Lesson in Reading Comprehension and Writing Skills for Second Grade
Literary Text Standard (K-3) Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, folk tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author’s use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding. Benchmark: B Use supporting details to identify and describe main ideas, characters and setting. Indicators: 2. Describe Characters and Setting 3. Retell the plot of a story
Writing Process Standard (K-3) Students’ writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions. Benchmark: A Generate ideas for written compositions Benchmark: G Publish writing samples for display or sharing with others, using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics Indicators: 1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others. 9. Use available technology to compose text. 2. Develop a main idea for writing. 10. Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of 3. Develop a purpose and audience for writing. methods (e.g., writer’s circle or author’s chair). 4. Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, 11. Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. information. 5. Organize writing with a developed beginning, middle 12. Use resources (e.g., word wall, beginner’s dictionary and and end. word bank) to select effective vocabulary. 6. Use a range of complete sentences, including declarative, 13. Proofread writing to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, interrogative and exclamatory. spelling, punctuation and capitalization). Include transitional words and phrases. 14. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge 8. Use language for writing that is different from oral the quality of writing. language, mimicking writing style of books when 15. Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and appropriate. for sharing with others.
Writing Application Standard (K-2) Benchmark: A Compose writings that convey a clear message and include well- chosen details Indicators: 1. Write stories that convey a clear message, include details, use vivid language and move through a logical sequence of steps and events.
Students will practice using their knowledge of story elements to create an original written story as a small group. The story will be bound into a book format, and evaluated by the class for appropriate story elements. Students will take photos with a digital camera – these pictures will become their inspiration for the story and ultimately the illustrations Students will generate a story to go with their selected photos Students will cut and paste their story on to pages that will become a book to share and display to other classes Students will evaluate each other’s books to determine character, plot and setting.
Digital Camera, Color Printer, binding machine and plastic binding combs or hole punch and yarn, construction paper, glue sticks, internet capable computers, Google account, flash drive to store photos from cameras For students: Construction paper, glue sticks, scissors, digital cameras
Plot Character Story Elements Setting Conflict Resolution
Pre-assessment will consist of a group discussion during which the teacher will evaluate how much students recall about what basic story elements are (Setting, characters, plot including conflict/resolution).
“Refresher” lesson (preferably in a common area, on the rug, etc.) to remember what we know and have already learned about story elements. Have students summarize a favorite or popular movie Movies are stories that are acted out, they have story elements Brainstorm the Setting, Characters and Plot of the movie as a group Analyze story elements in Cinderella Have students name Setting, Characters and Plot as teacher completes graphic organizer of story elements on the board
Story Elements – Cinderella Characters Setting Plot (Where/When) Cinderella Cinderella’s house Cinderella wants to go to the ball, but gets locked inWicked Stepmother The Palace her room Mice A Faraway Kingdom Fairy Godmother comes to help, she falls in love Stepsisters with Prince Charming. Prince Prince can’t find Fairy Godmother Cinderella Prince finds Cinderella and they get married.
