Competency mapping aij

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Competency mapping aij

  1. 1. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTGROUP 3PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT II
  2. 2. ROLL NO. NAME03 Vishal Vats12 Ankita Kevin Natal25 Ruhama Kachchap35 Abhinav Mishra49 Hirni Pathak63 RiteshS-4 Tanvi
  3. 3.  COMPETENCY MAPPING◦ EVOLUTION◦ DEFINTION, OBJECTIVES AND NEEDS◦ STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING◦ EFFECTS ON OTHER HRD SYSTEMS◦ COMPETENCY MAPPING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS◦ ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK BASED ONCOMPETENCY MAPPING◦ TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES
  4. 4.  ―First there were some amoebas. Deviant amoebasadapted better to the environment, thus becomingmonkeys. Then came TQM.I am leaving out some details, but the theory itself alsohas a few holes that are best left unquestioned.‖- Scott Adams
  5. 5.  Beginning of the twentieth century - work brought complex skillsto the job. Business process required specific competencies forthe task at hand. Era of scientific management – Taylor’s and Ford’s use ofassembly line shifted focus from competency to time and motionstudy. World War II (mid century) enforced management centric viewswhere officers gave orders to subordinates who obeyed withoutquestions.
  6. 6.  1960 – David McClelland’s landmark article in the AmericanPsychologist asserted that companies should hire peoplebased upon competencies rather than test scores. 1973 – McClelland developed new methods to predict humanperformance for US Information Agency. Objective was toeliminate the potential biases of traditional intelligence andaptitude testing.
  7. 7.  The turning point for competency movement – Article publishedin American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland. Article presented data supporting that traditional achievementand intelligence score may not be able to predict job success. needof the hour was to profile the exact competencies required toperform the given job effectively. Equally noteworthy is the pioneering work by Douglas Brey andhis associates at AT&T which gave evidence that the competenciescan be accessed through assessment centers and on the jobsuccess can be predicted to certain extent.
  8. 8.  Behaviour Event Interviewing (BEI) was developed byMcBer to map the competencies. Increased recognition of the limitations of performanceappraisal in predicting future performance shiftedfocus to potential appraisal and assessment centers inseventies. Assessment centers were an integral part of the HRDplan given to L&T in 1975.
  9. 9. Any underlying characteristic required forperforming a given task, activity or role successfullycan be considered as competency.
  10. 10. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation(2002)―A competency is a set of skills, related knowledge andattributes that allow an individual to successfully perform atask or an activity within a specific function or job.‖RANKIN (2002)―Competencies are definition of skills and behaviors thatorganizations expect their staff to practice in work.‖MANSFIELD (1997)―Underlying characteristics of a person that results in effectivea superior performance.‖
  11. 11. ObservableBehaviorMotives, Values , Traits, Self ConceptAttitudesKnowledgeSkills
  12. 12. Competency may take the following forms: Knowledge Attitude SkillOther characteristics of an individual including Motives Values Traits Self Concept
  13. 13. It is a process of identification of the competenciesrequired to perform successfully a given job or roleor a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists ofbreaking a given role or job into its constituent tasksor activities and identifying the competencies(technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledgeand attitude and skills, etc) needed to perform the samesuccessfully.
  14. 14.  Competency Map. A competency map is a list of anindividual’s competencies that represent the factorsmost critical to success in given jobs, departments,organizations, or industries that are part of theindividual’s current career plan. Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is aprocess an individual uses to identify and describecompetencies that are the most critical to success in awork situation or work role Competency profiling It is the process ofidentifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes,and judgment required for effective performance in aparticular occupation or profession. Competencyprofiling is business/company specific.
  15. 15. Competency mapping serves a number ofpurposes. It is done for the following functions: Gap Analysis Role Clarity Succession Planning Growth Plans Restructuring Inventory of competencies for futureplanning
  16. 16. Training andDevelopmentRecruitmentand SelectionCareerPlanningPerformanceAppraisalSuccessionPlanningCompensationReplacementPlanningCompetencyMapping
  17. 17. The following steps may be followed in competencyMapping:1) Decide the positions for which the competencies needto be mapped.2) Identify the location of the positions in theorganizational structure. This needs the clarity oforganizational structure, defining the positionrelationships (reporting authority, subordinates, peersetc.).3) Identify the objectives of the function or thedepartment or the unit or section where the position islocated.
  18. 18. 4) Identify the objectives of the role. Why does theposition exist? What are the main purposes of therole etc. details.5) Collect the Key Performance Areas (or KRAs,Tasks, etc.) of the position holder for the last twoto three years from the performance appraisalrecords. Alternately, collect the job descriptions ofany of the position to make a list of all tasks andactivities to be performed by that position holder.
