Educating EFL Students and Administrators on Issues of Race and Diversity in the Workplace
Educating EFL Students and Administrators  on Issues of  Race and Diversity in the Workplace <ul><li>Evidence of employmen...
Evidence of employment discrimination <ul><li>What do you notice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the stated preferences? </li>...
How race is perceived to be related to nativeness <ul><li>Race = nativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Nativeness = superiority </l...
How race is perceived to be related to nativeness <ul><li>Norton, commenting on the perceived relationship between certain...
The myth of the “ownership” of English <ul><li>English is perceived as an Inner Circle language </li></ul><ul><li>With the...
Kachru’s model Inner  Circle UK, Ireland US, Canada, NZ, Australia Outer circle  or   Extended circle India, Pakistan, Sin...
The myth of the “ownership” of English <ul><li>Widdowson, commenting on the ownership of English as an international langu...
English as a world language <ul><li>The reality is that English has </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over  1  billion learners of...
 
Our students as members of the worldwide community of English speakers <ul><li>“ Native speakers may feel the language ‘be...
The benefits of a diverse workforce in ELT <ul><li>A diverse workforce more accurately reflects the realities of the Engli...
Why NESTs should care about diversity in ELT <ul><li>Perpetuation of the notion of the idealized native speaker </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Perpetuation of the notion of the idealized native speaker  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is unfair to students, because <...
<ul><li>Teacher education  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of English as a global language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>ESOL  students  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acknowledge, include, dignify non-native and World Englishes and their speak...
Kachru’s revised  model Lowest proficiency
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Diversity Romney

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Diversity Romney

  1. 1. Educating EFL Students and Administrators on Issues of Race and Diversity in the Workplace
  2. 2. Educating EFL Students and Administrators on Issues of Race and Diversity in the Workplace <ul><li>Evidence of employment discrimination; </li></ul><ul><li>How race is perceived to be related to nativeness; </li></ul><ul><li>The myth of the “ownership” of English; </li></ul><ul><li>English as a world language; </li></ul><ul><li>Our students as members of the worldwide community of English speakers; </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of a diverse workforce in ELT; </li></ul><ul><li>Why NESTs should care about diversity in ELT; </li></ul><ul><li>How to create an environment in which teachers are considered based on their qualifications rather than race or nativeness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evidence of employment discrimination <ul><li>What do you notice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the stated preferences? </li></ul><ul><li>What qualifications / requirements are not stated? </li></ul>
  4. 4. How race is perceived to be related to nativeness <ul><li>Race = nativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Nativeness = superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Race + nativeness = the ideal teacher </li></ul><ul><li>High value placed on inner circle English and its native speakers </li></ul>
  5. 5. How race is perceived to be related to nativeness <ul><li>Norton, commenting on the perceived relationship between certain native speakers and their English. </li></ul><ul><li>. . . Amin, based on research with five visible-minority ESL teachers in Toronto, Canada, found that her participants believed ESL students make a number of problematic assumptions about the authentic ESL teacher. Among them are that only White people can be native speakers of English and that only native speakers know “real” English. </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 423) </li></ul><ul><li>Norton, B. (1997). Language, Identity, and the Ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 409-429 . </li></ul>
  6. 6. The myth of the “ownership” of English <ul><li>English is perceived as an Inner Circle language </li></ul><ul><li>With the majority of Inner Circle natives as the owners of the language </li></ul><ul><li>And, therefore, its only legitimate speakers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kachru’s model Inner Circle UK, Ireland US, Canada, NZ, Australia Outer circle or Extended circle India, Pakistan, Singapore, Nigeria, Ghana, etc. Expanding circle China Japan Russia etc. Kuwait Mexico Brazil etc.
  8. 8. The myth of the “ownership” of English <ul><li>Widdowson, commenting on the ownership of English as an international language. </li></ul><ul><li>The very fact that English is an international language means that no nation can have custody over it. To grant such custody of the language, is necessarily to arrest its development and so undermine its international status. It is a matter of considerable pride and satisfaction for native speakers of English that their language is an international means of communication. But the point is that it is only international to the extent that it is not their language . . . Other people actually own it. (p. 385) </li></ul><ul><li>Widdowson, H.G. (1994). The Ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 377-389. </li></ul>
  9. 9. English as a world language <ul><li>The reality is that English has </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over 1 billion learners of English worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more non-native speakers than native speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over 1 billion speakers of English worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>native speakers and official status on every continent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Our students as members of the worldwide community of English speakers <ul><li>“ Native speakers may feel the language ‘belongs’ to them, but it will be those who speak English as a second or foreign language who will determine its world future.” </li></ul>Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English? http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-future.pdf
  11. 12. The benefits of a diverse workforce in ELT <ul><li>A diverse workforce more accurately reflects the realities of the English language, in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who speaks it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how it is spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where it is spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A diverse workforce that reflects the diversity of the English language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inspires students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empowers students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects student populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects the English-speaking population worldwide </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Why NESTs should care about diversity in ELT <ul><li>Perpetuation of the notion of the idealized native speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>denigrates, devalues, demeans and debilitates the entire profession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to misunderstanding about the profession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>undermines the role of TESOL professionals (with degrees) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>undermines TESOL teacher education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Perpetuation of the notion of the idealized native speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is unfair to students, because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it compromises the quality of the instruction available to them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it creates / perpetuates myths about the ownership of English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it undermines the students’ linguistic self-image as members of the English-speaking community </li></ul></ul></ul>Why NESTs should care about diversity in ELT
  14. 15. <ul><li>Teacher education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of English as a global language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include information about the worldwide use and users (demographics) of English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include exposure to the worldwide use and users of English beyond the inner circle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include and consult speakers of non-native and World Englishes as authorities, experts, and models </li></ul></ul></ul>What can be done to create an environment in which teachers are considered for employment based on their ELT qualifications, rather than on race or nativeness
  15. 16. <ul><li>ESOL students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acknowledge, include, dignify non-native and World Englishes and their speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>help students understand their position within the context of English speakers worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expose students to diverse listening materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expose students to diverse reading materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., literature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naipaul, Walcott, Soyinka, Roy, Lahiri, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>What can be done to create an environment in which students respect varieties of English beyond the inner circle
  16. 17. Kachru’s revised model Lowest proficiency

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