Enlightenment2
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Enlightenment2

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Enlightenment2 Enlightenment2 Presentation Transcript

  • •Benjamin Franklin was born in 1706 at Boston. •In 1721, James founded the New England Courant, the fourth newspaper in the colonies. Benjamin secretly contributed 14 essays to it, his first published writings.
  •  In 1723, because of dissension with his half-brother, Franklin moved to Philadelphia, where he obtained employment as a printer.
  •  Back in Philadelphia, he rose rapidly in the printing industry. He published The Pennsylvania Gazette (1730-48), which had been founded by another man in 1728, but his most successful literary venture was the annual Poor Richard 's Almanac(1733-58). It won a popularity in the colonies second only to the Bible, and its fame eventually spread to Europe.
  •  In 1787, he was elected as first president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery-a cause to which he had committed himself as early as the 1730s. His final public act was signing a memorial to Congress recommending dissolution of the slavery system.
  •  In 1790 at the age of 84, Franklin passed away in Philadelphia and was laid to rest in Christ Church Burial Ground. Christ Church Burial Ground.
  •  Franklin, the American inventor, statesman, and publisher, achieved success with Poor Richard's Almanack. Almanacks were very popular books in colonial America, offering a mixture of seasonal weather forecasts, practical household hints, puzzles, and other amusements.Poor Richard's Almanack was also popular for its extensive use of wordplay, and some of the witty phrases coined in the work survive in the contemporary American vernacular.
  •  The Almanack contained the calendar, weather, poems, sayings and astronomical and astrological information that a typical almanac of the period would contain. He also included the occasional mathematical exercise, and the Almanack from 1750 features an early example of demographics. It is chiefly remembered, however, for being a repository of Franklin's aphorisms and pro verbs, many of which live on in American English. These maxims typically counsel thrift and courtesy, with a dash of cynicism.
  •  In the early editions of Poor Richard's Almanack, predicting and falsely reporting the deaths of these astrologers—much to their dismay—was something of a running joke. However, Franklin's endearing character of "Poor" Richard Saunders, along with his wife Bridget, was ultimately used to frame (if comically) what was intended as a serious resource that people would buy year after year.
  •  In later editions, the original Richard Saunders character gradually disappeared, replaced by a Poor Richard, who largely stood in for Franklin and his own practical scientific and business perspectives. By 1758, the original character was even more distant from the practical advice and proverbs of the almanac, which Franklin presented as coming from "Father Abraham," who in turn got his sayings from Poor Richard.
  • Denis Diderot
  •  In 1732 he earned a master of arts degree in philosophy. Then he entered the Collège d'Harcourt in Paris.  In 1734 Diderot decided to become a writer.  In 1742 he befriended JeanJacques Rousseau.  In 1743 he further alienated his father by marrying Antoinette Champion (1710–1796), a devout Roman Catholic. 1773 and 1775, Diderot spent a few months at the empress's court in Saint Petersburg.
  •  Diderot died of gastrointestinal problems in Paris on July 30, 1784, and was buried in the city's Église Saint-Roch.
  •  André Le Breton, a bookseller and printer, approached Diderot with a project for the publication of a translation of Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopaedia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences into French, first undertaken by the Englishman John Mills, and followed by the German Gottfried Sellius. Diderot accepted the proposal, and transformed it. He persuaded Le Breton to publish a new work, which would consolidate ideas and knowledge from the Republic of Letters. Jean le Rond d'Alembert was persuaded to become Diderot's colleague; and permission was procured from the government.
  •  In 1750 an elaborate prospectus announced the project, and in 1751 the first volume was published.  Diderot's work, however, was mired in controversy from the beginning; the project was suspended by the courts in 1752. Just as the second volume was completed accusations arose, regarding seditious content, concerning the editor's entries on religion and natural law. Diderot was detained and his house was searched for manuscripts for subsequent articles. But the search proved fruitless as no manuscripts could be found.
  •  . The Encyclopédie threatened the governing social classes of France (aristocracy) because it took for granted the justice of religious tolerance, freedom of thought, and the value of science and industry. It asserted the doctrine that the main concern of the nation's government ought to be the nation's common people. It was believed that the Encyclopédie was the work of an organized band of conspirators against society, and that the dangerous ideas they held were made truly formidable by their open publication.
  •  In 1759, theEncyclopédie was formally suppressed. The decree did not stop the work, which went on, but its difficulties increased by the necessity of being clandestine. Jean le Rond d'Alembert withdrew from the enterprise and other powerful colleagues, including Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, declined to contribute further to a book which had acquired a bad reputation.
  •  It was 12 years, in 1772, before the subscribers received the final 27 folio volumes of the Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers since the first volume had been published.