Read-aloud of picture book such as Three Billy Goats Gruff or The Tale of Peter Rabbit Have students listen for Characters, Setting, Conflict and Resolution When a student identifies a story element, have them whisper to a partner what they think it is during the reading Following reading, students and teacher discuss what they identified as conflict, resolution, characters, setting Teacher will be assessing the conversation for comprehension of story element concepts
Engage students in a common area. Ask students to share with the class if they have ever authored or illustrated a written work. We can all be authors and illustrators because we all know the necessary parts of a story (review story elements) Today, we are going to be authors and illustrators for our own books. Explain steps: Take pictures that will be illustrations and idea-starters (approx. 25 min) One picture with a person/people One picture with no people One picture of something close-up One picture of something far away Select pictures to use Brainstorm, and compose an original story on Google Docs Cut and Paste pictures and text into a book format
Teacher has assembled all pictures – those taken by students and supplemental teacher pictures from Picasa featured photos to a Google Docs presentation. Students will browse the photos in their groups and select 5-7 to print in color for use in their story Students will then brainstorm and compose their original story on Google Docs. Each story must contain identifiable story elements Story may be about anything (appropriate for school). Students should use their imaginations! This may take more than one day depending on progress made. Teacher will visit each group to assess their progress, and help with any roadblocks Students will share the Google Document with the teacher Following composition, students will review final product for any last editing changes
Students will print the text from their story Using scissors and glue sticks, students will cut and paste their text and illustrations onto paper that can be bound as a book. Final product will look something like this: Have each group read their story aloud for the class. Following each group’s story, the class will complete a graphic organizer for story elements together. Teacher can use this as an assessment of how the entire class understands the concepts
Once upon a time there was a man who lived in California. He was looking at his oldest dog. Not that the dog didn’t lookgood, because he did even though he was old. The transformer didn’t know what else to do, so he stared at the dog too, tomake sure he was safe.Then all of a sudden the dolphins from the beach nearby started going crazy because the volcano was going to explode. Theman saw them out of his window. He could see the darkness of them in the water and they were jumping out 100 times.The man had a lot of cardboard at his house; it almost filled the whole thing up. He placed it around the house and over thetop of the house and covered it in lots of layers. Of course he always had a lot of cardboard because there were so manyearthquakes. His job gives him a lot of money, because he does something important and that’s a great way to recycle thecardboard (using it to protect your house).The volcano became closer and closer to exploding. Good thing the man had some extra cardboard to block the rest of hishouse and keep it full with cardboard.After about 20 minutes, after he saw the dolphins go crazy, he looked at the volcano shooting up a bunch of flaming ashesand it erupted. He went upstairs because if the lava came to his house it was the safest place to be. His house was safe fromthe lava because it was protected with cardboard.After the volcano erupted his cardboard was melted. They were giving out more free cardboard and he got a ton of it, andthen he went to go eat pizza with his dog, and some dog food and they ate together. The End.
Story Elements – Group 1Characters Setting Plot (Where/When) The Man California A Volcano is going toThe Dolphins The man’s house erupt Dolphins warn the man Man protects his house with cardboard Volcano Erupts Man goes to eat dinner with dog
Post-Assessment will be a multiple choice quiz to evaluate comprehension of story elements. The Assessment will be grouped into three sets of 5 questions for each story element – characters, plot (conflict/resolution), and setting. The questions will be based on books we have read in class, and will include a short story to read and identify elements. If students score 80% or higher in one category (missing one question), they will be assessed to have mastered the content. Students who miss two questions will be noted to revisit the content in small-group or one-on-one instruction. Students who miss more than two questions in one story element category are assessed to have not mastered the content and will receive individual follow-up to gain a better understanding of the material.
Students struggling with the content.. will be scaffolded by students in their group who have greater mastery of the concepts Will re-visit concepts during small-group exercises, during read-alouds and individually with educational software
Students who have mastered the content.. Will be challenged to describe each element in greater detail Determine central idea or lesson of the plot Describe characters in greater detail, their feelings and motivations May be paired with a student who is struggling to scaffold their learning and help explain concepts differently one-on-one
At home, students may utilize software online such as carnegielibrary.org which has an application to create stories using various elements Students can use a printout to record elements of a story after reading at home with a family member http://www.teachervision.fen.com Students are encouraged to identify and discuss story elements at home when reading with family. A teacher blog post and a section of the newsletter that is sent home each week will detail what we have learned in class so that parents can reinforce concepts with students when reading at home
ART! Students are using many artistic concepts for the layout and design of their story Social Science/Science Students are using skills necessary for collaboration: listening to others, being aware of fellow students feelings and ideas, listening Students are interacting with subjects they photograph and exploring the natural world artistically
This article details the benefits of cooperative learning and how it enhances student comprehension as well as the classroom environment.