. • Metabolism - ExcretionCHAPTER 9 • Principal route of excretion is urine (90 – 95%). • FLUORIDE AND THEIR ROLE IN DENTAL CARIES • Remaining 5 – 10% in the feces. PREVENTION • Outstanding characteristic of fluoride excretion is its • Fluoride speed. • Compound form of fluorine. – Reabsorption of fluoride from urine is less – A trace element, halogen. efficient. – Very reactive gas. Effective mechanisms for – Not found in free elemental form in maintaining low concentrations nature. of fluoride in the soft tissues • Major source is from water – artesian wells. and plasma. • Found in soils rich in fluorspar, cryolite, and other Metabolism - Excretion minerals. Directly related to the degree of • Fluoride active bone growth. • Also found in plants, food, and human – calcified Fluoride excretion is lower structures (teeth and skeleton). when a child is growing rapidly • Nutrient beneficial to dental health. and is actively depositing bone • Dietary sources - drinking water material than in adults with a • Waterborne fluorides are the most important source mature bone structure and fully of flouride for humans. mineralized teeth. • Modern diets as a source of flouride. • About half of the ingested fluoride is excreted in the – Use of fluoridated water in preparation of urine each day. processed foods and beverages. • Metabolism - storage • For temperate climates • Deposited in calcified structures. – Optimal fluoride level: 1 ppm of fluoride. • Skeletons of older persons contain more fluoride than • Dietary sources - drinking water those of younger ones. • For infants and young children – Amount of fluoride in bone gradually – Intake of 2 – 4 glasses of water: 0.5 – 1 mg increases with age – greatest during active of fluoride. growth years. • For older children, adolescents and adults • Metabolism - storage – Intake of 6 – 8 glasses of water: 1.5 – 2 mg • Factors that attract fluoride to bones: of fluoride. – Presence of an active growth area at the • Ingestion of fluoride greater than optimal levels in ends of long bones. drinking water (2 ppm) cause fluorosis. – Small size of the bone crystals. – Dietary sources - foods – Close contact between bones and the • Fluoride in foods by adults blood supply – Nonfluoridated communities: 1 mg/day. • Metabolism - storage – Fluoridated communities: 2 – 3 mg/day. • Deposited in the enamel through diffusion. • Not known to be a significant factor in fluorosis – Carious enamel may take up 10 times more (mottled enamel). fluoride than adjacent healthy enamel to • Small amounts: fruits, vegetables, cereals. inhibit expansion of carious lesion. • Rich amounts: seafoods and tea leaves. • Dentin may contain even more fluoride. – Dietary sources - foods – Chemically similar to bone • Metabolism - absorption – Highest concentration found adjacent to • Major site of absorption: stomach. pulp: close to blood supply. • Studies with animals suggest intestinal absorption • Relative safety also occurs. • Low and moderate intake results to: • Soluble fluoride in drinking water is completely – Skeletal fluorosis absorbed, whereas 50 – 80% of the fluoride in foods is – Mottled enamel absorbed. – Osteosclerosis (hardening of bone) • Metabolism - Distribution – Exostoses (bony projections) • Teeth and skeleton have the highest concentrations – Calcification of ligaments of fluoride. • High intake may result to death. – Due to the affinity of fluoride to calcium. – Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride) – Cementum, bone, dentin, and enamel. • White or brown spotty staining of tooth enamel. – May be due to food, debris, or plaque.
• Sometimes will have horizontal striations. – Fluoride supplementation at birth gives• Enamel is deficient in: some protection against caries to the – Number of cells producing enamel causes deciduous teeth. pitting (hypoplasia). – No fluoride supplements must be given to – Hypocalcification causes chalkiness. infants less than 6 months of age (• Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride) exception of infants consuming milk)• Occurs only in teeth that are being formed. • Fluoride and dental caries – When exposed to high concentrations of • Fluoride Rinses fluoride, opaque spots will develop on the – 3 years is necessary to achieve the enamel. maximum benefit from a rinse program.• High intake of fluoride results to mottled enamel. – Effective in children with a higher caries – Protection of fluoride is decreased by baseline than low caries baseline. severe fluorosis. 1. The lower the incidence of• Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride) caries, the more limited the• Fluoride and dental caries effect of each preventive• Communal Water Fluoridation measure. – Most effective, practical, feasible and – Fluoride and dental caries economical public health measure for • Sustained Release Delivery Systems preventing caries. – Advantages: lower required dosage, – Greatest resistance to caries and greatest reduced toxicity, release constant level of amount of fluoride deposition are acquired fluoride, better use of fluoride and better by starting the intake as early as possible patient compliance. and using it continuously. – Clinical studies showed exposure to low• Fluoride and dental caries levels of fluoride is more effective in – Other factors to the decline of caries: decreasing the incidence of caries. 1. Greater dental health – Fluoride and dental caries awareness. – Useful in children who tend to get caries 2. Expansion in dental resources. easily, xerostomia, adults with rampant 3. Application of preventive root or coronal caries. dentistry. • Fluoride and dental caries – Fluoride and dental caries • Fluoridated Milk• School Water Fluoridation – Milk is used as an instrument for fluoride – Fluoridated with levels of three to seven administration. times the optimum for communal water – Fluoridated milk was found to be as fluoridation resulting to reduction in caries effective as fluoridated water in reducing incidence. dental caries.• Fluoride and dental caries – Fluoride and dental caries• Fluoride Tablets • Fluoridated Salt – Ingestion daily beginning at 5 – 9 years: – Use salt as a vehicle for fluoride in the diet. permanent teeth can still be significantly – Salt is about 2/3 as effective as the water. protected from caries. – Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride• Fluoride and dental caries 1. Increase in the enamel’s resistance to acid solubility – Lozenge is much preferred than tablets or − Enamel formed has more perfect and drops. larger crystals, less soluble in acid, and less 1. Dissolves slowly, produces both likely to develop caries. topical and systemic effects. Fluoride favors formation of – Advantage: specific and precise dosage fluorapatite, a more acid – – Disadvantage: assurance of continuous resistant apatite than daily ingestion and cost is greater. hydroxyapatite. 1. Fluoride and dental caries − Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride• Prenatal Fluoride Supplement 2. Remineralization – Fluorides supplements are not − Greater concentration of fluoride released recommended for adults, especially from the dissolved enamel or already pregnant women, for reducing dental present on the plaque, the more will caries. remineralization be favored and carious 1. The concentration of fluoride process be slowed. that reaches the fetus is − Use of topical fluoride raises the fluoride generally lower than that in the level of tooth surface and underlying maternal blood. tissues to a level expected to protect 2. Infants exposed will have higher against caries. plasma, skeletal and developing − Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride enamel fluoride levels. 3. Antibacterial effects of fluoride• Fluoride and dental caries − Inhibition of enzymes essential to cell• Fluoride Supplements (Infants and Children) metabolism and growth. − Lower the surface energy of the tooth. − Can strip off bacteria from hydroxyapatite.
