Behavioural feedback of electricity consumption

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Presentation on providing 20 individuals with feedback on their electricity consumption, and also driving habits …

Presentation on providing 20 individuals with feedback on their electricity consumption, and also driving habits

Presentation at ACM Multimedia 2010, 25-29 October 2010, Florence, Italy. ISBN 978-1-60558-933-6

Abstract:
In this work we discuss a new, but highly relevant, topic to the multimedia community; systems to inform individuals of their carbon footprint, which could ultimately effect change in community carbon footprint-related activities. The reduction of carbon emissions is now an important policy driver of many governments, and one of the major areas of focus is in reducing the energy demand from the consumers i.e. all of us individually.

In terms of CO2 generated from energy consumption, there are three predominant factors, namely electricity usage, thermal related costs, and transport usage. Standard home electricity and heating sensors can be used to measure the former two aspects, and in this paper we evaluate a novel technique to estimate an individual's transport-related carbon emissions through the use of a simple wearable accelerometer.

We investigate how providing this novel estimation of transport-related carbon emissions through an interactive web site and mobile phone app engages a set of users in becoming more aware of their carbon emissions. Our evaluations involve a group of 6 users collecting 25 million accelerometer readings and 12.5 million power readings vs. a control group of 16 users collecting 29.7 million power readings.

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  • 1. Green Multimedia: Informing People of their Carbon Footprint through Two Simple Sensors Aiden R. Doherty, Zhengwei Qiu, Colum Foley, Hyowon Lee, Cathal Gurrin, Alan F. Smeaton CLARITY: Centre for Sensor Web Technologies Dublin City University UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN   DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY   TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 1 1
  • 2. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Why measure person activities? Many applications: • Ambient Assisted Living  Why did Granny not make coffee this morning? Is she ok? • Public Health  How does lifestyle differ between healthy people and those who have cardiovascular disease? • Social Sharing  Can I automatically upload a summary of my week’s activities to show my friends on Facebook? • Environmental Implications  How do my lifestyle choices effect the environment around me? UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 2
  • 3. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Environmental Landscape IRELAND CO2 EMISSIONS (SOURCE: SEAI) ENERGY CO2 (66% OF TOTAL) ENERGY-RELATED CO2 EMISSIONS (SOURCE: SEAI) 31% 33% 36% UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 3
  • 4. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Electricity in Ireland Transformation Loss Natural Gas Our role is in demand reduction Coal UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE
  • 5. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Personal feedback reduces demand? • Olympic Peninsula Project • Darby Review Paper • ENEL 27 million smart meters • Microsoft Holm & Google power meter • Irish Energy Regulation behavioural trials on 6,000 people UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 5
  • 6. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Architecture Load descriptor database and Remote processing: Personalised recommendations, best tariff plan, load comparison Local WWW Processing: Load Main Fuse box recognition, energy cost breakdown DB Energy Monitor UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE
  • 7. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans CLARITY Deployments•20 domestic participants, 2 lab settings•Data accurate to within 1% of National SmartMeter•Normal 5-7pm peak in electricity consumption•Direct conversion from KW/h to CO2 UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE
  • 8. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Typical weekly electricity at home- Most energy/activities in my parent’s home is between 10pm and 12am at night time UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 8
  • 9. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Different patterns by household UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 9
  • 10. Our main question1. Can we estimate personal driving CO2 emissions?2. What happens if, through electricity & driving CO2 feedback, wegive people a more complete picture of their carbon footprint? UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 10
  • 11. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Observing person lifestyle activities- Shadowing- Written Diary- Accelerometer- GPS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 11
  • 12. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Visual Lifelogging Devices UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 13
  • 13. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans How to identify driving activity?• 1 week groundtruth (132,247 acc readings)• SVM – 39 features (mean/range/stdev of previous 1/5/20/120/300 on X/Y/Z axes)• Precision score of 0.82 recorded after re-occurrence smoothing UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE
  • 14. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Inferring Driving CO258 week CO2emissions blog SVM • Time driving ~ km ~ litres gasoline ~ CO2 • Median error accurate to within 1Kg/week • Big standard deviation (85.38kgs) highlights further challenges in future UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE
  • 15. Our main question1. Can we estimate personal driving CO2 emissions?2. What happens if, through electricity & driving CO2 feedback, wegive people a more complete picture of their carbon footprint? UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 15
  • 16. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Experimental SetupMay ‘09 Jan ‘10 Feb ‘10 Apr ‘10 1. Participant Recruitment (7 months) 2. Baseline Data (6 weeks) 3. Trial Phase (6 weeks) Control group: 16 users Test group: 6 users UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 16
  • 17. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans No reduction in usage noted…• Demand reduced by 3.88% (post-trial vs. pre-trial)• Seasonal effects, cold winter in Europe, Easter holidays … can’t make definite claims without a large-scale Behavioural Randomised Control Trial UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 17
  • 18. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Test vs. Control Group• Test Group saving = 8.37%• Control Group saving = 1.35%• Indication that providing people with additional information related to their personal carbon related activities may increase enthusiasm UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 18
  • 19. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans Future Investigations • Additional context to index activities • Improved driving CO estimation 2  SenseCam descriptors for driving… more users … self report problem when not using images  Car vs. bus using BlueTooth • Provide users with feedback on activities rather than € or CO 2 consumption  recommendation on how to change • Gathering large data sets isn’t easy, sharing of resources where possible  http://clarityapp.ucd.ie/~ehurrell UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 19
  • 20. CO2 Agenda Electricity CO2 Driving CO2 Findings Future plans The bigger picture…• A current opportunity, but will probably eventually be surpassed as car manufacturers and cell phone manufacturers agree on a standard• ACM MM beyond search: understanding people activities & the environment from simple sensors• Our great challenge - sustainable reduction in CO2 demand through increased efficiencies … we produce technologies for next behaviour science RCT trials UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN  DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY  TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 20
  • 21. Green Multimedia: Informing People of theirCarbon Footprint through Two Simple Sensors Aiden R. Doherty, Zhengwei Qiu, Colum Foley, Hyowon Lee, Cathal Gurrin and Alan F. Smeaton CLARITY: Centre for Sensor Web Technologies, Dublin City University To access our SenseCam + Environmental API’s … www.computing.dcu.ie/~adoherty UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN   DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY   TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY TYNDALL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 21 1