How to be a trainer


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How to be a trainer

  1. 1. Table of ContentTable of Content ......................................................................................................... 2Understanding the base: Learning.............................................................................. 3More about Communication........................................................................................ 7 Body Language ................................................................................................... 7 You can’t not communicate ................................................................................. 8 Listening skills ..................................................................................................... 8 Feedback............................................................................................................. 9 Giving Feedback ................................................................................................. 9The Role of a Trainer................................................................................................ 10Different Ways to Bring the Message ....................................................................... 14Selecting Instructional Techniques ........................................................................... 18 More on methods… .............................................................................................. 18 Tip:........................................................................................................................ 19Moderation................................................................................................................ 20How to Design a Session.......................................................................................... 23Use of Tools ............................................................................................................. 24Visualization ............................................................................................................. 26How to handle difficult delegates .............................................................................. 30Tips & Tricks............................................................................................................. 32Training & Team Building Bibliography..................................................................... 33Icebreakers............................................................................................................... 35 2
  2. 2. Understanding the base: LearningThe foundation on which the Global Learning Process has been developedWhen you join AIESEC you want to know what you will get out of it. What is in it forme? Learning tracking system through Insight XP and Communities are ways tovisualise this. These ideas allow us to track the learning and development of ourmembers so that they by the end of their AIESEC career will have a CV stating whatknowledge and experience they have acquired.This is also something that will allow AIESEC to visualise the achievements of themembers in their Local Committee. This visualisation will be particularly useful for theorganisations we work with, a clear demonstration that we DO develop individuals.To do this, we need to ask ourselves:1. How do we define learning? Only when we understand this, can we visualise and measure it.2. How can we stimulate and track learning in our activities? And find a natural incentive for our members to focus on activities, and thereby increase our results.3. How can this be done at a national level? How does a “system” like that work?4.Q1) How we define learning?According to CELEMI… LEARNING CYCLE Makes us receptive ATTENTION Œ to... ‘ INFORMATION Which we...  Together with prior PROCESS knowledge until we arrive  Ž at... And  CONCLUSIONS understanding which we then... APPLY And... And test for confirmation. EVALUATE 3
  3. 3. If this is how we define learning, then we must base all learning on activity. Onlywhen we have tried to actually do something can we say that we have learned it. Youcan understand every intricate detail of how to sell a traineeship, but only when youhave done it you can really say that you have learned how its done!The Global Learning Process is based on that very principle – increase the expertiseof our members, through learning processes built into their roles and responsibilities.Based on this definition of what learning is, we have come to the conclusion thatactivity is a crucial part of learning. Without it, no real learning will take place. A focuson activity is necessary if we are going to increase both the quantity and the qualityof our exchanges.With that in mind, it is only natural to start looking at the activities, when trying todefine what learning processes we work with. It is not cost effective to train ourmembers for the sake of training them…So what training do they need? To identify that we need to look at the exchangeprocess and identify what a certain members role and responsibilities are. Create ajob description. Based on these responsibilities (as mapped in the Core WorkProcess) we need to look at what kind of competence the member needs, in order toperform a job effectively. 4
  4. 4. Lets look at a very simple example… ☺Attention/motivation: Interest and curiosity: prepare you mentally and make you receptive. You need to be motivated in one way or another if you are going to bother at all. E.g.: At the opening plenary, somebody makes a very nice roll call that makes you interested.Information: New data and information (that fit the motivation) are added. E.g.: You ask him about the steps of the roll call and he teaches you the dance.Processing: The brain is searching for new patterns and associations. (Connection to past experiences) E.g.: You try to learn it by taking part in his actions, while recalling similar dances youve learnt.Conclusion: AHA! A new gestalt is formed. E.g.: AHA! Four steps to the right, four steps to the left…Application: You act according to your understanding. The learning is reinforced. E.g.: At the party you are able to dance it and even teach others the steps.Evaluation: Was the learning worth the time and energy spent? E.g.: Then you think: “Am I a good dancer?”, “Did I do it right?” 5
  5. 5. Literature1 Argyris, Chris: Reasoning, Learning and Action: Individual and Organizational. San Francisco u. a. 1982.2 Bandura, Albert: Sozial-kognitive Lerntheorie. Stuttgart 1979.3 Dastoor, Barbara: The Psychology of Learning: Speaking Their Language. In: Training & Development Journal. Juni 1993, S. 17ff.4 Donaldson, Les; Scannell, Edward E.: Human Resource Development, The New Trainer’s Guide. London u. a. 1978.5 Goleman, Daniel: Emotional Intelligence6 Hergenhahn, Baldwin R.: An Introduction to Theories of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. (1982).7 Herzberg, Frederick: One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? In: Harvard Business Review. 1968, S. 53-62.8 Kolb, David A.: Experiential Learning: Experiences As the Source of Learning And Development. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1984.9 Lefrancois, Guy R.: Psychologie des Lernens. Berlin u. a. 1986.10 Mandl, Heinz; Reinmann-Rothmeier, Gaby: Auf die Umgebung kommt es an. In: Management & Seminar Jahrbuch 1997, S. 8-10.11 Megginson, David; Joy-Matthews, Jennifer; Banfield, Paul: Human Resource Development. London 1993.12 Pawlow, Ivan P.: Die bedingten Reflexe. München 1972.13 Senge, Peter M.: Die fünfte Disziplin. Stuttgart 1996.14 Skinner, Burrhus F.: The Behavior of Organisms. New York 1938.15 Staehle, Wolfgang H.: Management: Eine verhaltenswissenschaftliche Perspektive. München 1994.16 Steinmann, Horst; Schreyögg, Georg: Management: Grundlagen der Unternehmensführung. Wiesbaden 1991.17 Thorndike, Edward L.: The Psychology of Learning, Vol. II. New York 1913.18 Torrence, David R.: Motivating Trainees To Learn. In: Training & Development Journal. März 1993, S. 55-58.19 Vroom, Victor H.: Work and Motivation. New York u. a. 1964. 6
  6. 6. More about CommunicationBody LanguageBody language is the key to the success of your role as a facilitator. There are largelyfour aspects to body language, which are posture, gestures, movement and eyecontact. As well as ensuring that you use the right body language you need to beable to read the body language of other people.PostureThere is no formal rule as to whether you should stand or sit when facilitatingalthough experience demonstrates that standing will give you the authority that youmay need together with the ability to take control as appropriate and it alsodemonstrates a clear confidence in yourself. Sitting down may not demonstrate thisauthority and level of confidence. You may wish to try a combination of the two. Forexample, you stand when you need to be in control and you sit when you are lookingto encourage discussion and debate. The main merit of sitting for debate is thatpeople may engage each other more quickly in conversation rather than trying tomaintain eye contact with you as they are prone to if you are standing. The advice isto do what is most comfortable for you but to ensure that you are constantly aware ofthe impact that your position and posture is having on the workshop participants. Ingeneral, your posture will be interpreted as what you think about yourself and theparticipants. You need to be seen to walk tall, which means avoiding averted eyes,hunched shoulders and restless hands. You need to feel comfortable with yourselfbut at the same time give out an air of authority to the group.GesturesWe all have our own gestures, which are just a part of the way that we are. Howeverwhen we are nervous there is a tendency for such gestures to become exaggerated.Positive gestures are fine and probably the most important of these are to lookenthusiastic which is often demonstrated through smiling. Also the use ofunexaggerated arm movements to make a point or to draw people can also workvery effectively.MovementMovement in a facilitator is key and can be used effectively to draw people in to thediscussion and, as appropriate, shut out others. However, do not move the wholetime as people may get dizzy simply watching you!Eye contactWhen the eyes say one thing and the tongue another, a practiced man relies on thelanguage of the first. (Emerson, 1860)Eye contact is a key tool for a facilitator. You can use it to draw people in and shutpeople out. You can also use it to retake control of the situation by ceasing eyecontact with anyone and moving to the front. 7