Fluoride can bind more Deficiency in Vit. D- decreased calcium effectively to positively charged absorption areas on the apatite crystal than 4) Lactose can the bacteria. The disaccharide lactose found • Dental benefits in milk promotes calcium • Fluorosis of the deciduous teeth is rarely seen and is absorption. not a problem. Lactose in ileum change the • First 2 to 3 years of life are the most critical period for intestinal bacteria lowering the the development of mottled enamel on the pH thus increase calcium permanent anterior teeth and for this reason only. absorption – 0.25 mg/day is prescribed from birth until 6) Citric acid 2 years of age. 6) Its low pH promotes calcium • Dental benefits absorption – 0.5 mg/day from 2 to 3 years of age. 7) Oxalic and phytic acid – 1.0 mg/day from 3 until 13 years of age. 8) Intake of foods rich in oxalic • Use of fluoridated water or fluoride supplements as such as spinach and phytic acids early as 1 year of age enhance the formation of the found in cereal grain and meal relatively caries – resistant fluorapatite in the enamel flour causes formation of surface. insoluble complexes (calciumThank you salts) within intestinal lumen that leads to increased calcium absorption.CHAPTER 10 7) Fat 6) Decreased fat, bile or salts The Macrominerals: produces insoluble calcium thus Calcium, Phosphorus increase calcium absorption. and Magnesium 7) Emotional reactions Their Role in the Health of the Body and Especialy the 8) Stress may cause hormonal Oral Cavity changes that affects calcium metabolism 11) Exercise Calcium Weight-bearing exercise helps maintain calcium in bone. Storage Functions calcium and phosphorus are stored in the trabeculae Provides rigidity and strength to the bones and teeth but can be withdrawn out when it is needed in the Functions (cont…) blood Serum calcium performs specific functions: The blood and tissue calcium serve as reserves Contraction and relaxation of heart muscle. The degree of bone development amount of calcium Helps in blood clotting deposited in are directly related to the amount of the Low blood calcium will increase the irritability of calcium available from the diet. nervous tissue and may cause tetany. Excretion Activate enzymes such as pancreatic lipase and Out of the 100og dietary intake of calcium, 700 – 800g alkaline phosphatase. are excreted in feces but it could be less than that Activates rennin which causes curding of milk when the dietary intake is low. during its digestion During lactation, mother loses 150 -300mg of calcium Necessary for the release of NTs daily but normally, it is not affected because of (neurotransmitters) human adaptability. Regulates transport of ions across cell Excess calcium from the bone are excreted in the membranes urine Absorption Unimportant daily lost of 15mg of calcium through Active process perspiration Reqiures Vitamin D and calcium-binding protein Regulation of calcium balance 20-30% of calcium is absorbed and the rest are Calcium in serum is regulated by the: excreted in the feces, urine and perspiration. Parathormone (PTH) Factors affecting absorption of Calcium Calcitonin 1. Needs of the body -serum calcium rises, PTH is Growing child, pregnant, a person healing from inhibited a bone fracture- increased calcium absorption -serum calcium falls, secretion 2. Gastric acidity of PTH increases Acidity in the stomach converts the -serum calcium rises, calcitonin insoluble calcium salts into more soluble increases types Role of Bone, Kidney, and Intestine 3. Hormonal influences Kidney can resorb calcium Parathormone and cacitonin Intestine - acidity Vitamin D
Bone – activity of the osteoblast and Depression osteoclast. How? Tremors Vitamin D Convulsions Necessary for normal intestinal absorption Chronic Renal Failure: of calcium and helps maintain bone cells, Definition: thus regulating serum calcium and serum Slow loss of kidney function over time phosphate levels. Signs & Symptoms: Recommended Dietary Allowance and Sources Appetite loss Avrage adult- 800mg Nausea Infants- 360-450mg Headache 1-10 yrs.old – 800mg Weight loss 11-18 yrs.old- 1200mg Chronic Alcoholism During lactation- 1200mg Definition: *all daily Primary disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental Sources factors influencing its development and manifestations Cheddar cheese – highest level of calcium Signs & Symptoms: Best sources are hard cheese, milk, and dark green Neglecting responsibilities due to drinking leafy vegetables (the darker the green, the more Tolerance (over time, one needs more and more alcohol to feel calcium), the same effects): 1st major warning sign of alcoholism Good sources are ice cream, blackstrap molasses, Withdrawal (body is used to alcohol and experiences withdrawal broccoli, baked beans, dried legumes, and dried figs. symptoms if it’s taken away): 2nd major warning sign of Fair sources are cottage cheese, string breans, alcoholism parsnips, lima beans lettuce and other sald greens, Anxiety eggs and bread. Depression Calcium supplements Irritability and so on. Calcium carbonate or oyster shell calcium is Acute Diarrhea frequently recommended for persons who cannot eat Definition: dairy products. Abrupt onset of abnormally high fluid content in the stool When children refuse to drink milk, it should be Signs & Symptoms: incorporated either in fluid or powder form in soups, Watery stool gravies, casseroles, or baked goods. Abdominal pain FeverMacromolecule: Magnesium dehydrationShould be provided in the foods that we eat every day Chronic malabsorption syndromeThird most abundant mineral in teeth Definition:One of the major cations in plant & animal tissue Alteration in the ability of the intestine to absorb nutrientsEssential ion (enzymatic reactions & protein synthesis) adequately into the bloodstreamFound mostly in bones and