English as a native language (or English as a mother tongue)
It is the language of those born and raised in one of the countries where English is historically the first language to be spoken (UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand). Countries according to Kachru as the traditional cultural and linguistic bases of English
The model is based on geography and genetics rather than on the way speakers identify with and use English i.e. Some English users in the Outer Circle speak it as their first language (or even their only language) e.g. Singapore
Grey area between Inner and Outer circles i.e. in some Outer circle countries English is the first language learnt and spoken at home
Grey area between Outer and Expanding circles. 20 countries are in transition from EFL to ESL status i.e. Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Sudan
Many world English speakers grow up bilingual or multilingual to fulfill different functions in their lives
Tripathi (1998:55) -3rd World nations should be considered as ‘an independent category that supersedes the distinction between ESL and EFL.
Yano’s (2001:122-4) Inner circle=genetic ENL and Outer circle as ‘functional ENL’. He takes into account social dialectal concept of acrolect (standard) being used for international communication and basilect (colloquial) being used for informal intranational communication. Problem: it does not allow the possibility of basilect use in international communication
This recording, made 5/04/00 by Elizabeth van den Berg, is of an 18 year-old college student at Western Maryland College, originally from Brooklyn New York. His heritage is Greek and Middle European Jewish. HIs dialect is a good example of the young, fast-paced high energy Brooklyn-ite of the 90's. He is a theatre student, but has not yet worked to 'standardize' his dialect.
Edited by Paul Meier 06/09/00. Running time: 00:04.26
Subject is a twenty-three year old male born in Esbjerg, Denmark where students begin learning English at the age of twelve. He has spent one year in New Hampshire, and four months in Kansas. Notice how he sometimes has very strong vowel sounds, and in longer words, almost always stresses the second syllable. Sample recorded on March 6, 2000 by Tim Hansen and edited on March 12, 2000 by Paul Meier. Running time 00:03:23.
Subject is a twenty-three year old male born in Esbjerg, Denmark where students begin learning English at the age of twelve. He has spent one year in New Hampshire, and four months in Kansas. Notice how he sometimes has very strong vowel sounds, and in longer words, almost always stresses the second syllable. Sample recorded on March 6, 2000 by Tim Hansen and edited on March 12, 2000 by Paul Meier. Running time 00:03:23
She is a 24 year-old female. She was born in Madras (called Chennai now), in the state of Tamilnadu, Southern India. She is a single child and has loving parents who are still in Madras. She speaks Tamil at home with her parents and relatives. But, at school and at work, she has spoken English mostly. She studied in an English medium school right from kindergarten. It was a Christian institution and they were forbidden from speaking in any other language other than English. So, with her friends at school, she would converse only in English. Her second language at school was Hindi and she also learned a little French and German. As a result of the predominant English influence, her Tamil has a slight English accent mixed with it. This is typical of students from English medium Christian schools. She speaks pretty good Tamil but finds it difficult to use pure Tamil words. Her sentences would always contain English. She expresses herself better in English.
The subject is a Mandarin-speaking female graduate student, born I-lan, Taiwan, studying at the University of Kansas, USA, at the time this recording was made 5.15.2002 by Paul Meier. In both the reading and the unscripted conversation you will hear that this subject has made considerable progress towards acquiring American English. She had been studying for the graduate test in spoken English for some time when this recording was made. You will hear that she is fairly accurate with /l/ and /r/, slipping occasionally in words like "implied", "normally", and "yellow". Her voiceless /th/ is quite successful in "thought" and "north", but the voiced /th/ less so in phrases like "the Duke Street...". Her acquisition of rhoticity in vowels with post-vocalic /r/ is well advanced, e.g. "north", "mirror", "bird", and "hurry". Running time 00:05:38
Subject was born and raised in Tokyo, starting his English education at 13. After college in Japan he left for America at age 27, gaining his master's degree and Ph.D. in America. He was close to retirement from his position as a professor of theatre specializing in Asian theatre when interviewed by Paul Meier in Lawrence, KS, USA in 1999. Despite more than thirty years in the US, the subject is still a good model for Japanese-American speech, displaying, for example, the occasional "r/l" substitution.