  7. 7. You can’t not communicateResearch has shown that when someone gives a spoken message, the listenersunderstanding and judgement of that message come from:7% WORDS Words are only labels and listeners put their own interpretation on speakers words.38% PARALINGUISTICS The way in which something is said (i.e. accent, tone, inflection, etc.) is very important to a listeners understanding.55% FACIAL EXPRESSIONS What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listeners understanding mostResearch source - Albert MehrabianListening skillsOne of the key skills that you need to be an effective facilitator is that of activelistening. This will enable you to assimilate what is being said and to summarise andmove the discussion on.If you need to work on your listening skills consider asking someone from yourdepartment who attends meetings with you to give honest feedback - make it a twoway process.Poor Listener Effective Listener Thinks and mentally summarizes, weighsTends to "wool-gather" with slow speakers the evidence, listens between the lines to tones of voice and evidenceSubject is dry so tunes out speaker Finds whats in it for me Fights distractions, sees past badDistracted easily communication habits, knows how to concentrateTakes intensive notes, but the more notes Has 2-3 ways to take notes and organizetaken, the less value; has only one way to important informationtake notesIs over stimulated, tends to seek and enter Doesnt judge until comprehension isinto arguments completeInexperienced in listening to difficult Uses "heavier" materials to regularlymaterial; has usually sought light, exercise the mindrecreational materials 8
  8. 8. Lets deaf spots or blind words catch his or Interpret colour words, and doesnt gether attention hung up on them Holds eye contact and helps speakerShows no energy output along by showing an active body stateJudges delivery -- tunes out Judges content, skips over delivery errorsListens for facts Listens for central ideas FeedbackGiving Feedback Focus feedback on behaviour rather than on the person. Refer to what a person does rather than comment on what we imagine he is. Focus feedback on observations rather than inferences, interpretations or conclusions. Describe the impact this observable behaviour has on you. Focus feedback on description rather than judgement. Focus feedback on the sharing of ideas and information rather than on giving advice. Leave the person free to decide for himself whether he wants to change or not. Focus feedback on the value it may have to the recipient, not on the value or „release„ that it provides the person giving the feedback. Use „I„ statements. If possible ask people for their assessment before providing yours. People usually appreciate the opportunity to assess themselves first, and are often more critical of themselves. Confirm that people have understood and encourage them to respond.Receiving Feedback I look on feedback as an opportunity to learn and improve. I acknowledge my emotions. I avoid letting my emotions either prevent me from hearing or distort what I am hearing. I avoid being defensive, explaining or justifying. I listen, then ask questions and paraphrase to check my understanding. If not clear, I ask about the impact of my behaviour. The actual impact of my behaviour may be different from my intent. I thank other people for giving me feedback. 9
  9. 9. The Role of a Trainer1. What is a good trainer? A good trainer should possess a whole list of good attributes that qualify him for his mission. Some fundamental attitudes are: - friendliness, it signals a positive attitude towards the topic and the participants - self discipline: give a good example, the trainer should not allow himself moods - fairness: all are treated equally - patience: especially weaker delegates need it to be integrated into the group - eulogy: all good results should be underlined, this can also be done by body language. This list can be carried on eternally, thus only some more points: flexibility well organised humorous integrates everyone excellent special knowledge does not keep people at a distance motivates has social competence enthusiastic in his task open minded directs himself to everybody, especially his delegates keeps an overview over the learn- and group-processes keeps the run, etc.But why do trainers have to be such "wonder persons? We as trainers have tocontribute our part so that the delegates enjoy the seminar, because the trainer isresponsible for the fact that the delegates learn something.1. The role of a trainer Every trainer should always keep in mind that he has the function of a role model for the participants, because the delegates automatically adjust themselves at him/her. They expect that he sets a clear frame. That means that the trainer has to be well prepared, organised and structured. As he is the formal leader of the group, he is expected to integrate everybody and to direct himself to everyone, especially at the weaker delegates of his group. The trainer must not get involved into conflicts between delegates. The group processes under way can only be solved by the delegates themselves; the trainer can only give his support. As a trainer you must bear in mind that all reactions and uttering are observed thoroughly and are judged upon, e.g. how he reacts to questions or interruptions, how he motivates. Other important points are the structure of his training, how interactive, thrilling it is, how the connections are, whether he has enough time. Those are the points 10
  10. 10. that determine the quality of a trainer. A positive behaviour of a trainer shows in the knowledge he has about theories and the practicing by certain methods. The experiences you make there should be centre of a self critical reflection from time to time, e.g. about the inner attitude, the realistic evaluation of situations, the setting of priorities. Only through continuous self-control the trainer can stay up to date. We have a variety of kinds of trainers and that is good, because not everybody can work with everyone. Every trainer has his strengths and weaknesses he should always be conscious of. This is especially true for his weaknesses, but also for his strengths, that are often perfectioned through the experience of success, so that new risks and conflicts can arise. Here are four questions that every trainer should ask himself about his personal preferences: 1. What do I as a trainer see as a success, what gives me satisfaction? 2. How do I get those experiences of success, what behaviour and strategies are important there? 3. What are the advantages of my behaviour in relation to the delegates? 4. What may be the disadvantages? Surely those questions are not easy to answer, maybe you have to talk to someone who has experienced you or you ask yourself with what kind of trainer you do not get along well or which kind you liked very much! Therefore, feedback of the delegates should be taken very seriously, as they have seen you with their own eyes!! The own style also has to correspond with the learning experiences and expectations of the different groups of delegates. Thus the trainer should be flexible and adjust himself to the situation. Herewith it is important for the delegates that they can orientate themselves at the trainer, i.e. his behaviour should be reliable and transparent.2. Conflict situations (What happens, when...☺) In our trainings there are not only angels. Thus, in every training there will be situations you would like to avoid. Of course every trainer wishes to act, react or respond in the right way. You should not have too many illusions about this. Many things can be studied in theory, but only practice will make you more experienced. Blackout/ lost the run. You should always have your notes at hand, also to see where you are, etc. If it does not work after all, stay calm and relax! It is best to make a break. It often helps to repeat or to summarize the last point. If nothing else helps, honesty towards the delegates will help! Errors in words/wrong pronunciation. Keep on talking in a relaxed way, repeat the mispronounced word. Do not let yourself lose the run! Technical failures. 11
  11. 11. Either refrain from using the device or make a break in order to find a solution. There are also interruptions that can be caused by single delegates, so that the whole group may suffer from it. But this resistance will only grow stronger if you try to break it with "force". The delegates are talking among themselves. This can be a signal that the delegates are not challenged enough or that someone does not dare to speak out loud his feelings and thoughts. Therefore you should seek eye contact with the participants first. If they do not react to this, make a pause and ask if you can participate in the conversation. Silence. Can have different causes, like the basic idea of the discussion is not clear. The delegates are afraid of exposing themselves in front of the group, the delegates are not challenged enough, and their expectations are not fulfilled. The delegates have to be challenged in their seminar; the scale is the weakest part of the chain. The trainer should try to find out the reasons, e.g. through a spontaneous feedback round. If a single participant is silent, you should direct your words directly to him/her so that he/she will get into contact with the group again. Being bored. The delegates are unhappy in any form that they do not want to express. Mostly they express their anger later, with reproach in front of someone else. For the group this behaviour is little satisfying. They do not develop a "we-feeling", but become quiet. The trainer should in any case treat the topic, e.g. by a check of expectations in order to understand the attitude of the delegate. In this context the feedback rules that have been established are important. If the delegates know how to use them, they can formulate their disagreement in a constructive way. Talk too much. If someone holds a monologue, and not only once, but several times, then you should inhibit after a while and point out that others want to be able to talk as well. Too much talking, like silence, can be a sign that someone does not like to be confronted with others. The person feels save in his position in the centre of interest as he can now control what is going on.1. Feedback or criticism from the trainer? If the delegates of a group want to work with each other effectively, they have to inform themselves about what kind of behaviour is expected from each participant. If there are no reasonable feedback rules, they do not talk problems within the group but complain outside! The more advanced the delegates are, the easier it is to have feedback. This is especially true for the trainer. He is not only the leader of the seminar, but is often attributed special knowledge. Consequently his word weighs double. In feedback we generally distinguish into three forms: 12