muscles, cell types and body fluids Signs & Symptoms:Human body = 20 to 35 mg of Mg DiarrheaEssential constituent of bone & soft tissues BloatingFunctions: FlatulenceRegulate body’s nerves &muscles Weight lossPlays a role in protein synthesis crampingActivator of numerous coenzymes (carboxylase and co-A) HypomagnesemiaHelps in catalyzing the transport of phosphate groups Definition:Binds mRNA Low levels of Magnesium in the bloodImportant in synthesis & degradation of DNA Often leads to hypocalcemia (inhibition of parathyroid hormone;Critical for normal metabolism& function of the organism does not resolve until the magnesium deficiency has beenAbsorption & Excretion corrected)1/3 is absorbed and utilized in the body Signs & Symptoms:High intake of other macromolecule (Ca, P, lactose) will interfere Muscle Weaknesswith Mg absorption ConvulsionsStored in bone---little excretion through the intestine FatigueMg is lost via urine &feces SourcesMaintenance of the normal level of Mg in the blood depends on Mustard greensa balance between absorption and renal excretion of sodium. Whole grainsMagnesium Deficiency NutsConditions: SoybeansChronic malabsoprtion syndrome Green leafy veggiesAcute diarrhea Dietary allowanceChronic renal failure Male: 350 mgChronic alcoholism Females: 300 mgSymptoms: Thank you and have a good day. HyperexcitabilityBehavioral disturbances ToxicityWeakness Hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood)
Hypercalcinuria (excess calcium in the urine) -dietary calcium and vitamin D Kidney stones (result in high levels of calcium in the Osteoporosis serum and urine calcification of soft tissues) Abnormal organic matrix formation Hyperparathyroidism Due to: PHOSPHORUS -deficiencies of calcium and estrogen One of the most essential elements of the body Results in: Available in all foods of plant and animal origin -decreased ossification (forming activity) Second most abundant mineral in body, after calcium -mineral composition of bone remains normal >600 g of phosphorus in the normal human body, 80- Clinical Manifestations: 90% combined with calcium to form bones and teeth -hip and back pain Absorption and Metabolism -decreased height Dietary phosphorus intake : 1.5 g/day -tendency to bone fracture Phosphorus balance is regulated by the metabolic Treatment and hormonal factors vitamin D, calcitonin, -estrogens, protein, calcium, vitamin D and fluoride parathyroid hormone Amount of phosphorus in the body is controlled by FACTORS INDICATE GREATER RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS excretion in the urine rather than by absorption Heredity Function Smoking Major functions: Alcohol -formation of bone and tooth mineral Coffee(5 or more cups daily) -production and transfer of high-energy phosphates Low calcium intake Plays a role in absorption and transport of nutrients Certain levels of hormones, PTH, calcitonin, estrogen, Regulates the acid-base balances androgen, insulin, growth hormone, throid hormones, Plays an important role in cell protein synthesis (part protein of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the substances that Drugs like phenytoin (anticonvulsant) and control heredity) phenobarbital Buffers in blood and tissue (chemicals that prevent Clinical diagnosis change in the concentration of other chemicals) Osteoporosis occurs most commonly in older people, Attachment of phosphate to the matrix of bone and >60 age teeth is one of the initial steps in their mineralization Osteoporotic individuals tends to have a lower intake Failure of bone calcification results from a lack of and a higher urinary excretion of calcium than normal phosphorus as often as from a lack of calcium persobs Increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is associated Loss of height because of shortening of the trunk and with poor bone calcification as seen in rickets collapsed of the vertebrae (vitamin D deficency disease resulting in bone Therapy deformities) and osteomalacia (softening of the bone Ingestion of high calcium diets , estrogen, fluoride, in adults) calcitonin, PTH, active form of vitamin D Recommended Dietary Allowances and Sources Estrogen and diet: reduces vertebral, hip and forearm Intakes of 800 to 1200 mg of phosphorus daily are fractures recommended Fluoride: large doses of fluoride can stimulate bone Animal foods rich in protein are also rich in formation phosphorus (meat, fish, poultry, eggs and milk) Calcitonin: can increase bone mass Nuts, legumes and whole-grain cereals are also good PTH increases with age, also found to increase bone sources of phosphorus mass* Excess dietary phosphorus in animals will increasebone loss and bone porosity (significantly decrease bone mineral CHAPTER 11and cause calcification of the kidney, tendons, heart and thoracicaorta) • FLUORIDE AND THEIR ROLE IN DENTAL CARIES Osteoporosis PREVENTION A condition in which the rate of bone resorption is • Fluoride greater than the rate of bone formation, resulting in • Compound form of fluorine. decreased bone density and a reduction in the total – A trace element, halogen. bone mass – Very reactive gas. Caused by deficiencies of calcium and estrogen – Not found in free elemental form in hormone nature. Osteomalacia • Major source is from water – artesian wells. Abnormal bone calcification • Found in soils rich in fluorspar, cryolite, and other Due to: minerals. - deficiency of Vitamin D, Calcium and phosphates • Fluoride Results in: • Also found in plants, food, and human – calcified - excessive uncalcified osteiod structures (teeth and skeleton). -Abnormal bone mineral composition • Nutrient beneficial to dental health. Clinical Manifestations: • Dietary sources - drinking water -weakness • Waterborne fluorides are the most important source -aching of flouride for humans. Treatment • Modern diets as a source of flouride.
