RESEARCH WRITING CHAPTER 1: WRITING FROM RESEARCH LECTURE NOTES BASED ON LESTER & LESTER, JR. 2007.  WRITING RESEARCH PAPE...
Research writing grows from… <ul><li>Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>A clear purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For a variety of to...
Why do research?  <ul><li>Research teaches methods of discovery- reading, interviewing, observation, and experimentation <...
Terminology <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How important is the criteria to the process or situation? </li></ul>...
Terminology 2 <ul><li>Causal Argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the cause and effects of the problem? </li></ul></ul>...
Evaluation <ul><ul><li>How important is the criteria to the process or situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your first step i...
Interpretation <ul><li>You must usually answer: What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of these re...
Definition <ul><li>Provide an extended definition to show that your subject fits into a selected and well-defined category...
Definition 2 <ul><li>Define terms that are subjective in nature e.g. inhumane, cruel </li></ul><ul><li>Define scientific t...
Thus, <ul><li>Most writers build their paper on an issue that gives a reason for inquiry and investigation of their own at...
Proposal <ul><li>It tells the readers, “We should do something.” </li></ul><ul><li>This paper has practical applications. ...
Causal Argument <ul><li>Show that a condition exists because of specific circumstances—that is something that has caused o...
Comparison, Including Analogy <ul><li>You compare one topic to another related topic </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy is a figura...
Precedence <ul><li>Refers to well-established conventions or customs </li></ul><ul><li>Requires past event that establishe...
Implications <ul><li>If you conduct any kind of test or observation, you will make field notes in a research journal and t...
Your Research Project’s Argument Types <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </...
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Resear Writing Chap1

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Resear Writing Chap1

  1. 1. RESEARCH WRITING CHAPTER 1: WRITING FROM RESEARCH LECTURE NOTES BASED ON LESTER & LESTER, JR. 2007. WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS: A COMPLETE GUIDE WTUC
  2. 2. Research writing grows from… <ul><li>Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>A clear purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For a variety of topics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why do research? <ul><li>Research teaches methods of discovery- reading, interviewing, observation, and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Research teaches investigative skills—evaluating sources in the library , on the Internet, and in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Research teaches logic- decisions about the issues and wisdom gained </li></ul><ul><li>Research teaches the basic elements of argument- using evidence to support a viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>See p. 3 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terminology <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How important is the criteria to the process or situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the data tell us? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the scientific and technical terms associated with the condition? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can and should be done about the circumstance in question? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology 2 <ul><li>Causal Argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the cause and effects of the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison and Analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways are the items related? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precedence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the standard or customary explanation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the findings or conclusions mean? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Evaluation <ul><ul><li>How important is the criteria to the process or situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your first step is to create your criteria. Ex. What makes a good movie? </li></ul><ul><li>In many ways, every research paper is an evaluation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interpretation <ul><li>You must usually answer: What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of these results? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this data tell us> </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain your reading of the problem to others? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definition <ul><li>Provide an extended definition to show that your subject fits into a selected and well-defined category </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A low fat diet reduces the risk of coronary diseases. (You will need to define “low-fat” by describing foods that make up a low-fat diet and naming the benefits from this type of diet. </li></ul><ul><li>A good definition includes 3 elements: subject (modern day hero), the class to which the subjects belong (public servant), and the differences between others in this class (fire fighters and police officers) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition 2 <ul><li>Define terms that are subjective in nature e.g. inhumane, cruel </li></ul><ul><li>Define scientific terminology </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thus, <ul><li>Most writers build their paper on an issue that gives a reason for inquiry and investigation of their own attitudes and beliefs as well as ideas from written sources, interviews, observation, and other research methods. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Proposal <ul><li>It tells the readers, “We should do something.” </li></ul><ul><li>This paper has practical applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The proposal argument calls for action- a change in policy, a change in the law, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>First, convince readers that a problem exists and is serious enough to merit action. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, explain consequences to convince the readers that your proposal has validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address any opposing positions, competing proposal, and alternative solutionsHow important is the criteria to the process or situation? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Causal Argument <ul><li>Show that a condition exists because of specific circumstances—that is something that has caused or created this situation- and we need to know why? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of research methods you could use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews, surveys, critical reading, accumulated tests results </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Comparison, Including Analogy <ul><li>You compare one topic to another related topic </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy is a figurative comparison that allowed the writer to draw several parallels of similarity e.g. human circulatory system is like a transportation system with a hub, a highway system, and a fleet of trucks to carry the cargo. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Precedence <ul><li>Refers to well-established conventions or customs </li></ul><ul><li>Requires past event that establishes a rule of law or a point of procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. chipping mill. If the researcher can prove that another mill in another part of the country ruined the environment, then the researcher has a precedent for how damaging such an operation can be. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implications <ul><li>If you conduct any kind of test or observation, you will make field notes in a research journal and tabulate your results at regular intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain your findings, arrive at conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the implications of your scientific inquiry </li></ul>
  16. 16. Your Research Project’s Argument Types <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Causal argument </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Precedence </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul>
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