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  • 1. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF SALT SOLUTIONS AND ITS DETERMINATION USING DIFFRACTION GRATING METHOD ANDO, AILENE PACHEJO, ROMEL
  • 2. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Rationale Theoretical Background Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Research Methodology
  • 3. C The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method
    • Used to identify salts precipitated from body fluids and measure relative amounts of sodium and potassium chloride in the body
    • Increasing the concentration of salt in water affects the density and atomic interaction of water
    • Increment increase in the refractive index per unit change in its concentration is yet to be determined
    • Temperature affects the density of the liquid
    • Improvised refractometer (Samson and Ricarte, 2009) adopting minimum angle deviation method
    • The nature of the prism could lead to error in the experiment (oracle, n.D.)
    Rationale
  • 4. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Refraction Theoretical Background
    • Happens when there is a change in the speed light as it goes from one transparent material to another
    • Causes the ray to deviate from its incident direction
    • The change in direction at the interface of two materials depends on the angle at which the ray strikes the surface that separates the two media
  • 5. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Snell’s Law of Refraction Theoretical Background n 1 is the refractive index of the first medium θ 1 is the measure of the angle of incidence n 2 is the refractive index of the second medium θ 2 is the measure of the angle of refraction n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2
  • 6. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Refractive Index Theoretical Background
    • Ratio of the speed of light in each medium where the light travels
    • Used to calculate the focusing power of lenses, the dispersive power of prisms, identify a particular substance, confirm its purity, and measure its concentration
    • refractive index of liquids is dependent on several factors, such as density, concentration of solute, temperature, pressure, and wavelength of light
  • 7. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Temperature and Refractive Index Theoretical Background
    • Temperature affects the density of the liquid
    • Refractive index is proportional to the square roots of electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability
    • Refractive index does not have a simple relationship with temperature (Zimmerman, 2008)
  • 8. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Concentration and Refractive Index Theoretical Background
    • Concentration is the amount of solute present in a given amount of solution
    • Percent by mass is the simplest quantitative expression in measuring the solute concentration of a solution (Brown et al., 2004)
    • Increasing the concentration of salt in water affects the density and atomic interaction of water
    • The change in refractive index will be on the order of hundredths, resulting in a change in refractive angle of over a degree. (Yap, 2004).
  • 9. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Diffraction Grating (Nave, no date) Theoretical Background
    • An optical component used to spatially separate polychromatic light (white light) into its constituent optical frequencies
    • Consists of glass substrate with a series of parallel, equispaced lines on the front surface of the glass
  • 10. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Diffraction Grating Theoretical Background The diffraction pattern produced by the grating is described by m   λ  =  d  sin  α m  is the order number   λ  is a selected wavelength d   is the spacing of the slits α  is the angle of incidence of light
  • 11. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Diffraction Grating Method Theoretical Background
  • 12. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Related Studies Theoretical Background There is a linear increase in the index of refraction as solute concentration is increased. However, as temperature of the solution increased with constant solute concentration, index of refraction tends to decrease. The more molecules added into a solution (and the bigger the molecules are) the more of a chance the light has of hitting the molecules. This slows down the light as it goes through absorption and reemission, causing an increase in the index of refraction”. (Pham, 2008).
  • 13. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Related Studies Theoretical Background Subedi, D.P., Adhikari et al., in 2006, studied the temperature and concentration dependence of refractive index of liquids using minimum angle deviation method. They found out the linear dependence of concentration on its indices of refraction. They were also able to determine the temperature coefficient of water the range 30°C- 70°C Grzegorz F. Wojewoda, (no date) used diffraction grating and polarization method in measuring the index of refraction of water. He realized that the refractive index does not deviate largely from the theoretical value. Frederick A. Osborn and Horace H. Lester  (1912) also used the same method for determining index of refraction.
  • 14. C The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method
    • This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on the refractive index of salt solution and its determination using diffraction grating method. Specifically, it intends to:
    • establish the relationship between refractive index and various salt concentration
    • establish the relationship between refractive index and temperature
    • determine the refractive index increment of the solution for a specific change in its concentration
    • verify the validity of the locally-made instrument in measuring the index of refraction of a solution
    • verify the validity of the proposed method in measuring index of refraction of salt solutions
    Statement of the Problem
  • 15. C The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Medical Professionals Through this research, doctors can identify salts precipitated from body fluids and measure relative amounts of sodium and potassium chloride which indicates whether or not a person has toxemia.   Shipping industry Knowing the index of refraction of a body of water can indicate the salinity of water which can be one of the factors in the construction of a wharf.   Biologists They will know the tonicity of a cell and the direction of the movement of its particles between it and its environment. Significance of the Study
  • 16. C The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Science Community They are presented an alternative method of measuring the index of refraction of a solution.   High School Laboratories High school students can perform experiment that measures the refractive index of a liquid at a lesser cost.   Teachers and Students The teachers can demonstrate another way of measuring index of refraction for the benefit of high school students for this can equip them with much knowledge of the related concepts used in this study.   Researchers This will enhance their analytical and critical thinking skills while performing this study. Significance of the Study
  • 17. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Research Methodology Diffraction Grating Method Set-up Cutting tracing paper, sticking to one external wall of a vessel Stick diffraction grating to opposite wall Place laser next to diffraction grating
  • 18. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Research Methodology Solution Preparation Masses of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 grams of salt are weighed Each sample will be put inside an empty and clean beakers. Each beaker will be filled with distilled water up to the 1000- mL mark. Mixing of each salt sample with water in beakers Computation of Concentration (percent by mass) Labeling of Beakers Exposure of the beakers to 3 different settings (hot, cold, room)
  • 19. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Research Methodology Measuring index of refraction through diffraction grating method Room temperature to be constant (20 – 25 o C) Pouring of salt concentrations with temperature range of 75°C - 80°C into the vessel Switching on the laser, marking of the zeroth order fringe and the two first order fringe Changing height of laser and marking of fringes Repeat previous steps for salt solution with different temperature ranges Recording of date on table 1 Calculation of Refractive Index
  • 20. The Effect Of Temperature And Concentration On The Refractive Index Of Salt Solutions And Its Determination Using Diffraction Grating Method Research Methodology Getting a sample for each salt concentration with temperature range of 75°C - 80°C Measure refractive index using improvised instrument and Abbe Refractometer Repeat previous steps for salt solution with different temperature ranges Measuring index of refraction through improvised instrument and Abbe Refractometer