– Use of fluoridated water in preparation of • Metabolism - storage processed foods and beverages. • Deposited in calcified structures.• For temperate climates • Skeletons of older persons contain more fluoride than – Optimal fluoride level: 1 ppm of fluoride. those of younger ones.• Dietary sources - drinking water – Amount of fluoride in bone gradually• For infants and young children increases with age – greatest during active – Intake of 2 – 4 glasses of water: 0.5 – 1 mg growth years. of fluoride. • Metabolism - storage• For older children, adolescents and adults • Factors that attract fluoride to bones: – Intake of 6 – 8 glasses of water: 1.5 – 2 mg – Presence of an active growth area at the of fluoride. ends of long bones.• Ingestion of fluoride greater than optimal levels in – Small size of the bone crystals. drinking water (2 ppm) cause fluorosis. – Close contact between bones and the – Dietary sources - foods blood supply• Fluoride in foods by adults • Metabolism - storage – Nonfluoridated communities: 1 mg/day. • Deposited in the enamel through diffusion. – Fluoridated communities: 2 – 3 mg/day. – Carious enamel may take up 10 times more• Not known to be a significant factor in fluorosis fluoride than adjacent healthy enamel to (mottled enamel). inhibit expansion of carious lesion.• Small amounts: fruits, vegetables, cereals. • Dentin may contain even more fluoride.• Rich amounts: seafoods and tea leaves. – Chemically similar to bone – Dietary sources - foods – Highest concentration found adjacent to• Metabolism - absorption pulp: close to blood supply.• Major site of absorption: stomach. • Relative safety• Studies with animals suggest intestinal absorption • Low and moderate intake results to: also occurs. – Skeletal fluorosis• Soluble fluoride in drinking water is completely – Mottled enamel absorbed, whereas 50 – 80% of the fluoride in foods is – Osteosclerosis (hardening of bone) absorbed. – Exostoses (bony projections)• Metabolism - Distribution – Calcification of ligaments• Teeth and skeleton have the highest concentrations • High intake may result to death. of fluoride. – Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride) – Due to the affinity of fluoride to calcium. • White or brown spotty staining of tooth enamel. – Cementum, bone, dentin, and enamel. – May be due to food, debris, or plaque.• Fluoride content of teeth increases rapidly during • Sometimes will have horizontal striations. early mineralization periods and continues to • Enamel is deficient in: increase with age, but at a slower rate. – Number of cells producing enamel causes• Metabolism - Distribution pitting (hypoplasia).• Found in both extracellular and intracellular fluids of – Hypocalcification causes chalkiness. soft tissues but at very low concentrations. • Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride)• Found in saliva, 0.01 ppm. • Occurs only in teeth that are being formed. – Play a part in maintenance of fluoride – When exposed to high concentrations of concentrations in the outer layer of tooth fluoride, opaque spots will develop on the enamel. enamel.• Metabolism - Excretion • High intake of fluoride results to mottled enamel.• Principal route of excretion is urine (90 – 95%). – Protection of fluoride is decreased by• Remaining 5 – 10% in the feces. severe fluorosis.• Outstanding characteristic of fluoride excretion is its • Mottled enamel (Endemic Dental Fluoride) speed. • Fluoride and dental caries – Reabsorption of fluoride from urine is less • Communal Water Fluoridation efficient. – Most effective, practical, feasible and Effective mechanisms for economical public health measure for maintaining low concentrations preventing caries. of fluoride in the soft tissues – Greatest resistance to caries and greatest and plasma. amount of fluoride deposition are acquired Metabolism - Excretion by starting the intake as early as possible Directly related to the degree of and using it continuously. active bone growth. • Fluoride and dental caries Fluoride excretion is lower – Other factors to the decline of caries: when a child is growing rapidly 1. Greater dental health and is actively depositing bone awareness. material than in adults with a 2. Expansion in dental resources. mature bone structure and fully 3. Application of preventive mineralized teeth. dentistry.• About half of the ingested fluoride is excreted in the – Fluoride and dental caries urine each day. • School Water Fluoridation
– Fluoridated with levels of three to seven – Fluoridated milk was found to be as times the optimum for communal water effective as fluoridated water in reducing fluoridation resulting to reduction in caries dental caries. incidence. – Fluoride and dental caries• Fluoride and dental caries • Fluoridated Salt• Fluoride Tablets – Use salt as a vehicle for fluoride in the diet. – Ingestion daily beginning at 5 – 9 years: – Salt is about 2/3 as effective as the water. permanent teeth can still be significantly – Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride protected from caries. 1. Increase in the enamel’s resistance to acid solubility• Fluoride and dental caries − Enamel formed has more perfect and – Lozenge is much preferred than tablets or larger crystals, less soluble in acid, and less drops. likely to develop caries. 1. Dissolves slowly, produces both Fluoride favors formation of topical and systemic effects. fluorapatite, a more acid – – Advantage: specific and precise dosage resistant apatite than – Disadvantage: assurance of continuous hydroxyapatite. daily ingestion and cost is greater. − Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride 1. Fluoride and dental caries 2. Remineralization• Prenatal Fluoride Supplement − Greater concentration of fluoride released – Fluorides supplements are not from the dissolved enamel or already recommended for adults, especially present on the plaque, the more will pregnant women, for reducing dental remineralization be favored and carious caries. process be slowed. 