Почему ISO 15926 лучше

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Доклад А.Левенчука ""Почему технология стандарта интеграции промышленных данных нефтегазовых предприятий ISO 15926 решает проблемы, которые предыдущие поколения стандартов и предыдущие поколения технологий не могли решить" на конференции "Капитализация нефтегазовых знаний. Стандарты обмена промышленными данными между участниками отрасли", 29 апреля 2013.

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  • 5.4.2 Integrated approachIn the integrated approach a common form shall be used to represent the exchanged entities. This common form shall be sufficiently expressive to capture those details that affect interoperability of the items to be exchanged, rather than the process or system as a whole. The common form is not necessarily an International Standard, but needs to be agreed by participating enterprises in order to elaborate these entities and build systems accordingly.EXAMPLE Examples of developing interoperability using an integrated approach are ISO 10303, ISO 19440 and OASIS/UNCEFACT ebXMLThe integrated approach assures consistency and coherence of the interoperating subsystems by focusing on the components that need to interact. These components are then designed and implemented using a common form (or standard) so that interoperability is seen as a designed-in quality. Interoperation between these various components is therefore obtained a priori without any interfacing effort. Subsystems that are integrated in this way have distinct and individual structure, behaviour, or boundaries, but their combined behaviour is perceived to be as one entity and is achieved by collaboration and coordination through the use of the common form.5.4.3 Unified approachIn the unified approach, a common meta-model, which is applicable for the participating entities and used as a common reference to map existing models’ syntax and semantics, shall be identified and detailed. This meta-model provides at least a reference vocabulary, but could be a complete ontology. Such a meta-model is not an executable entity. Instead, it s hall provide a means for semantic equivalence to enable mapping between entities. Using this meta-model, a translation between the constituent entities is then possible. However, that translation might involve the loss of some informati on because the participating entities can have different extensions or instantiations of the same meta-model.NOTE 1 The unified approach is particularly suitable when developing interoperability for collaborative or networkedenterprises. To be interoperable with networked business partners, a new company maps its own model or system to the neutral meta-model without the necessity to make changes on its own model or system. This approach has an advantage over the integrated approach because of the reduced efforts, time and cost in implementation. It is also suitable for a situation where a large company needs to interoperate with SMEs. Normally an SME works with more than one large company; to interoperate with different companies, the unified approach can be a suitable solution in that it facilitates coordination without requiring conformance to potentially conflicting processes or environments.NOTE 2 In the re-engineering situation, syntactic alignment can be achieved through a unified approach that uses a mapping function to create missing elements of the exchange items, but semantic alignment between partners can be very difficult. Therefore, re-engineering is more applicable to developing intra-enterprise interoperability.5.4.4 Federated approachIn the federated approach, there is no sufficiently capable common form or meta-model to guide the interaction between enterprises that need to interoperate . The lack of capability is often related to different terminologies or methodologies that need to be resolved by business entity interaction. While there can be a common understanding between the business entities, in the federated approach, no business entity imposes their own models, languages and methods of work.To establish interoperability, parties shall accommodate and adjust their operations. Interoperation can be supported by providing a priori information about the capabilities of the entities to be involved in the exchange or by employing agents to discover the needed information. Support for the a priori case can be provided by establishing entity capability profile s that hold syntactic and semantic information on both entity inputs and outputs. Interoperability can be established by mapping corresponding input and output information of the entities and identifying inconsistencies. Any remaining inconsistencies shall be resolved by manual interventions.This approach is more suitable for peer-to-peer situations, where each enterprise has resources for negotiation and compromise. The approach is particularly adapted to virtual enterprises, where diverse companies combine their resources and knowledge to manufacture a product for a limited duration.NOTE Using the federated approach to develop enterprise interoperability is most challenging. A main research area is development of a mapping factory that can generate on-demand customized “anybody-anywhere-anytime” mapping agents among existing systems. It is worth noting that a specific support for the federated approach is seen in entity profiles, which identify particular entity characteristics and properties relevant for interoperation (e.g. ISO 15745 and ISO 16100).