  12. 12. Evaluative feedback contains an evaluation of the other person, e.g. you are lazy, etc. This usually causes a reaction of defence in the concerned person, as he feels attacked personally. The person who gives the feedback does not give tips in how far the receiver should change. Expressive feedback only expresses the personal feelings. It only causes a contra reaction in the receiver and demands a clarification by the sender. Constructive feedback is the most effective of all feedbacks. Here the concrete behaviour of the receiver is addressed and criticised. The sender also defines clearly his own resulting feelings. Only by this feelings and demands can be made explicit without hurting the other. It is important for the group that the delegates have a well developed feedback system in order to treat each other effectively.What you should take into consideration: sender of feedback receiver of feedback - objective, do not become personal - accept it - directly afterwards, do not wait hours - do not comment - be open and honest - be ready for it - do not forget positive things - make an analysis of yourself - do not exaggerate - thank the person for it - make clear: personal opinion - talk in the I-form 13
  13. 13. Different Ways to Bring the Message1. Information ReceivingThe Lecture1. One person systematically presents information.2. Maximum information is presented in a limited time; diverse materials and ideas can be arranged in an orderly system.3. This method uses one person’s point of view, one channel of communication, and no group participation. It is strongly influenced by the personality of the speaker.Demonstrations1. A process is performed before an audience.2. Processes that illustrate techniques and skills can be visually presented, and results of particular procedures can be shown.3. This technique provides for limited participation by group members.The Debate1. Two sides of an issue are presented by speakers under the direction of a moderator.2. Issue can be sharpened, questions can be clarified, and interest can reach a high level.3. Debates can easily become too emotional and a good moderator should be present to mediate differences.Dialog1. Two people informally discuss a topic before an audience.2. Information is provided in an informal setting, which adds interest and emotional appeal and encourages discussion.3. A dialog needs careful planning to keep it from becoming disorganized or dominated by the personalities of the participants.Panel1. Under the direction of a moderator, several people discuss an issue in front of an audience, frequently after all members of the panel have made their initial presentations, a full-panel discussion is held.2. The different viewpoints stimulate thinking.3. A skilful moderator is needed to keep the panel on the topic and to keep any of the members from monopolizing the discussion. 14
  14. 14. 2. DiscussionQuestion-and-Answer Sessions Responses are solicited by inquiries,1. Clarification can be provided to answer specific needs, and this method is easily combined with other techniques.2. A question-and-answer session can easily become threatening, embarrassing, dull, too formal, or too informal.Group Discussions1. To reach an agreement or gain a better understanding, two or more people share knowledge, experiences and opinions; build on ideas; clarify; evaluate; and coordinate.2. Many needs of group members can be met with this method, because it provides a high degree of interaction, interest, and involvement.3. Group discussions may not provide authoritative information, nor are they usually helpful when the group is large; they require time, patience, and capable leadership.Buzz Groups1. Large groups are divided into smaller groups (frequently containing five to ten members) to discuss a particular topic and report back to the large group.2. An opportunity is provided for a maximum discussion in a limited time, thereby promoting involvement and enthusiasm.3. The discussion may be shallow, disorganized, or dominated by one or two people.Brainstorming1. Groups identify as many ideas related to a problem or topic as possible without evaluating quality or practicality of the ideas.2. This technique can produce excellent audience involvement and it encourages creativity; it can be done quickly; and a large group can be divided into small groups for the activity.3. Creative thinking may be inhibited (and the method fail) unless participants adhere strictly to the guidelines and refrain from making evaluative comments.Symposium1. Several people with different points of view make presentations; often the presentations are followed by a question-and-answer session directed by a moderator.2. This method presents several viewpoints on a topic.3. To work effectively, this technique needs speakers with equal ability and a skilful moderator.Listening Team1. A team from the audience reacts to a presentation by a resource person in order to raise questions or clarify and summarize the presentation. 15
  15. 15. 2. The audience becomes involved, helping the resource person to meet the needs of the group; this method can be helpful when the content is difficult.3. This technique can be time consuming, and the quality depends on the team members.3. Information findingA Field Trip or Tour1. A visit to a place of interest is arranged for direct observation and study.2. This method, which can be highly interesting to the participants, expands their understanding and broadens their interest; at least to a degree, it involves every member of a group.3. This method is time consuming and requires a great deal of organization; without adequate discussion prior to and following the visit, the learning may be limited.Group Project1. Group members cooperatively work on a project.2. This technique can provide first-hand information and practical experience; it can provide interest; and it can provide insights on teamwork3. Unless sufficient time is allowed for discussing the process, the project tends to become an end in itself.Case Study1. A description of a situation or an event is supplied, often supported by a handout, and participants are given instructions about dealing with the situation or finding a solution.2. This technique requires participants to use higher learning processes and helps them to apply principles.3. A case study may be difficult to develop, especially if adequate data are not available; and it is time consuming for groups to work through the case study and report their discussions.4. DramatizationRole Playing1. Roles are assigned, and participants spontaneously act out a situation; usually the role-play is followed by analysis and evaluation.2. This method provides opportunities to “feel” human relations situations and to experiment with possible solutions or interactions.3. Unless carefully handled, role-playing can become merely entertaining or too artificial.Skits1. The skit is a short, planned, and usually rehearsed performance to convey a message or to pretend or interpret a situation.2. This method is entertaining; it can be used to introduce a topic, or it can be interspersed to emphasize certain elements of a training session.3. Effective skits require advance preparation and adequate processing. 16
  16. 16. Simulation Games1. Games are fashioned from actual situations in order to explore concepts and to practice behaviour.2. These games provide a safe environment for practicing new behaviour; they encourage active learning; and they can be fun and challenging.Games may encourage a false sense of confidence in handling a real-life situation,and they may be expensive to develop. 17
  17. 17. Selecting Instructional TechniquesThere are eight major factors that should be taken into consideration when choosinginstructional techniques:Learning objectives. Is the focus of the objectives acquiring new knowledge, enhancing thinking skills, developing psychomotor skills, or changing attitudes, values, and/or feelings?Instructors. Are the instructors capable of using the techniques, and do they feel comfortable in doing so?Content. Is the content abstract or concrete? What is the level of complexity and comprehensiveness of the material?Participants. How many participants will there be? What are the characteristics of these participants? What expectations do they have in terms of the techniques to be used – and ate they capable of learning through those techniques?Characteristics of the teaching techniques themselves. What can be realistically be done with the techniques?Time. What time period is available?Cost. Are the costs, if any, associated with the techniques chosen realistic?Space, equipment and materials. Are the space, equipment and/or materials necessary to use the techniques readily available?More on methods…LECTUREStructured talk, supported by visual aids: OHP foils, flipchart & slides Suitable for large audiences where Lively presentation style is needed participation is not required Regular change of pace of media Allows content & timing to be planned Low level of interaction & feedback in detail in advance Difficult to assess what has been communicatedROLE-PLAYThe enacting of roles in a ‘safe’ training environment Face-to-face situations Needs a lot of planning to be realistic Allow participants to experience a full If not managed properly, it can lead to range of emotions embarrassment for participants Enable rapid trainer and/or co-trainer and/or participant feedback/coaching Opportunity to try againCOACHINGA process where a ‘coach’ through discussion helps a couchee to learn to solve aproblem or complete a task Task-oriented approach Coaching demands high level of Used to develop both individuals interpersonal skills Results usually take time to be achieved 18