  19. 19. 6) Interview the position holder to list the Tasks andactivities expected to be performed by theIndividual. Group them into a set of tasks. Thetasks list may be as many as 15 to 20 for somepositions and as Competency Mapping few asfive to six for other positions. There is no rigid ruleabout the number of tasks. It depends on howcomplex the position is. It is useful to start with asmany tasks as possible.
  20. 20. 7) Interview the position holder to list the actualknowledge, attitude, skills, and other competenciesrequired for performing the task effectively. The positionholder should be asked questions like: ―If you are to recruitsome one to perform this task what qualities orcompetencies would you look for in him/her? Whatcompetencies do you think are required to perform thiswell?8) Repeat the process with all the position set members.9) Consolidate the list of competencies from all theposition holders’ by each task.10) Edit and finalize. Present it to the supervisors of theposition holder and the position holder for approval andfinalization.
  21. 21. Effects on the following HRD systems:- Recruitment & Selection Performance Management System Training Development Compensation Management
  22. 22. Competency-based recruitment is a process ofrecruitment based on the ability of candidates to produceanecdotes about their professional experience which canbe used as evidence that the candidate has a givencompetency.
  23. 23. A competency based approach to recruitment andselection of staff can help an organization, to make itan effective and successful investment of time,money and expertise. Such an approach will help toensure that:i. The organization is clear regarding thecompetencies and skill sets required by the job;ii. Selection processes encourage a good fit betweenindividuals and their jobs, managers and staff havethe required skills and competencies;iii. Individual skills and abilities are matched to therequirements of the job; andiv. Evaluation of work demands and staffing areaccurate
  24. 24. Integrating competencies within the performance managementprocess supports the provision of feedback to employees not only on―what‖ they have accomplished (i.e., performance goals), but also―how‖ the work was performed, using competencies for providingfeedback.Integrating competency with PMS helps:-i. Employees in understanding performance expectations andenhancing competencies.ii. To provide a mechanism for providing positive feedback about anemployee’s training achievements and on-the-job performanceiii. To provide job standards for performance appraisaliv. To provide clear direction for learning new job skills
  25. 25. Competency Based Training focuses on what the participant isexpected to be able to do in the workplace as opposed to just havingtheoretical knowledge.An important characteristic of Competency Based Training is that itis focused not only on the actual jobs that are required in theworkplace, but also the ability to transfer and apply skills,knowledge and attitudes to new Situations and environments.The advantages of competency based training(CBT) are:-i. Participants will achieve competencies required in theperformance of their jobs.ii. Participants build confidence as they succeed in mastering specificcompetencies.iii. Participants receive a transcript or list of the competencies theyhave achieved.
  26. 26. All businesses are based on some key competencies. The mainreason for an organization to create a competency-baseddevelopment system that focuses on having the right people withRight skills at the right time is that it helps in accomplishingbusiness targets.Competencies are the need of the hour and designing appropriatecompetency development models is a necessity.Advantages of competency based development:-i. Improvement in productivity, performance and profitabilityii. Identify employee’s capabilities for an organization’s futureneedsiii. Analyzing capability gaps
  27. 27. Competency-based pay fits this new environment. It provides anongoing incentive to employees to enhance their ability to performtheir jobs. Employees are rewarded with salary increases when theyadd new knowledge or skills or when they demonstrate higher levelcompetence on existing capabilities.Advantages of competency based compensation:-i. Provides a basis of deciding on the compensation.ii. Encourages employees to develop their competencies further.iii. Lead to a focus on totality of job rather than just what is achieved.iv. This system fits every job.
  28. 28.  The 11 qualities separated into three groups, asshown in the following slide, it represent threedifferent levels. The first level forms thefoundation level, and comprises of two kinds ofbasic knowledge and information a manager mayneed to use in decision making and action taking.
  29. 29. The Lancaster (Burgoyne) Model of Managerial Competencies
  30. 30. A Competency Mapping can address many ofthe issues related to performance appraisal:◦ This ensures agreement on performance criteria, what isaccomplished and what is not accomplished, collectingrelevant and sufficient data◦ It also ensures opportunity to supervisors to observebehaviour, specificity and concreteness in discussionsabout performance deficiencies
  31. 31.  Provides a shared understanding of what will bemonitored and measured—A CompetencyMapping integrated with performance appraisalensures a balance between what gets done andhow it gets done. The skills, knowledge and characteristics that areimportant to success are clearly described. Itprovides a roadmap of where to begin thediscussion and what areas to focus on.
