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The 1/12/10 Earthquake:

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  • 1. The January 12, 2010 Haiti EarthquakeBuilding Assessments: The First Step to RecoveryAndre Filiatrault, Ph.D., Eng.Professor, Civil, Structural & Environmental EngineeringDirector, MCEER (Multidisciplinary Center for EarthquakeEngineering Research)March 26, 2010
  • 2. January 15, 2010
  • 3. MCEER Assembled Interim EmergencyEngineering Support Unit (ESSU)• Ten French/Creole-speaking engineers and architects from various institutions and corporations across the US• Three earthquake specialists• Six Haitian natives• Funded by AIDG• January 21-28, 2010
  • 4. ESSU Mission• Set-up building assessment procedure on behalf of the United Nations• Provide preliminary structural assessment for remaining standing critical buildings in Port-au-Prince• Inform responsible parties of recommendations regarding building occupancy• Report findings to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)• Provide supporting documentation
  • 5. Rapid Building Assessment Procedure (ATC-20)• US procedure developed by the Applied Technology Council• Focuses on potential collapse of building, falling hazards, and other hazards (e.g. geotechnical)• EESU used standard ATC-20 Evaluation Form• EESU translated placards in French but did not post them per UN requests
  • 6. Conventional Posting System • INSPECTED (Green) Appears safe for lawful occupancy • LIMITED ENTRY/RESTRICTED USE (Yellow) Limited entry/use, controlled by building owner/manager • UNSAFE (Red) No entry unless controlled by jurisdiction INSPECTÉ UTILISATION LIMITÉE ACCÈS INTERDIT Occupation Permise Attention: Ce bâtiment a été inspecté et Ce bâtiment a été inspecté et desCe bâtiment a été inspecté (ci-dessous) et des dommages structuraux ont été trouvés dommages structuraux importants ont étéaucun danger structural apparent ne fût Heure Heure tels que décrits ci-dessous: trouvés rendant son accès interdit telstrouvé. Heure (Attention: Répliques après l’inspection que décrits ci-dessous: Inspection extérieure seulement (Attention: Répliques après l’inspection peuvent aggraver les dommages et dangers.) Inspection extérieure et intérieure peuvent aggraver les dommages et dangers.) Entrée, occupation et utilisation sont Ce bâtiment a été inspecté dans des Ce bâtiment a été inspecté dans desAvertir les autorités locales en cas de conditions Ce bâtiment a été inspecté dans des limités tels qu’indiqué ci-dessous: conditions d’urgence pour: conditions d’urgence pour: dangereuses; réinspection peut-être requise conditions d’urgence pour: Ne pas pénétrer dans les zones suivantes :Commentaires: Brève entrée pour accéder aux contenus: Accès interdit sansaccéder aux contenus: Brève entrée pour autorisation spécifique Inspecteur/ Agence: Inspecteur/ Agence: et écrite des autorités locales. Accès peut Inspecteur/ Agence: Autres restrictions: Autres restrictions: causer la mort ou des blessures gravesNom et adresse du bâtiment: Nom et adresse du bâtiment: Nom et adresse du bâtiment: Ne pas enlever, altérer ou cacher cette affiche Ne pas enlever, altérer ou cacher cette affiche Ne pas enlever, altérer ou cacher cette affiche sans l’autorisation des autorités locales sans l’autorisation des autorités locales sans l’autorisation des autorités locales
  • 7. Building Evaluation Requests• Interim EESU Team created an e-mail account to receive and prioritize building evaluation requests• ees-haiti@hotmail.com• E-mail account remains operational and is monitored by MCEER Information Services• Requests forwarded to United Nations Office for Projects Services (UNOPS) and US Army
  • 8. Building Assessment Summary (January 21-28)Total of 115 buildings • Hospitals/Medical Facilities: 34 • UN Office Buildings/Residences: 37 • Other private dwellings: 14 • Schools/Colleges: 8 • Warehouses: 6 • Commercial buildings: 5 • Orphanages: 2 • Government Buildings: 3 • Others:6
  • 9. Assessment Examples
  • 10. Grace Children Hospital • Green tagged (safe) • Minor cracking of masonry walls • Hospital unused
  • 11. WFP Shodesoca Warehouse 29 • Yellow tagged (limited use) • Damage to front walls and columns • Slight damage to interior columns • Damage to exterior parapets • Total storage 1500 Tons of perishable food items
  • 12. Ministry of Justice Courthouse • Red tagged (unsafe) • Complete collapse of 3 story building • 7 workers from courthouse still missing • Minister of Justice needed to obtain critical documents • Assessed the structural integrity of basement entry and cleared for rapid retrieval of critical documents
  • 13. Impact of Building Assessments• Cleared approx 12 Hospitals/Medical Facilities• Numerous private dwellings and apartments• Several Schools/Colleges• L’Ouverture Cleary School – 320+ children• 3 Warehouses (over 6 million pounds of food)• 3 month time frame before food perishes• Several commercial buildings
  • 14. Some Observations
  • 15. Why Have So Many Buildings Collapsed? • Unreinforced masonry structures • Lack of symmetry • Lack of transverse reinforcement • Poor quality of concrete • Reinforcing bars w/o ribs • Quality of construction • Lack of building codes
  • 16. Psychological Impact is Hampering RecoveryUndamaged home in suburban area Undamaged DASH Delmas 48 hospital Unused Unused
  • 17. Lack of Awareness of Obvious Dangers People walking under unstable roof slab on St-Louis de Gonzague Catholic School Campus
  • 18. Inappropriate Salvaging of Materials
  • 19. Tallest and Most Modern (Digicel) Building in Haiti Performed Very Well
  • 20. Unbelievable Resilience of the People of Haiti
  • 21. Unbelievable Resilience of the People of Haiti
  • 22. Challenges for Rebuilding Haiti• Poverty & illiteracy• Lack of capacity of Haitian Government• Who is in charge? (US, Haitian Government, USAID, UN, World Bank)• Rainy season in May• Hurricane beginning in Fall• Future earthquakes• Design for multiple hazards (earthquake, hurricane, floods)
  • 23. Opportunity to Transform Haiti• Reconstruction after disasters as economic engine • 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in China • 1871 Chicago Fire • Etc.• Overwhelming international support (~2.6B$ to UN)• Haitian Diaspora (~800,000 in US)• Resilience of Haitian people
  • 24. Education and Training is Key to Rebuilding Haiti Source: Craig Totten, KPFF
  • 25. Strength Through Unity