1. The concentration of fluoride − Use of topical fluoride raises the fluoride that reaches the fetus is level of tooth surface and underlying generally lower than that in the tissues to a level expected to protect maternal blood. against caries. 2. Infants exposed will have higher − Mechanisms of anticaries action of fluoride plasma, skeletal and developing 3. Antibacterial effects of fluoride enamel fluoride levels. − Inhibition of enzymes essential to cell• Fluoride and dental caries metabolism and growth.• Fluoride Supplements (Infants and Children) − Lower the surface energy of the tooth. – Fluoride supplementation at birth gives − Can strip off bacteria from hydroxyapatite. some protection against caries to the Fluoride can bind more deciduous teeth. effectively to positively charged – No fluoride supplements must be given to areas on the apatite crystal than infants less than 6 months of age ( can the bacteria. exception of infants consuming milk) • Dental benefits• Fluoride and dental caries • Fluorosis of the deciduous teeth is rarely seen and is• Fluoride Rinses not a problem. – 3 years is necessary to achieve the • First 2 to 3 years of life are the most critical period for maximum benefit from a rinse program. the development of mottled enamel on the – Effective in children with a higher caries permanent anterior teeth and for this reason only. baseline than low caries baseline. – 0.25 mg/day is prescribed from birth until 1. The lower the incidence of 2 years of age. caries, the more limited the • Dental benefits effect of each preventive – 0.5 mg/day from 2 to 3 years of age. measure. – 1.0 mg/day from 3 until 13 years of age. – Fluoride and dental caries • Use of fluoridated water or fluoride supplements as• Sustained Release Delivery Systems early as 1 year of age enhance the formation of the – Advantages: lower required dosage, relatively caries – resistant fluorapatite in the enamel reduced toxicity, release constant level of surface. fluoride, better use of fluoride and better Thank you patient compliance. – Clinical studies showed exposure to low levels of fluoride is more effective in CHAPTER 12 decreasing the incidence of caries. Trace Minerals Other Than Fluorides – Fluoride and dental caries Essential Trace Minerals – Useful in children who tend to get caries Essential Trace Minerals easily, xerostomia, adults with rampant Trace elements or micro-minerals root or coronal caries. Inorganic nutrients required by humans in very small• Fluoride and dental caries amountsfrom micrograms (o.oo1 mg) to no more than• Fluoridated Milk a few mg - less than 100 mg/day – Milk is used as an instrument for fluoride Essential for humans with vital functions to avoid a administration. deficiency disease. Mn, Mo, Se, Cr, Co – human enzymatic actions
Fe, I, Zn – recommended daily allowances If phytates (a salt of phosphoric acid ester) present in Cu, F – estimated safe ranges and adequate intake bran or food phosphates are ingested in excess, the Trace Elements: Modes of Action absorption of iron can be impaired. Act as catalysts either as Absorption Metallo-enzymes The Ferrous iron is initially taken up by the brush the trace element is an integral border of the intestinal wall, where it is passed into the part of the enzyme molecule intestinal mucosal cells. Fe, Zn, Mo In the mucosal cells, it can be either bound to: Cu – firmly bound and Transferrin incorporated in the protein an iron-binding protein for molecule of the enzyme transport of iron in blood tyrosinase And absorbed into the bloodstream or combined with Metal-enzymes another protein: the metal ion is loosely Apoferritin associated with the enzymes This protein complex is known as ferritin (the storage Arginase form of iron), which remains within the cells and is Functions as constituents and activators of hormones released as needed. Iodine: found in thyroid hormones Control of iron absorption depends on the amount of Chromium: insulin activator iron deposited as ferritin in the mucosal cells Cobalt: acts as a structural center of vit.B12 Absorption Dietary Sources & Classification 2 most important factors determining the regulation of Good sources iron absorption: Meat The state of iron stores in the body Fish The state of RBC formation in the bone Natural plant foods marrow Grains Absorption is increased in conditions that decrease Beans body iron Fruits during growth or pregnancy when new Vegetables RBCs are being produced Consumption of processed foods REDUCES the intake during anemia resulting from hemorrhage of essential micronutrients, unless these foods are Transport fortified to conc’ns at least equal to those naturally Transferrin occurring in the product. special carrier protein in the plasma 2 categories: designed for binding and transporting iron. Those that have well-defined human attach to the immature RBC and rapidly requirements – Fe, Zn, I, Cu, F pass iron to them. Those that are integral constituents or attaches to the liver cells and more slowly activators of enzymes – Mn, Mo, Se, Cr, Co transfers iron to them Iron responsible for recycling iron and Iron transporting it to the bone marrow by One of the most important minerals in nutrition production of new RBCs Involved in oxygen transport and cellular respiration The normal plasma iron concentration= 100 µg per 100 (in hemoglobin) mL Serves as an oxygen reserve in muscles metabolism (in The total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) of transferrin = myoglobin) 330 µg/per 100 L Total quantity ofironin the body averages about 4g, Transport consisting of two major fractions: A drop in the saturation of transferrin below 10-15% 70% essential body iron indicates iron deficiency anemia hemoglobin, myoglobin, and After 120 days, RBCs are destroyed by intracellular enzymes such as reticuloendothelial cells (large phagocytic cell) and the cytochrome released iron is taken up by the transferrin molecules. 