  18. 18. DISCUSSIONFree exchange of opinions and information that can be open or controlled. An opendiscussion follows the member’s priority. A controlled discussion follows the preparedagenda of the leader/trainer. Can help promote group development Can be very time consuming or cohesion Allows for the expressions of ideas and the development or adjustment of opinionsCASE STUDYWritten examination/description of a situation, often based on real life, whichencourage learning by analyzing the case, defining the problem(s) & proposingsolution(s) Opportunities of analysis & individual Difficult in large group or group discussion on key points of May oversimplify the true complexity case and problem solving of a situationROLE-REVERSALEnactment of reversed roles by the learners in a simulation so that they canappreciate the other person’s situation and/or feelings Usually face-to-face where it enables The same as role plays people to appreciate the other persons positionTip:Nobody has learnt how to swim reading guidelines “How to swim effectively” inhis/her bed. 19
  19. 19. Moderation„I did not know any more what was going on in my workshop, so I concentrated onmoderating...„(Jochen Mez, exNCVPX, about his workshop on WeastCo ’96 in Bayreuth)What is moderation...?When we talk about moderation we generally mean the method of moderation. Thisis a special kind of organising working in groups, having the following characteristics:• a special behavior of the leader (moderator)• procedure according to certain rules (methods)• using certain tools (materials)Moderation according to this definition is oriented in a certain scheme, themoderation cycle. 1.step INTRODUCTIO N6. step 2. stepCLOSING COLLECT TOPICS5. step 3. stepPLAN ACTIONS SELECT TOPIC 4. step WORK ON TOPICThe role of the moderatorThe moderator of a group is characterised by a very specific attitude. He is anassistant and companion of the group. He does not say what is right or wrong, whathas to be done or has to be avoided. He helps the group to work responsibly, i.e.finding the solutions to its questions and problems and solving them itself.The moderator has the responsibility that the group reaches a result. The quality ofthe result is the responsibility of the group itself.Especially three components influence the interdependence between apparition andwork of the moderator: His personality, his methodology and his behaviour in ortowards the group.The methods of moderationThe central method of moderation is the question. Thus the moderator does notappear as a person who makes statements and gives answers, but asks questions.Questions make it possible to: 20
  20. 20. • integrate all participants • make moods transparent• make the knowledge of the participants • achieve consensus in the group evident• coordinate steps of workThe most important kinds of questions are:• open question • closed question • alternative question• rhetoric question • contra-question • reciprocating questionBesides the question there are, of course, more methods, which can be aggregatedto the phases of moderation:• matrix of getting-to- ⇒ step 1: introduction/orientation know• personal description ⇒ step 1: introduction/orientation• expectation check ⇒ step 1: introduction/orientation• brainstorming ⇒ step 2: collect topics or ⇒ step 4: work on topic• questioning with cards ⇒ step 2: collect topics according to the situation in every other step.• questioning through ⇒ step 2: collect topics or according to the situation in acclamation every other step.• one-point-questioning ⇒ can be used in every step, according to the situation• several-points- ⇒ At the end of step 2: collect topics questioning ⇒ At the beginning of step 3: select topic• topic memory ⇒ At the end of step 2: collect topics ⇒ At the beginning of step 3: select topic• mind-mapping ⇒ step 4: work on topic• peonza ⇒ step 4: work on topic• plan of actions ⇒ step 5: plan actions• mood barometer ⇒ can be used at all timesTools/material for moderationThe following selection of material is vast, but as we all know you can compensate alot by improvisation...• flipchart and paper • pin wall and paper • markers• tape • cards (different formats) • scissors• needles • point stickers 21
  21. 21. Preparation of moderationThe success of a moderation, how could it be different, depends largely on thepreparation. A thorough procedure includes the following points:• preparation for the target group • thoughts about the aims• planning of the methodology • preparation of the visualization• organizational preparationThis summary is based on Seifert/Pattay: Visualisieren-Präsentieren-Moderieren.Literature1 Seifert, Josef W.; Pattay, Silvia: Visualisieren-Präsentieren-Moderieren. Speyer 1993.2 Sperling, Jan B.: Führungsaufgabe Moderation. 1996.3 Neuland, Michele: Neuland-Moderation. Eichenzell 19954 Klebert, Karin u. a.: Moderationsmethode. Hamburg 1987. 22
  22. 22. How to Design a SessionBIG STEPS in the designing process: 1. SEX – find out a. Who? b. Where? c. When? d. How? e. How long? Etc… 2. Objectives of the session 3. Key messages 4. Techniques that you can use a. Presentation b. Brain Storming c. Working Groups d. Simulations e. Show f. Role-Play g. Fish Bowl h. Personal reflection i. Others…. (Museum, Fair, etc…) 5. Structure of the session a. Approach: Intro – Body – Ending b. Use the tool called Outline of the session 6. Use logistic – Visuals a. Flipchart b. Beamer c. Overhead Projector 23
  23. 23. Use of ToolsOf course the aim of any training is that the delegates remember more easily whatwas said, so that they can apply when they are preparing and giving presentations.The human brain stores information. Each of us has a preferred channel ofremembering data. Experiments show that delegates recall 52% of what they saw,7% of what they hear and 41% of what they feel/experience, taste or smell. So it isextremely important to use the three aspects in your presentation. 1. VerbalBrainstorming ◊ Strengths Builds on diversity Wealth of ideas ◊ Watch-outs Evaluation of ideas Time consuming ◊ Applications Collecting new ideasFull group discussions ◊ Strengths Builds on diversity Interactive ◊ Watch-outs Might end without conclusion Time-control Strained relations ◊ Applications Develop ideas, process FeedbackSub-group discussions ◊ Strengths Everybody has a contribution High learning in subgroup ◊ Watch-outs Very time consuming Almost no control ◊ Applications Different aspects of same subject 2. VisualHand-outs ◊ Strengths High volume of correct knowledge ◊ Watch-outs Hand out before or after the presentation ◊ Application As reference 24
  24. 24. Flipchart ◊ Strengths By build up: interactive, controlled, Prepared: correct and organized ◊ Watch-outs Location, hiding Writing Record input literally Changing papers is sometimes difficult ◊ Applications Training and presentation in smaller groups Overhead ◊ Strengths Catches attention Long retention time Clarity ◊ Watch-outs 6 lines, 6 words, readable at 6 feet Keep it simple Limit the number and put numbers on each slide ◊ Applications Training and presentation Slides, PowerPoint ◊ Strengths Clarity ◊ Watch-outs Keep them simple Sleepy while dark Software compatibility You need dark room ◊ Applications Presentations for larger audienceSome Flip-tips: if you need to build up a very complicated picture you can draw before on the flipchart in pencil, nobody will notice this whenever possible prepare the flipcharts in advance (especially when you have a bad handwriting) put tab sections (post-it) with heading for easy references or cut corners of the flipcharts you need quick access to leave blank sheets of paper if you want people to listen to something you are going to tell tape important flipcharts around the room where they can be easily seen and used as a reference use abbreviations, but don’t forget to explain them never talk when writing on the flipchart do not cover the chart with your body when writing → practice writing important note that you may not forget can be put on the back of the flipchart KISS Keep it simple stupid : maximum 6 lines of text maximum 6 25
  25. 25. VisualizationWhy visualization?:Herewith I aim at the specialisation of both parts of the brain. While the left part isspecialised in digital thinking, language, logics, mathematics, verbal communicationand thus the memory for words and languages. The right part, on the other hand,specialises in analogical and visual thinking, emotions and experiences. Thus theright part of the brain „thinks in pictures and remembers especially emotions.Because we perceive pictures with our eyes, visual perception stimulates mostly theright part of the brain. This side is mainly responsible for our creativity. If we want toreach our delegates on an analytical level as well as on an emotional level to enablethem to have a holistic learning experience, we have to stimulate both parts of thebrain => visualizationHow do I use media correctly?Flipchart: Well known topic, thus only a few remarks:Popular in AIESEC events because of its easy handling, use recommended forgroups of maximally 15 personsAdvantages:• transportable• Possibility to prepare charts• Development can be seen step by step• by putting the paper on the wall the result is kept visibleDisadvantages• Trainer shows back while writing• changing the paper is difficult (practise before, like how to cut the paper)• result cannot be given directly to the delegates to take them home• correcting is difficult and often looks ugly• good handwriting is vitalHow to use:• do speak into the direction of the audience, i.e. never speak and write at the same time• do not cover chart with your body (practice writing and the side of your body)• prepare tape at the chart for hanging up the paper• if necessary you can put notes and hints at the back of the flipchartPin board with meta-placards: is sufficient for groups up to 10 persons, often usedfor the agenda check, group work and brainstorming. In a short time you can collectthe ideas of the group and structure them. It is important to make clear how thetechnique is to be used, because within AIESEC the technique is often used in anincorrect way.After giving the topic it should be clear to everybody that every card is used for oneargument only with maximally 3-4 words, use well readable handwriting in printedletters only! 26