  • Почему ISO 15926 лучше

    1. 1. Почему технология стандарта интеграциипромышленных данных нефтегазовых предприятийISO 15926 решает проблемы, которые предыдущиепоколения стандартов и предыдущие поколениятехнологий не могли решить.Москва29 апреля 2013г.
    2. 2. PP656.2Технология ISO 15926Источник: FIATECHНе хочу видеть никаких сумасшедших торговцев –ты что, не видишь, что тут битва идёт!
    3. 3. Принципы обеспечениявзаимодействия• ISO 11354-1 Advanced automation technologiesand their applications — Requirements forestablishing manufacturing enterprise processinteroperability — Part 1: Framework forenterprise interoperability• В пункте 5.4.1:There are three approaches to achieve enterpriseinteroperability:-- integrated,-- unified,-- and federated.These three approaches were first identified in ISO 14258.3ISO 15926
    4. 4. ISO 113545.4.4 Federated approachIn the federated approach, there is no sufficiently capable common form or meta-model to guide theinteraction between enterprises that need to interoperate . The lack of capability is often related todifferent terminologies or methodologies that need to be resolved by business entity interaction. Whilethere can be a common understanding between the business entities, in the federated approach, nobusiness entity imposes their own models, languages and methods of work.To establish interoperability, parties shall accommodate and adjust their operations. Interoperation canbe supported by providing a priori information about the capabilities of the entities to be involved inthe exchange or by employing agents to discover the needed information. Support for the a priori casecan be provided by establishing entity capability profile s that hold syntactic and semantic informationon both entity inputs and outputs. Interoperability can be established by mapping corresponding inputand output information of the entities and identifying inconsistencies. Any remaining inconsistenciesshall be resolved by manual interventions.This approach is more suitable for peer-to-peer situations, where each enterprise has resources fornegotiation and compromise. The approach is particularly adapted to virtual enterprises, where diversecompanies combine their resources and knowledge to manufacture a product for a limited duration.NOTE Using the federated approach to develop enterprise interoperability is most challenging. A mainresearch area is development of a mapping factory that can generate on-demand customized “anybody-anywhere-anytime” mapping agents among existing systems. It is worth noting that a specific supportfor the federated approach is seen in entity profiles, which identify particular entity characteristics andproperties relevant for interoperation (e.g. ISO 15745 and ISO 16100).4
    5. 5. iRING архитектура: федерация5ProductdatamodelISO 15926RDLfederationProductdatamodelProduct dataProduct data1 ISO 15926 Rule ISO 15926 2circle radius radius*2 diameter окружностьmappingmapping1. Редактормэппинга4. адаптор3. SPARQLendpoint2. Редакторсправочныхданных5. адапторфасады
    6. 6. Вариант архитектуры iRING (ISO 15926)6
    7. 7. Проблемы и решенияРасширяемостьФакт-ориентированность и семантикаПоддержка онтологииОбщая картина мираПонятие системы «из коробки»Простота: паттерныИнструменты: разные реализации стандартаНаличие доступных справочных данных7
    8. 8. Расширяемость• «Много закрытых словарей» не работают --STEP (ISO 10303)• Машинночитаемый стандарт: механизмыпополнения/изменения как в стандартах,хранение как в базах данных• Уровни пополнения (организация работ):ISO – JORD – … – предприятие8
    9. 9. Факт-ориентированность исемантика• Факт-ориентированность: «что для одного проектаобъект, то для другого атрибут, и наоборот»• Работа онлайн:– Пополняемость и групповая работа: концепцияоткрытого мира (XML схемы – это закрытый мир,проблемы с merge)– Linked Data (URI),– Трипл-сторы и SPARQL– доступность описаний данных (resolvable URI)• Готовые обменные форматы: RDF и OWL• Формальные проверки (логика в OWL)9
    10. 10. Поддержка онтологии• Семантика достаточна для федерации в рамках одной стадиижизненного цикла• В рамках федерации разных стадий (ISO 24744: life cycle stagesопределяются через change of mental framework) нужноопределиться с одной картиной мира: как совмещать разныеобъекты (например, комплектующее стадии проектирования ипредмет поставки стадии строительства).• 4D extensionalism• Отношения при федерации пересекают границыинформационных систем. Эти отношения главным образом –TemporalWholePart (Whole, Part)• Понятие «система» -- пример смены насоса.• Множественные классификации (классы классов)• Соглашение о моделировании мира, плюс моделированиепредставления мира в компьютере10
    11. 11. ISO 15926 и жизненный цикл11!!!