30% mobilizable iron reserves Iron and Storage Overload ferritin&hemosiderin Ferritin Physiological Functions storage form of excess iron in the liver cells Absorption as when it is deposited there among all cells Transport of the body Absorption also found in the cells of spleen and bone Humans have difficulty in efficient iron absorption. marrow Only 7-10% of iron in cereals and vegetables Hemosiderin 10-30% in animal protein and soybeans an insoluble storage form of iron in the Iron is absorbed in the reduced ferrous state (divalent) body as when the amount of of iron in the in the upper portion of the small intestine liver, spleen, and bone marrow EXCEEDS Ascorbic acid, citric acid, and amino acids the capacity of the cells to form ferritin. convert the less absorbable ferric (trivalent) Hemochromatosis iron present in foodsèmore phosphoric absorbable ferrous form
occurs when there is excessive It leads to loss of efficiency and impaired general levels of hemosiderin or iron health overload. Occurrences and Causes characterized by excess Occurs most frequently in infants and children due to deposition of iron in the tissues, undergoing rapid growth and having rapid RBC especially in the liver, and by formation skin pigmentation Occurs in pregnant women due to the increasing Iron and Storage Overload demand of the growing fetus on the mother’s body Common causes of Hemochromatosis: iron Numerous transfusions in patients with In adult males and postmenopausal women – hemolytic anemia (separation of pathological blood loss hemoglobin from red blood cells) anemias In premenopausal women – menstruational blood loss Excessive iron intake from food cooked in Bizarre food habits (avoidance of meat and vegetables) iron vessels Inadequate intake among the elderly due to poverty Drinking excessive amounts of cheap wines Vomiting, diarrhea, and intestinal hypermotility Failure of the body to regulate absorption, increases iron loss. as in alcoholics on low-protein diets and in Clinical Manifestations patients with hereditary hemochromatosis Slow development; takes for months or years Recommended Dietary Allowances Anemia Iron intake usually tends to be inadequate in the infant Characterized by weakness, fatigue, pallor, and child during the first 2 years. and numbness and tingling of the The recommended dietary allowance (RDA)=10-15 extremities mg/day Epithelial changes – early manifestations Males Nail changes; dullness, brittleness 11-18 yrs. old: 18 mg daily Fingernails may be flat instead of convex; 19 and older: 10 mg daily spoon-shaped appearance with longitudinal Females ridges (koilonychia) At childbearing age: 18 mg daily Hair growth may be altered After menopause: 10 mg Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) in severe cases The amount of iron expected from a normal diet is Clinical manifestations: oral area about 6 mg/1000 kcal Glossitis Only 10% of iron from is food is absorbed, as this Inflammation of the tongue approx. replaces the 1 mg/day lost physiologically in a Fissures (clefts or grooves) at the corners of the mouth normal adult The papillae of tongue are atrophied, giving a smooth, Food Sources shiny, red appearance to the tongue 3 forms of iron in food The clinical appearance of the tongue in iron deficiency Heme resembles that in vit.B complex deficiency Nonheme Oral mucous membranes may be atrophied and ashen Additive iron gray Enriched white bread, rolls, and crackers are a major More susceptible to carcinoma (cancer arising from source of iron. epithelial cells) The amount of iron to be absorbed from the food Plummer-Vinson syndrome depends or on the bodily need for iron. Combination of dysphagia, koilonychia, The greater the need, the greater the absorption angular stomatitis, and atrophic glossitis Heme THERAPY form of iron in hemoglobin and in myoglobin that is Administration of 200 mg of ferrous sulfate tablets 3x a absorbed intact day (after each meal) as prescribed by a physician found in organ meats (liver, heart, kidney, spleen), red Treatment should be continued for approximately 2 meats, veal, pork, poultry, fish, oysters, and clams, but months after the hemoglobin level has returned to not milk or milk products normal. About 40% of iron in meat and fish is heme iron ZINC although only 1/3 can be absorbed by the body Zinc Nonheme Approx. 2-3 g of zinc in human body Accounts for the other 60% of iron in animal protein Is concentrated in the eyes, liver, bones, prostate, and all the iron in molasses, fruits (figs, dates), green prostatic secretions, and hair veggies, dried beans, nuts, and grain products (wheat In blood, 85% in RBCs, but each WBC has about 25x germ) than each RBC. Only 2-10% can be absorbed by the body Functions Additive iron An integral part of at least 70 enzymes that belong to found in both enriched and fortified products metallo-enzymes Iron Deficiency Anemia Active component of carbonic anhydrase Occurs due to inadequate intake or excessive loss of Essential for the transport of iron or both. CO2 to the lungs Characterized by the production of small RBCs that are Other enzymes with zinc content deficient in hemoglobin. Alcohol dehydrogenase The most common type of nutritional anemia Lactate dehydrogenase