  26. 26. After collecting the cards, all cards are read out loud and clustered at the pin board.No criticism (form of brainstorming), only clarifying words by the person who haswritten the respective card. The writer also decides where the card should be put. Allcards are put up, except for the case that it is a big group. In this case it is easilypossible that you get the same words several times. But you should ask the groupwhether it is o.k. that the words that appear double or more times are not put up,using the explanation that the pin board will be hard to overlook with so many cards.With the groups you should not work according the principle: less groups are better.When you use illogical reasons why a card should be put just at that place, you willloose your credibility for the delegates. If something does not fit in, it does not fit inand cannot be talked into it. As last step you search headings for the clusters tomake the result easier to overlook.Advantages:• very interactive media• integration of all participants is easily possible• relatively anonymous in a brainstormingDisadvantages:• when carried out correctly it needs a lot of timeHow to use:• keep a reserve of cards for participants who want to write a lot• if short in time use harsh timelimit (nevertheless a form of brainstorming)• make clear to every delegate how important the writing is, especially in large groups• reading and clustering should be done by a member of the groupOver Head Projector: can be used up to the size of an auditorium, only scarcely atdisposition in AIESEC meetings, most of the time you cannot rely on having an OHP,if you really want to use it, clarify with the OC whether you will have one.Advantages:• direction of you view is the group, you never lose visual contact with the group• possibility of preparing beautiful slides (greetings from PPT)• by overlaying you can illustrate developments• can be copied=> result can be given fast to the group as a handout• if using non-permanent markers you can correct the writing• slides can be re-usedDisadvantages:• it has to be possible to dim the light in the room• too much information on one page• own size of writing is hard to calculate• a lot of technical requirements, a lot of blackoutsHow to use:• the standard position of the projector is „OFF“ ☺ 27
  27. 27. • do not use bright colours• when pointing in the slide, put a pen on top, otherwise you can see shivering hands (otherwise use cocktail sticks as pointer)• read from the slide and not from the wall• Overlay-technic• use more than one colour• do not put more than 3 pieces of information on one slide (better use a larger font instead)How do I use elements of visualization correctly?This part seems to be less interesting for a normal AIESEC-training. Diagrams arehardly used by AIESEC-trainers and symbols are used automatically by most people,although mostly standardised symbols.Writing:• It is a point of discussion whether or not to use only capital letters, but it should be printed letters.• If you tend to „fall“ with your writing when writing from the side of the flipchart, mark lines on the paper with a pencil or use the paper with the printed lines.• The writing should be structured, i.e. use headings and sub-points, making it clear with colours or underlining, etc.Graphics:• to emphasize e.g. writing• to make „dry“ topics more „digestible“• e.g. frames and cloudsDiagrams:• are very useful when you want to illustrate the relation of two variables• developments can be shown with line-diagrams• illustrating amounts you can use „diagramas de barras“How do I put the visualization into the correct order?It is important to treat symmetry and order because that is like the usual flow inAIESEC. Moreover, it shall be made clear that developments from the left bottomcorner to the right top corner are seen as positive and a development from the lefttop corner to the right bottom corner as negative (think about businessadministration). Colours should be varied, but do not kill the delegates with too manycolours, i.e. not more than four colours per flipchart, slide or poster.How do I prepare myself?• Aim: it is not completely clear to most trainers what is actually the aim of the training. They often confuse it with the contents. Aims can be e.g. excellent knowledge transfer or motivation of the delegates. To make an alignment of the whole training towards this aim possible, the trainer has to be clear about his aims first.• Topic: the topic, most of the time, is not a problem, because the trainers usually 28
  28. 28. have a high knowledge in their speciality and thus know much about their topic.• Content: To get the content, it is useful to ask yourself questions like what would have helped me at the beginning of my time as a member of the EB. On the basis of this you should collect information in the respective areas, e.g. in your folders, in the folders of the LC, manuals from the MC or other countries, calling the NST, etc. Having worked through the material you know what you want to use from that yourself.• Flow: The flow of a presentation will be treated extensively in the context of the planning of training. Here you should focus on opening, main part and closing. Do not make it too long. You can compare it to a pilot. He should prepare the start and landing very well (e.g. with notes), but the flight itself should be better done by the autopilot. That means for us: let the delegate work themselves, let them develop their own ideas and do only interfere if the plane seems to be crashing.• Preparation: get used to the room. Even if you know the OC, better check your material. Build up the flipchart or the pin board or whatever you might need or have. Make sure that every delegate can see. Put the chairs they way you want them to be. In AIESEC you mostly use a semicircle, open to the trainer, so that the delegates can see each other and thus can discuss better with each other. Several types of room arrangements are possible.Opening/ Main part/ closing/ follow-up of a presentation:Although these parts are mentioned individually, they must be seen as a whole.• Opening: Some possibilities for an opening might be e.g.: a story at the beginning (functions as an icebreaker at the same time), a visual tool (a video, a slideshow, an expressive slide at the beginning), a surprising statistic, an unknown statistic, a promise, a short introduction of the main argument or the aim of the session.The sense of the opening is to relax the situation and build up curiosity.• Main part: The main part should be characterized by a logical structure. This means you should think in advance whether the flow of your agenda has sense and is understandable for everyone. Still there should be so much flexibility that you can react to the needs of your delegates spontaneously.• Closing: Some possibilities for a closing might be, e.g. a summary (within AIESEC often useful for a repeated representation of the topic), treating the main point again, an extract or a poem (but be careful, it should only be used when it really fits the situation, otherwise it is ridiculous), an appeal, e.g. for activity (often used within AIESEC, as it also has a motivational effect) , a visual tool (see above), follow-up. Part of the responsible follow-up for an AIESEC-trainer should be to treat the feedback with responsibility. As feedback in AIESEC meetings is often not given as extremely as it should be, you should learn to read between the lines and visualize again in which situations you think of your own performance as good or 29
  29. 29. bad.. The loss of information is smaller when you introduce your fresh impressions into you concept directly after the meeting and not with a huge time distance.How to handle difficult delegatesWhat is he doing? Asks questions: Why? How? Etc. - not to get answer, just to make trainer some troubles; Probably doesnt feel comfortable; Gets satisfaction from being pain in the neck; Is aggressive and likes to argue.Its a type of a person which likes to over fuck training. You can feel aggression in him.How to deal with him? Never show him that youre sad or mad at him; Tell you agree with him and go on if its possible; Wait for something concrete and ask group about it; Ask him to write on a flipchart, this will give him something to do and can make him quiet; Use him in some role play or case in front of everybody; Ask him to wait for you after training for a little conversation; Try to figure out if he feels comfortable in the group, if they like his behavior - if yes, put them on sides like in school; Try to find ripostes for his texts - you have to be bright and fast; If you feel you can make laugh of him, do it, but not to hard; Play ping-pong with him or the group with his questions; If you know that this particular person will act like that during training, talk to him before you start the training.What is he doing? Loves to talk, its very hard to stop him; Is asexual exhibitionist – likes to be in the centre of attention; Is well informed and likes to show this.How to deal with him? Wait when he takes a breath, thank him and go back to the topic; Interrupt him and ask group to comment it; Stop him by asking him very hard question; Ask him to write on a flipchart, this will give him something to do and can make him quiet; If it occurs he knows something, use his knowledge, e.g. in a case or role-play; If he is smarter then you on some topic, ask him to lead the group; Tell to the group: „Ooh! As you can see we have an expert here, maybe he can share his knowledge with us?”; Show his incompetence and lack of knowledge; Send him to bring you a cup of coffee or coffee break for the group; The totally last possible option is to ask him to shut up! 30