    12. 12. 12ПриложенияпроектантыПриложенияПоставщикиПриложениятехнологияПриложенияЭксплуатацияISO 15926 –«английский» дляданныхжизненного циклаISO 15926 определяет :1. Терминологию2. Классификацию3. Стандартвзаимодействиясофта
    13. 13. Простота[не поддерживается «семантическимисистемами», это специфично для ISO 15926]• Нужно: понимание инженерами, а непрограммистами• Обеспечивается: паттернами шаблонов13Прикладнаясистема(CAD/PLM)СемантическаясетьISO 15926-2ПаттернышаблоновISO 15926
    14. 14. Наличие доступных справочных данных: JORD RDL14Простота:паттерныБрать .15926 Editor (freeware) тут: http://techinvestlab.ru/dot15926EditorБолее 58 тыс.объектов, включаяболее 10тыс. классовоборудования,более 1.5тыс. единицизмерения
    15. 15. Product knowledge pyramid (ISO 15926)ISO 15926typesRDLCatalogue(standard classes)Product linesand projectDebug, change managementProduct configurationbaselinesHistoric data (product operations timerows)RDLProductdata15Huge! Needsfederation ofmultiple sources!But: one formatNeeds federationeven more!Multiple formatsEnterprise-relateddata excluded onlyto clarity of a slide.201 type: ontological commitments(shared reality)
    16. 16. Библиотеки справочных данных16RDLRDL (ГОСТы)RDL (стандартыотрасли)RDL проектаRDL каталогаПроектная информацияДанные каталогаISO/JORDНациональная ассоциацияОтраслевая ассоциацияПоставщик каталогаИнжиниринговая компания
    17. 17. Инструменты: разные реализации• Редактор справочных данных• Редактор мэппинга• SPARQL endpoint• Два адаптора (в ISO 15926 и из ISO 15926)Реализации iRING архитектуры:• iRINGTools (iRING usergroup во главе с Bechtel)• .15926 (TechInvestLab)• RDL ПКФ Росэнергоатома• OpenPlant (Bentley Systems)• JORD RDL• XMpLant Protheus-2• …Качество обеспечивается конкуренцией реализацийстандарта17
    18. 18. Пример: Bechtel• 53тыс. cотрудников, оборот более $27млрд.• 13 лет подряд ведущий подрядчик строительных работ в США• На конец 2012 года 30% всех проектов Bechtel используют ISO15926 для внутрифирменных передач данных• До конца 2014 года ожидается 100% всех проектов Bechtel будутиспользовать ISO 15926• Используется JORD RDL, никаких других «внутрифирменных»справочных данных![невозможно в России – справочные данные по российскимстандартам и именам имеют ограниченный интерес для JORD]18http://iringtoday.com/interview-with-frank-matthewson-of-bechtel/
    19. 19. 19Спасибо за вниманиеАнатолий Левенчук,ailev@asmp.msk.suВиктор Агроскин,vic5784@gmail.comTechInvestLab.ru (член POSCCaesar Association)(495) 748-53-88Проект .15926 Editorhttp://dot15926.livejournal.com

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