Activates enzymes (carboxypeptidase and Consuming excessive amounts of zinc may increase the aminopeptidase) that function in the digestion of risk of cardiovascular disease due to: proteins Low HDL Is part of alkaline phosphatase − bone metabolism High LDL Added to insulin to prolong the hypoglycemic effect Common zinc level in popular vitamin/mineral It plays an essential role in RNA, DNA, and protein preparations is 15 mg (safe) synthesis Clinical Application Functions Zinc sulfate supplements can decrease wound healing Essential for wound healing, tissue growth, and time significantly prevention of dwarfism, production of hormones. Zinc peroxide powder when used topically on acute Zinc inadequacy may play an important role in the gingival lesions in acute necrotizing gingivitis, the reduced immune response in protein-calorie soreness disappears soon enough and the mouth malnutrition restores to its normal healthy condition Used in the treatment of sickle-cell disease SELENIUM Assist in restoring a missing sense of taste in some Selenium cases Essential component of the enzyme that catalyzes Important for thymic hormone activity since its oxidation of glutathione which protects red blood cells removal reduces hormone functions through destruction of hydrogen peroxide protecting Recommended Dietary Allowance hemoglobin from oxidative damage RDI: 15 mg a day Extremely effective in reducing the prevalence of During pregnancy and lactation: 20-25 mg/day keshan disease, which is characterized by Infant at 6 mos. old: 3 mg/day abnormalities in the heart muscle. 6 mos.-1 yr.: 5 mg/day Estimated safe and recommended daily intake of 1-10 yrs.: 10 mg/day selenium for adults is 0.05 to 0.2mg while for infants,*These are relatively high values when considered in proportion children and adolescents is somewhat less.to the amount of food eaten. MOLYBDENUM Food Sources Molybdenum Protein rich foods such as meat and fish Part of the molecular structure of two enzymes: Oysters and herring as highest zinc content per ounce Xanthineoxidase and Aldehydeoxidase, Milk --- total dietary zinc intake Xanthineoxidase is responsible for the conversion of**Grains contain dietary fiber and phytic acid, that can bind zinc, xanthine to uric acid.inhibiting its absorption, but when used in making bread with Daily intake is 0.15 to 0.5mgyeast, it inactivates the phytates and the body now obtains more CHROMIUMof the zinc. Chromium Deficiencies Trivalent chromium is the biologically active form of Causes chromium Poor diet Required for the maintenance of normal glucose and Excessive alcohol intake energy metabolism Liver disease May act as cofactor in insulin and stimulates synthesis Chronic kidney disease of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver Genetic disorders Daily intake is 0.05 to 0.2mg Acrodermatitisenteropathica COPPER A sever Copper gastrointestinal and Functions : cutaneous disease 1. Aids in synthesis of hemoglobin in the bone marrow May intensify the anemia of sickle-cell 2. Form and maintain compounds having enzymatic disease activity Deficiencies 3. Influence the central nervous system physiology Clinical Manifestations 4. Aids in formation of pigments Retardation of both growth and sexual 5. Component of enzyme necessary for the oxidation of development the amino acid tyrosine and vitamin C Poor appetite 6. May also have a role in the maintenance of the myelin Slow healing of wounds sheath around the nerve tissue Loss of sense of taste Copper Progressive pustular dermatitis of the Deficiency : extremities, mouth, anus, and genital areas 1. Copper deficiency seen in australian lambs called Emotional irritability “swayback disease” characterized by demyelination Tremors and degeneration of motor nerves in CNS, its Loss of coordination prevented by giving copper supplements to In pregnancy ewes(female sheep) during pregnancy. Abnormal taste sensations 2. Found by clinicians that combined administration of Prolonged gestation copper and iron is more effective in treating Protracted labor hypochromic anemia than the administration of iron Increased risks to the fetus alone Supplementation Copper Effects of excess :
Accumulation of excess copper in body Hypothyroidism tissues, probably because of genetic Cretinism and Myxedema are pathological conditions absence of liver enzyme is called Wilson’s resulting from low thyroid activity disease, characterized by neurological Treatment is administration of thyroid hormone until degeneration and cirrhotic liver changes. euthyroid(normal) state is achieved Reduction of dietary copper may be useful If it affects a fetus prior to birth, cretinism develops in treating this disease. Hyperthyroidism Also be arrested by giving chelating agents Excessive activity of thyroid gland brought by like penicillamine to mobilize copper from deficiency of iodine producing an enlarged excretory tissues and promote excretion in the urine. gland as a result of hyperplasia of the cells lining the Copper follicles along with increased colloidal material Excess copper concentrations found in human saliva Produces hypermetabolic rate(increase pulse rate, appear to inhibit acid production, although there is temperature and blood pressure, extreme nothing conclusive to this theory. nervousness, irritability, increased sweating, dyspnea, Daily intake is 2 to 3mg weight loss and tiredness) COBALT Patients with diffuse primary thyroid hyperplasia may Cobalt develop exopthalmos(abnormal protrusion of the Part of the vitamin B₁₂ molecule eyeball) May also be involved in the metabolism of sulfur Oral Effects of Imbalance containing amino acids In severe hypothyroidism, jaws are small and rate of Inadequacies of cobalt will cause anemia tooth eruption is retarded Essential for adequate nutrition of sheep and cattle, Hyperthyroid patients conceivably develop caries deficiency will cause extreme emaciation and wasting. rapidly due to their increased need for calories and High dose of cobalt stimulates the bone marrow to possible use of excessive sugars produce excessive numbers of red cells(polycythemia) Effects on development of dental caries and higher than normal hemoglobin level Mineral Elements That May Inhibit or Promote Caries MANGANESE 5 Categories of Elements accdg. to their Cariogenicity Manganese (by Navia) Functions : 1. Caries-promoting: Selenium, Magnesium,1. needed