  30. 30. What is he doing? Has attitude like: „we cant do this, its impossible” - only negative thoughts; Is very annoying; Will try to make you "kozioł ofiary".1How to deal with him? Dont let him put you out of your nerves! Avoid direct confrontation! You have to feel the situation; Ask him for facts, ask questions; Give him your respect (approbation); Have strong eye contact with him, pay big attention to him but not too much, or give him your attention before training; Make him tell to all participants what he wants to change to make situation better; Show him that one of the conditions of this session is having constructive and positive attitude; Use step by step influencing on him (from small manipulation to bigger); If this person makes bored positions - lies down, put legs on chairs, yawns - ask him for attention and tell his behaviour interrupts you in training, you can add reasons why we met on this training; Use his statements to make group laugh; Last possible case: if he is really not interested, ask him to leave the room - give him an ultimatum: "You will calm down or leave the room!".What is he doing? Doesnt understand what is going on but tries to explain and make it more clear to the others; Has inputs and tell stories and makes jokes of your training; Is bored, nervous, sometimes critical; Hes over fucking trainer.There is always one of them but has to talk to someone, so hes looking for a pair.How to deal with him? Use light-house technique – have eye contact with all the participants of the group including himself; Stop talking, wait if he notices it and non-verbally ask for permission to continue the training; Listen to what he says, he may be right sometimes; Ask him to share his opinion and thoughts with the group; Try to involve him into training - play role-play solve case (usually people like him have a lot of energy); When youre talking about something, say the name of this person, as he was just a part of your statement Say: "Im very sorry for interrupting but were having training here...”; If they are more, put them on sides (whisperer and his pair).1 Scape goat 31
  31. 31. Silent One - person which is BoredWhat is he doing? Is always bored and not active at all – you can see he doesnt give even 1/16 of what he could.How to deal with him? Smile on him; Ask him difficult concrete questions; Talk to him using his name as to a person which knows a lot - ask him to share his experience with us; let him feel that if he says something it will give benefit to all the group; Use him as a help with exercises, try to engage him;Silent One - person which is LostWhat is he doing? Doesnt feel safe; Is shy; Doesnt believe in himself.How to deal with him? Ask him simple questions; Talk to him using his name; Make him feel comfortable, safe; Raise his ego; Be careful and do not pay all your attention to him - otherwise he will get closed; Avoid asking group to tell their opinion one after another, some people dont like this; Make interactions in small groups - its easier to integrate them and make some people open; Create a pleasant atmosphere in the group – beer talks; Before training, "break ice" first - talk with the group about something not connected with the topic.Tips & Tricks1. Clothes to be comfortable, not to many colors and strange combinations of colors. Last but not least have decent cloths.2. You have to take into consideration the level of understanding of the audience3. Include buffer time in your sessions4. If there is more than one trainer, have pre-meeting5. Go to toilet before6. Blow your nose before7. Take care what you eat/drink and in what quantities8. In Working Groups address delegates by names (they all have badges)9. Interact with delegates during the conferences10. Be in all the plenary (opening and closing). 32
  32. 32. Training & Team Building Bibliography Arch, Dave, Tricks for Trainers, Resources for Organizations, Inc., 1993. 57 magic tricks to build into your presentation. Belknap, Martha, Mind Body Magic: Creative Activities for Any Audience, Whole Person Associates, Duluth, MN, 1997. Categories include stretching mind and body, activating energy, opening up creativity, and relaxing into stillness. Cassidy, John & Rimbeaux, B.C., Juggling for the Complete Klutz, Klutz Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1988. Learn to juggle. Then build it into your training. Consalvo, Carmine M., Workplay, Organizational Design and Development, Inc., King of Prussia, PA, 1992. 18 structured activities in a wide range of learning themes. Good for team building, leadership, decision making, resource management, and more. Gardner, Martin, Aha, Scientific American, Inc., New York, 1978. Puzzles and exercises that make people think. Categories include combinatorial, geometry, logic, number, procedural and word aha’s. Jones, Ken, Icebreakers, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, 1997. A sourcebook of games, exercises, and simulations. Jones, Ken, Imaginative Events for Training, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993. Categories include creativity, efficiency, and personal exercises (communication, relationships, etc.). Kinlaw, Dennis, Handbook of Leadership Training Activities, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998. 50 one-hour designs for leadership training. Kirby, Andy, The Encyclopedia of Games for Trainers, HRD Press, Amherst, MA, 1992. Short and long activities in lots of areas: creativity, icebreakers, communication, people skills, trust, and more. Kroehnert, Gary, 100 Training Games, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991. Categories include icebreakers, team building, communication, facilitator/presentation skills, mid-course energizers, learning, perception, evaluation, and self-management. Lefevre, Dale N., New Games for the Whole Family, Putnam Publishing, New York, 1988. Active and cooperative games you can adapt for small and large groups at work. Naper, Rodney & Gershenfeld, Matti K., Advanced Games for Trainers, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 1998. Detailed instructions for interventions for solving team, group, and organizational problems. Newstrom, John & Scannell, Edward, The Big Books of Business Games, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997. Includes games for openers, motivators, creative problem solving, managing change, surfacing problems, team building, presentation boosters, and communication. Pike, Robert, Creative Training Techniques Handbook, Lakewood Books, Minneapolis, MN, 1990. The book for every library on how to make training creative in a gazillion ways. Rohnke, Karl & Butler, Steve, Quicksilver, Kendall/Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA, 1995. 33
  33. 33. Adventure games, initiative problems, trust activities, and a guide to effective leadership.Shortz, Will, ed., Brain Twisters from The First World Puzzle Championships, B.& P. Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 1993. Puzzles to get people thinking differently.Sikes, Sam, Executive Marbles, Learning Unlimited Corporation, Tulsa, OK,1998. 35 creative games and activities that address issues including trust, communication, leadership, conflict, problem solving, direction, and process improvement.Sikes, Sam, Feeding the Zircon Gorilla and Other Team Building Activities,Learning Unlimited Corporation, Tulsa, OK, 1995. 38 creative games and activities for small, medium, and large groups.Silberman, Mel, 101 Ways to Make Training Active, Pfeiffer & Company, SanDiego, 1995. Includes tips for active training and activities for getting participation, teaching information, reviewing information, application planning, and closing.Snow, Harrison, Indoor/Outdoor Team Building Games for Trainers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997. Activities from the world of adventure based team building and ropes courses.Solem, Lynn & Pike, Bob, 50 Creative Training Closers, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer,San Francisco, 1997. Activities for reviewing content, action planning, celebration, and motivation.Sugar, Steve, Games That Teach: Experiential Activities for ReinforcingTraining, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, San Francisco, 1998. 26 frame games and a detailed explanation of how to implement games.Thiagarajan, Sivasailam, Cash Games, HRD Press, Amherst, MA, 1994. Instructions and examples of games using cold, hard cash.Thiagarajan, Sivasailam, Group Grope, HRD Press, Amherst, MA, 1994. Detailed instructions for using and modifying the "group grope" game – a small group activity that can be played in 30 minutes.Thiagarajan, Sivasailam, Triangles, HRD Press, Amherst, MA, 1994. Detailed instructions for using triangles (also known as tangrams) to explore group interactions.VanGundy, Arthur, 101 Great Games & Activities, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, SanFrancisco, 1998. Categories include career development, change management, communication, creativity, diversity, energizers, evaluation, goal setting, interviewing, leadership, negotiation, problem solving, team building, and values.Wakeling, Edward, ed., Lewis Carroll’s Games and Puzzles, Dover Publications,Inc., New York, 1992. Lewis Carroll taught mathematics at Oxford University. These are some of the puzzles he used in his teaching. 34
  34. 34. IcebreakersGETTING AQUATINTEDAim: (1) To provide opportunities to become acquainted with other members of the group. (2) To promote feedback and self-disclosure among participants regarding initial perceptions.Time: Approx.35-40 minutes.Materials: (1) 12 blank sticky labels or strips of masking tape for eachparticipant. (2) A copy of the Labelling Category List for each participant. (Seebelow). (3) Pencils or felt-tipped markers.Procedure:The group leader distributes a copy of the Labelling Category List to each participantalong with blank name tags. Each participant must copy each category on a separateblank nametag. Participants mill around and choose a person who best fits eachcategory. Stick label onto clothing of the person you select and engage in a one-minute conversation (20 minutes). The group leader forms groups of 5-7 members.Each group must discuss their reactions to being categorized and labelled (or notlabelled) by others first impressions (15 minutes).Labelling Category List:Warm, Intelligent, Shy, Happy, Fun loving, Friendly, Sexy, Sincere, MysteriousWORLD TRIPAims:To find out the names of other members in the groupTo provide low risk activityTo stimulate logical thoughtDescriptionA game to help group members learn each others namesApproachThe group could be sitting on the floor. The teacher enters the group and introducesthe game by saying, "None of us knows any others name. Lets play a game that willhelp us find them out. My name is Tom, I am going on a world trip and I am takingTomatoes with me. If you want to come with me you have, to say your first name and 35