  32. 32.  Provides focus for gaining information aboutbehaviour—An appraisal process includes asimple, accurate method for a boss to assess jobperformance. But what happens when the boss isnew or he/she controls a number of differentlocations? By identifying the specific behaviourscrucial for effective performance, CompetencyMapping offer bosses a starting point.
  33. 33.  The 360-degree Feedback Process is beingincreasingly used in organizations fordevelopment, appraisal and compensationpurposes. It involves a collection of perceptionsabout an individual’s behaviour and its impact onbosses, colleagues, subordinates as well as internaland external customers. Competency Mappinghelp to ensure that such feedback relatesspecifically to the competencies crucial toindividual or organizational success.
  34. 34.  Literature Review: A preliminary approach fordefining job content and identifying requiredcompetencies is to conduct a review of theliterature to learn about previous studies of the jobor similar jobs. Focus Groups: In focus groups, a facilitatorworks with a small group of job incumbents, theirmanagers, supervisees, clients, or others to definethe job content or to identify the competenciesthey believe are essential for performance.
  35. 35.  Structured Interviews: In structuredinterviews, carefully planned questions are askedindividually of job incumbents, their managers, orothers familiar with the job. Benchmarkinginterviews with other organizations are especiallyuseful in achieving a broader view of the job ordetermining which competencies are moreuniversally deemed necessary for a particular job.
  36. 36.  Behavioral Event Interviews: In behavioralevent interviews (BEI), top performers areinterviewed individually about what they did,thought, said, and felt in challenging or difficultsituations. The competencies that wereinstrumental in their success are extrapolatedfrom their stories. Often, average and lowperformers are also interviewed to provide acomparison.
  37. 37.  Surveys: In surveys, job incumbents, theirsupervisors, and perhaps senior managerscomplete a questionnaire administered either inprint or electronically. The survey content is basedon previous data collection
  38. 38.  Observations: In this data collection method,the research team visits high-performingincumbents and observes them at work. The morecomplex the job and the greater the variety in jobtasks, the more time is required for anobservation.
  39. 39.  Once a buyer has decided what to look for in a car, he or shemust decide how to assess specific cars to identify the one bestsuited to his or her needs. There is a number of assessments thecar buyer can make to help with the selection decision: Look at its general appearance Use a checklist of essential characteristics Ask how good the owner thinks the car is Question previous owners on the history of the car Look at the handbook and service history Ask for specific examples of the car’s performance Take it for a test-drive Make predictions based on technical characteristics of the car.
  40. 40.  The car buyer may undertake more than one of the aboveassessments before making a decision on whether topurchase the car or not. Some assessments will not providethe best measure of a car’s suitability. For example, buying acar because it looks OK and the owner says it is a great carto drive is at best going to leave the car buyer unpreparedfor what is wrong with the car, and at worst leave him or herhaving made a very expensive mistake. Short of taking a car away for a few months to try it out, atest-drive is probably the most accurate means of assessingof its suitability. It enables the car to be driven in realisticsituations while undertaking tasks that represent theeveryday operations the car will be required to perform. Forexample, if the car is to be used for long motorway journeyswith a full load as well as for trips around town, then theseconditions should be part of the test-drive.
  41. 41.  The car buyer may undertake more than one of the aboveassessments before making a decision on whether topurchase the car or not. Some assessments will not providethe best measure of a car’s suitability. For example, buying acar because it looks OK and the owner says it is a great carto drive is at best going to leave the car buyer unpreparedfor what is wrong with the car, and at worst leave him or herhaving made a very expensive mistake. Short of taking a car away for a few months to try it out, atest-drive is probably the most accurate means of assessingof its suitability. It enables the car to be driven in realisticsituations while undertaking tasks that represent theeveryday operations the car will be required to perform. Forexample, if the car is to be used for long motorway journeyswith a full load as well as for trips around town, then theseconditions should be part of the test-drive.
  42. 42.  There are some assessments that a buyer may wish to makebefore he or she undertakes a test-drive. These assessmentswill prevent the buyer from viewing a car which does notmeet certain basic requirements. For example, he or shemay wish to check that the car has a certain number of seatsbecause, however suitable the car is in other ways, withoutthe right minimum number of seats there would be no pointin viewing it. There are also some assessments the car buyer may wish tomake after taking it for a test-drive. For example, the carbuyer may wish to check the car’s history by looking at theservice book.
  43. 43.  The Handbook of Competency Mapping,Understanding, Designing & Implementingcompetency models in Organization, Seema Sanghi,2004,pg.20-28, Response Books. http://www.iqpc.com/uploadedFiles/Training/Asia_Training/The_Gateway/competency.pdf[Accessed on 25th February, 2012] www.citehr.com The Competencies Handbook, 2005, Steve Whiddett &Sarah Hollyforde, Jaico Publishing House

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