for normal bone structure Cadmium, Platinum, Lead, Silicon2. For reproduction 2. Mildly cariostatic: Molybdenum, Strontium,3. Normal functioning of CNS Calcium, Boron, Lithium, Gold4. Important catalyst and component of many enzymes in 3. With doubtful effect on caries: Beryllium, body, Enzymes involved in the synthesis of Cobalt, Manganese, Tin, Zinc, Bromine, carbohydrates, those necessary for the protection of Iodine cells from high levels of oxygen and enzymes necessary 4. Caries-inert: Barium, Aluminum, Nickel, for mucopolysaccharide synthesis Iron, Palladium, Titanium Manganese 5. Strongly cariostatic: Fluorine, Phosphorus Effects of deficiency and excess : Possible Mechanism of Trace Elements Action on1. Manganese deficiency produces skeletal abnormalities Dental Caries in animals By altering the resistance of the tooth by modifying the2. Excesses can produce profound neurological local environment at the plaque-tooth enamel disturbances similar to those of Parkinson’s disease interface Manganese By altering the size of enamel crystals available to acid Average adult estimated safe and adequate daily exposure; influencing enamel solubility dietary intake appears to be between 2.5 to 5mg Smaller crystals have a greater surface area (more IODINE exposed to acid solubility) than larger crystals in Iodine enamel rods of similar size One of the first trace elements recognized essential for By influencing the microbial ecology of plaque to either normal health inhibit or promote the growth of caries-producing Integral part of the hormones thyroxine and bacteria triiodothyronine, functions to maintain the control of the energy metabolism of the body. CHAPTER 13 Most important in synthesis of thyroid hormone is the ability of the thyroid gland to trap and oxidize iodine Food Composition, molecules into free iodine. Preparation,Processing, Effects of Imbalance Preservation, Fabrication, and Labeling Hypothyroidism Food Composition Goiter, Thyroid gland enlargement Food Develops swelling in the front of neck in the area of an edible substance made up of a variety of nutrients hyoid bone that nourish the body Iodine deficiency Two Categories: Potassium iodide in small doses may completely a. Plant eliminate goiter b. Animal Current level of enrichment furnishes 76 mg of iodine Plant Foods per g of salt
where the food eaten by human beings,including An incomplete protein unless combined with at least meat, originates complementary protein such as corn or rice Basic requirement for human survival Peanut Three very good reasons why to increase intake of Not a true nut but a beanlike legume,rich in oils and plant foods: protein › 1. more readily available 1 pound of peanut provides more protein(but › 2. more economical incomplete) than a pound steak,more carbohydrate › 3. more healthful than a pound of potatoes,approximately as much fat Cereals as pound of butter Derived from the seed of grasses Double virtue Important cereal grains: 1. high in food value › Corn 2. have long shelf-life › Wheat Soybean › Rice Most important legume › Barley Dry,whole bean contains 40% protein and 20% fat › Rye Soy can be used as a flour in bread or as a breakfast › Oats foodCorn Fruits or maize,first grown by American Indians Edible,more or less succulent,products of seed- most truly American cereal bearing plants › Sweet corn › Fleshy fruits Developed by hybrid breeding Have numbers of seeds in the High quality and suitable for center of their pulp such as human consumption apples and pears › Yellow corn › Stone fruits rich in carotene (provitamin A), zein ( an incomplete Contain a single protein of low biological value), and starch stone or pit such asWheat peaches,cherries, is grown in temperate climates of countries and apricots contains gluten (a highly nutritious protein) Fruit-vegetablesRice › Known as vegetables but really are fruits Principal cereal food commodity of Asians such as tomatoes,peppers,okra,squash, Grown in moist tropical or semitropical climates and avocadoes › Bran of the rice Fruits like banana,fig,coconut,date and breadfruit removed by polishing or milling Are staple articles of food for to make the rich kernel more people of the tropics palatable,lowered nutrional • Apple is the most popular fruit and next to it are the value of rice citrus fruits—oranges, lemons,limes and grapefruit rich in thiamin(can be preserved Fruits are good sources for: only if the unhusked rice is › Vitamin C parboiled) › CelluloseBarley Decreases the time of passage Hardy plant and is the oldest known cereal of waste products through the Used in soups and as flour for infants who may be large intestine allergic to wheat › Pectin Used as malt and as food for livestock Assists in formation of jellyRye › Fructose and glucose Grown in cold northern climates Citrus fruits and peaches yield an alkaline ash(fully Used in making rye bread oxidized in the body)Oats Plums and cranberries yield an acid ash( used in Eaten mostly in the form of cooked oatmeal,contain conjunction with a low-calcium dieatary regimen to slightly more protein,Ca,and fat than any other create a urinary environment less conducive to cooked cereal formation of kidney stones Used mainly as food for livestock Vegetables Legumes May be any part of the plant, the leaf stalk,leaves or pods, the seed case of peas,beans, or lentils the roots. Have almost twice as much protein than cereal grains Greatest part of it is water, therefore it is sensitive to used as meat substitute weather changes and tend to spoil quickly › Dried peas › Vitamins most commonly found in 22% protein because of their vegetables low moisture content Ascorbic acid,B complex › Fresh peas or cooked dried ones vitamins,provitamin A 6% to 8% protein › Minerals most commonly found in Average serving of legumes= 1/3 as much protein as vegetables an average serving of meat Calcium and Iron