  35. 35. what you want to bring. You have to bring the right thing. The first letter of our firstname must be the first letter of the thing you bring. The game proceeds untileveryone can come. At the end of the game the teacher asks each student twoquestions. "How many names can you remember?" "Which are they?"TimeCould take one sessionBackgroundThis activity would be best used at the initial meeting of the group.WHOS MISSINGMaterials: Small prizes, such as sweets.(optional)Aims: Memory training, concentration, building groups, fun.Procedure: Group is seated, scattered around the room. One person, A goes out.The group moves around, changing places, and one more person, B,leaves by theother door, or hides. A returns and has 30 seconds to guess whos missing. If hedoes he wins (a small sweet, if you wish to give prizes), if he doesnt B wins.Variations: Add consequences for the loserCHINESE WHISPERSMaterials: NoneAims: Positive feedback, good for closing exerciseProcedure: Members mill around. When you see someone youd like tocommunicate with, send them a message via someone else: e.g. Tell Joan I saidthank you for helping me yesterday. Continue until messages run out.Variations: Do as graffiti on large paper on walls. Do with bits of paper beingdelivered. Do it at a run, speed up, slow motion, etc.THE NAME OF THE GAMEMaterials: One ball for every group of about 15 -16.Aims: Introduction, memorizing names 36
  36. 36. Procedure: New group sits in a circle of not more than sixteen. One person is givena ball. The ball is passed around the circle and each person who receives the ballsays their name very clearly (usually just the first name). When everyone has beennamed and the ball is back to the beginning, the person holding the ball throws it toany person. That person must say the throwers name. The ball is then thrown tosomeone else who must say the next throwers name. If a person cannot rememberthe name of the person who has thrown the ball to him, they must ask and repeat thename before proceeding with the activity. The game continues until everyone canremember the names of the people within their group. Group size is usually aboutsixteen.HUMAN TIC-TAC-TOEMaterials: 9 chairs, running spaceAims: Active participation, warm-up, funProcedure: At one end of the room, three rows of three chairs each, four feet apart.Teams: Team 1 is Noughts, Team 2 is Crosses; they line up in corners of the roomfacing the chairs. When the leader calls noughts, the first naught runs to a chair andsits with arms circled above head. Runner must sit before Leader counts to 5 slowly.Leader calls crosses, first cross runs and sits with arms crossed on chest. Leadercontinues to call them alternately until one team wins (same rules as paper Noughtsand Crosses). Start over, call losing team first. Keep score (optional).TICK TOCKMaterials: Two small different objects, such as a blue felt pen and a red felt pen.Aims: Breaking the ice, concentrationProcedure: Leader has pen (or other object), passes it to his right, saying: This is atick. Player 1 says: A what? Leader repeats: A tick. 1 then passes it on saying,This is a tick. Player 2 says: A what? to player 1, who says: A what? to the leader.Each time the What? must pass all the way to the leader, and the A tick must passall the way back, before the pen is passed. When this has been practiced a fewtimes, start over, and at the same time, start another pen to the left, saying: This is atock etc. Confusion is encouraged and acceptable. Let the group try, as long asdesired, to return both objects to the leader without losing the flow or concentration.FAMOUS PEOPLEMaterials: Famous names on strips of card or paper, straight pins. It couldbe names of real people (Joan of Arc), or fictional (Superman), etc. 37
  37. 37. Aims: Mixing, starting conversation, ice-breakingProcedure: As people enter, leader pins a name on each persons back.Each one must walk around and try to find out who he is by asking yes-or-no questions of everyone else. When he knows who he is, he pins the paper on hisfront and continues to help others.Variations: Try it non-verbally. Try insisting that everyone must makestatements (e.g. I am alive), and no questions allowed.MOVE TO THE SPOTAims:Introductory Movement Awareness RelaxationMaterials:Large, empty room or spaceLearning to follow simple instructions, movement, warm-up for Drama PProcedure:Leader says: Find a place to stand by yourself. Now look at and concentrate on afixed spot on the floor, somewhere across the room. Now, move to that spot in astraight line pacing yourself so as not to have to stop, while avoiding bumping intoanyone. Leader continues to give similar instructions, allowing time for individuals to(A) concentrate on each spot, (B) move at their own pace, and (C) settle into the newspot. Instructions for (B) could include moving to the new spot: backwards in as few steps as possible in as many steps as possible travelling in circles travelling in squares using as few jumps as possible with hands on knees, toes etc. moving along floor without using hands using only two out of four legsVariationsHave group invent more instructions.MRS OGRADYWho: Small GroupWhere: Inside or outside in roomy areaAids/Equipment None 38
  38. 38. Objectives: To assess social skills, ability to communicate, willingness to participate. To encourage group bonding, relax with each otherLeaders Hints: Observe who is enthusiastic and imaginative with suggestions. Observe who seems confident, shows group spirit and who becomes competitive.Instructions: 1. The group stands in a circle and tells the story of Mrs OGrady andaccompanies with actions: First person: "Did you hear what happened to Mrs OGrady?" Second person: “No. What happened?" First person: "She died." Second person: "How did she die?" First person: "She died with her hand on her head" (places hand on head) 2. The second person puts their hand on their head too, says the same speech to the third per son and adds another action, so the person at the end has all the different actions.Conclusion This is a silly game intended to relax the group and begin groupbonding.TOILET PAPER GAMEGroup Size 6 - 8 people is most effective, but slightly smaller or slightly larger wouldalso work.Materials A roll of toilet paper per groupWhen and WhereOn arrival to an OCamp or State Conference site where the to use group will beplaced in a situation where they may need toilet paper for the next certain period oftime, but do not have access to go and buy any.Procedure Sit down with designated group and explain to them that in all the rush,we were not aware that the site does not supply toilet paper. However, each grouphas one role of toilet paper until tomorrow when we go to the shop. Each groupmember is to then take as much toilet paper as they feel necessary to last them thatamount of time.Once each member of the group has their toilet paper, the leader explains that we doactually have toilet paper and that what each member of the group must do is tell thegroup one thing about themselves for each piece of paper that they have. 39
  39. 39. MAKING THE LONGEST CHAINGroup Size 2 teams (or more) of at least 4Materials NoneWhere and When? It’s a fun break, in between activities within a group where members are familiar with each other.Procedure Tell each group that the aim of this game is to make the longest chain.The chains must be made of only the clothing currently being worn by the people inthe group. The aim is that people have to strip down as far as possible to make thelongest chain. The team with the longest chain of clothing wins.SCRAMBLED EGGSGroup Size 6 and upMaterials Chairs for everyone but one personWhere and When A good game to get to know people or in between sessions whenworking with a small to middle sized group. A bonus in some instances as no closephysical contact is involved.Procedure Seat your group in a circle, but make sure that there is one less chairthen the number of people on the group. You stand in the middle of the circle tobegin the activity. Explain that you are going to call out a sentence and anyone towhom the sentence applies must get up and change chairs. It is not possible to moveto the chair on either side of their present position. Your aim is to occupy one of thevacant places before someone else, so that you are no longer the person in themiddle. Then the person who has been caught in the middle must think up asentence that will cause others to change chairs, so that he/she can get to a chairfirst. Examples of sentences that can be called out - "All those wearing watches." "Allthose who had breakfast this morning." "All those with blue eyes." When "scrambledeggs" is called out, everyone must change chairs.BE ITGroup Size Any sizeMaterials NoneTime 5 minutesWhere and When Use to break the workload, to use up excess energy, as a gettingto know you activity. 40
  40. 40. Procedure 1. Ask the participants to spread out around the room so that they haveplenty of space to swing their arms about. Explain that the activity they are about todo is called "Be It" and is involves a bit of imagination and letting go of yourinhibitions. Then explain that you are going to name a series of objects, and eachtime they should try to shape their bodies into the form of that object.Variations For a group that is more comfortable with each other, ask them to makea noise as well as an action.Suggested Ideas Banana Tree Snail Bulldozer Elephant Telephone Vacuum Cleaner Paper Weight Food Vending MachineCAN I COME TO THE PARTY?Who: Small groups (separated into pairs)Where: There must be enough room for the group to form a large circle.Objectives: To learn from observation To communicate non-verbally To motivate and energise the groupLeaders Hints: Observe how participants react to the cues Do those who don’t understand become frustrated, determined or “give up”?Instructions: 1. The leaders need to decide the criterion for coming to the party.This can vary and have any degree of difficulty. You may invite:Those who are wearing clothing ending with a consonantThose who have their feet crossed when they are to be invitedThose who ask when you have your feet crossedThose who ask you addressing you by nameSit participants in a circle and explain that you are going to hold a party to which theymay or may not be able to come. Invite them to ask if they can come to the party.Use the criterion agreed upon, start the game.You can give hints, such as “No you can’t come wearing a bra, but you can come insuspenders” (!) 41
  41. 41. When the criterion has been guessed, invite one of the group to be the “party host”.Conclusion: This is another activity involving learning through observation.By exercising these skills, we become better at learning from those cues that peoplegive us.MEMORY GAMEWho: Small teams of people (say 3-5 in each)Where: A room large enough for each team to be able to sit in a circle.Aids A blanket A number of objects (eg a book, a spoon, a phone etc) Pen / Paper / Score SheetObjectives Simple memory testLeaders Hints NilInstructions Place 10-15 objects under the blanket Everybody has 5 seconds to look at them Then people individually write down what they saw Next collectively write down the objects (within each team) Remove blanket and check that all items were identifiedIf time remaining replace blanket and ask each team to draw a map of objects as laidout under than blanket.Variation If too easy, ask for more details eg title of book, colour of spoonConclusion Non-threatening team game for new membersTHE WORLDWho: Small groups, no real limit on the total numberWhere: A roomAids Large sheets of paper An atlas (for the judges) Pens for each group Score SheetObjectives To informally test people’s general knowledge of world geographyLeaders Hints Nil 42
  42. 42. Instructions Draw a map of the world, showing the borders of each country and thelocation of the capital, but not the names of the countries or the capitals See how many countries and capitals each group can identify in a given timeperiod (say 10 minutes) Award 1 point for each country, 1 point for each capital (accuracy is up to thejudges)Conclusion A good game for breaking a large group up into small teams.Particularly useful for AIESEC, since at the end of the exercise you can identify whichof the countries are AIESEC Member Countries.TEAM HOPSCOTCHWho: Small groupsWhere: Outside on a cement (or other hard) surfaceAids Chalk, StonesObjectives To have funLeaders Hints Be careful to explain the rules carefullyInstructions The whole team must travel up and down the hopscotch “board”. Eachteam must do several laps or several games, depending on the time allowed. 4 7 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 Each player uses a flat stone; player tosses the stone into square one, thenhops over it as far as he/she can i.e. into square 2,3 etc. Player turns and hops backto square one to retrieve stone, then hops back to square they landed in and throwsthe stone into the next square. Process is repeated until person has travelled up andback. Each team member takes a turn. If stone does not land in appropriate square,or player hops into square containing stone of if player touches the ground with handof foot they must start again.Conclusion Good team game, may be used in mini-olympics.TRAIN GAMEWho: Large groups (approx 20) 43
  43. 43. Where: Inside or OutsideAids NilObjectives To get people to mix To have the person in the centre of the circle try to catch the trainLeaders Hints Appoint your most vocal people as stations and crossingsInstructions Group stands in circle with hands joined. One person stands in themiddle of the circle. The train moves by a squeeze of the hand, so if a person feels asqueeze of the hand on the left side, they must squeeze the hand of the person ontheir right side. Appoint a few people around the circle to be crossings (these peopleshout “ding-a-ling” as the train passes through them) and stations (these peopleshout “Toot” as the train passes through, and they also have the power to change thedirection the train is travelling). The person in the middle catches the train by pointingat a person who has received the train on one side but has not passed it on to theother side of them.Conclusion A good game for groups of people who know each other well enough tofeel comfortable holding hands or for groups who are beginning to be bonded ( directors at a national conference).ANIMAL NOISESWho: The more the merrier (at least 20)Where: In a large room or outsideAids Animal names on slips of paper Blindfolds if you have themObjectives To communicate with others without using normal everydaywordsLeaders Hints NilInstructions Each person is given a piece of paper with the name of an animal on iteg cow, horse, goat, owl, elephant, dog, and turkey. The number of animals you useis up to you, but you want to use each animal at least 4 or 5 times. Everyone has toclose their eyes (or be blindfolded) and by making the noise of their animal, find theother cows, horses etc, keeping their eyes closed all the time.Variations For large groups, just give inform each person of their animal verbally.Conclusion Sit back and laugh 44
  44. 44. WINK MURDERWho: A group of people (preferably 15 – 25)Where: Inside a room big enough for everyone to walk aroundObjectives To learn from observationInstructions Everyone sits in a circle and covers their eyes. You choose a murderer(unknown to others) by tapping them on the head. Everyone uncovers their eyes andstarts to walk around so that they frequently pass each other. The murderer may killanyone by winking at him or her. If a person receives a wink he/she must wait for 5seconds and then fall to the ground (shouting “aaagh!” on the way down). Thatperson is now dead and cannot participate in the rest of the game. If a person spotsanother person winking at someone, he may accuse that person of being themurderer, by pointing at the accused & saying, “I think X is the murderer”. After theaccusation has been made, the accuser must have someone else back up his or herclaim. If not, the accuser must withdraw from the game. The suspect does not haveto comment. A murderer is caught if he/she is accused correctly by tow people, anda new game starts. If an accuser and a supporter are both wrong, they must bothwithdraw from the game.Conclusion A good game for a group of strangers, or even friends!WHO’S CHANGING THE MOVEMENTWho: Groups of people (approx 20)Where: Enough room to sit in a circle, inside or outsideAids NilObjectives To test people’s powers of observationLeaders Hints NilInstructions Groups sit in a circle facing inwards; one person per group leaves theroom. The others decide who will be the leader. The person comes back into theroom and stands in the middle. The leader makes a series of movements egscratching head, waving arms, lifting leg up and down, bending forward etc and theothers in the group have to copy the movements. The person in the middle, bycarefully watching the change of the movements has to guess whom the leader is.Conclusion Good for strangers or friends. 45
  45. 45. TEAM BUILDINGBOMB SHELTERMaterials: NoneAims: Role-playing, group decision-making, group interaction.Procedure: Divide in groups of 8 - 10. Each group member adopts a specific role,usually an occupation, e.g. a doctor, an athlete, a teacher, movie-star, mother,housewife, etc. (These can be written out and picked from a hat). Tell groups theyare in an air-raid shelter after an atom bomb has fallen, big enough and with enoughair and food for only six people, therefore they must get rid of several members. Eachgroup member must argue as to why he should be allowed to survive. A groupdecision must be reached as to who goes and stays: no suicides or murder allowed.Set a time limit for the decision. Later discuss how the group interacted making thedecision, whether each person played an active or passive role, how satisfied eachwas with his role, etc.Variations: Instead of an air-raid shelter, have a life raft or desert island or spaceship. Add incidents, accidents, rituals, funerals, ceremonies.ONE SPECIAL THINGThis exercise is a good one to use early in the semester because it helps to build asense of group rapport through the establishment of an environment for self-disclosure.Divide the class into pairs. Instruct the students to carry on a normal conversation forfive minutes, each person telling the other as much as possible about himself. Askthe students to pick those things about themselves that they think are important toshare. After five minutes, ask the class to come back together again as one largegroup (preferably in a circle). Then ask each student to introduce his partner bystating his partners name and the one special thing that impressed him as mostimportant about that person.If you like, you can end the discussion by asking the group to talk about what it waslike to talk to the other person and what it was like to be talked about in the group.Every person needs recognition. It is expressed cogently by the lad who says,Mother, lets play darts. Ill throw the darts and you say `Wonderful. "Educator Handbook of Stories, Quotes, and HumorM. Dale BaughmanBODY LIFTAims: Trust, concentration, group developmentProcedure: Group chooses each member in turn and elevates them to a horizontal 46
  46. 46. position above the heads of the group. The person is held there for a specific period,and then lowered carefully to the floor. The elevated person must relax and closeeyes. It is often a good idea to have the groups raise and lower in unison. This oftenavoids confusion and helps concentration.Variations: Vary speed and control of lift,- walk, rock, etc. Have the person involved give instructions to the group. Combine with Backward fall & catch.SITTING CIRCLEMaterials: Circle of over 25 peopleAims: Trust, funProcedure: a) Group stands in a close circle, in queue form, with rightshoulders towards the centre of the circle.b) Circle closes so that everyone is touching the person in front and behind them.c) Participants hold the waist of the person in front. Everyone bends their knees untilthey feel themselves supported on the knee of the person behind.e) If successful (rare first time) the whole group is self supported, each person sittingon the knee of the person behind.Note: This can only be successful if the circular shape is maintainedthroughout and it is helpful if the group leans slightly towards the center as they aretrying to settle down.Variations After secure sitting position is achieved1 Everyone leans inwards slightly and raises left leg2 Try alternate stepping with right and left feet, (very difficult.)TANGLEMaterials: NoneAims: Group development, trust, warm-upProcedure: Whole group links hands into a human chain. First person leads chainthrough itself, over and under arms, between legs, etc. Extra care must be taken notto break the chain, to move slowly and to be gentle. Tangle ends when group is tootightly packed to move. One person then untangles the group, giving them directionswithout touching them. 47