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  • HIV is a virus (not a moral condition!) which attacks and weakens the immune system, making it difficult to fight off other infections. People cannot die of HIV, but they can die of other diseases which take the opportunity to attack. The immune system is also vital for fighting cancers, and so cancers are also more common in people infected with HIV.

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  • 1. A Community of people living with HIVHIV AwarenessAidan HanrathBuddy Scheme Volunteeraidan.hanrath.10@ucl.ac.uk
  • 2. HIVAimsAssess our current knowledge, and increase ourunderstanding of HIV: its global and social contexts, itsconsequences and the therapy available.Gain an overview of the human immune system andthe effect of HIVDispel some of the many damaging myths surroundingthis condition.
  • 3. What kind of illnesses are caused by infection?
  • 4. What kind of illnesses are caused by infection?BacteriumPneumonia, strep throat, ear infectionsVirusCold, flu, chickenpox, measles, HIVFungusAthlete‟s foot, thrush, candida infection
  • 5. VirusesViruses aren‟t technically alive, and need living cellsto live and replicate themselves in
  • 6. HumanImmunodeficiency Virus
  • 7. HIV in the UKThere are about 90 thousand people in the UK with HIV. It‟slikely that around a quarter of these people in the UK donot know they have it.In the UK about two thirds are men, and a third arewomen.Gay and bisexual men and black African heterosexuals arethe groups who are most affected.
  • 8. The immune system
  • 9. The immune systemFirst defence (physical): skin and barriers in GI tractSecond defence (innate): automatic and unspecificThird defence (adaptive): specialised but destructive
  • 10. T Helper Cell T T CD4 CD8 Kill infected cells Coordinate defence Innat B eRelease antibodies Cause inflammation and clear debris
  • 11. Damaged T Helper Cell T T CD4 CD8 Innat B e
  • 12. Stigma and discrimination
  • 13. Stigma and discriminationStigma: the shame or disgrace attached to something regarded as socially unacceptable.Types of stigma• Self-stigma: self-hatred, shame, blame; people feel they are being judged by others so they isolate themselves. People who practise self-stigma isolate themselves from their families and communities.• Felt stigma – perceptions or feelings towards others.• Discrimination – enacted stigma; attitudes or thoughts put into action.
  • 14. Stigma is a process that:• points out or labels differences – “He is different from us: he coughs a lot”• attributes differences to negative behaviour – “His sickness is caused by his sinful and promiscuous behaviour”• separates „us‟ and „them‟, e.g. shunning, isolation, rejection• creates loss of status, and discrimination (loss of respect, isolation).
  • 15. Try and think of a time in your life when you felt isolated or rejected for being seen as different from others.How does it feel for that to happen to you? Did you try to ignore it, or fight it, or find talked to others about it? What impact might it have it have for your self confidence?
  • 16. Why might people living with HIV feel stigmatised?
  • 17. Morality – view that people living with HIV are sinners, promiscuous, unfaithful, sleeping around. People‟s beliefs about pollution, contagion, impurity. Fear of infection, of the unknown, of death.Ignorance – lack of knowledge and misconceptions makes people fear physical contact.Misconceptions. Inferiority and superiority complex. Gender and poverty – women and poor people more stigmatised than men/rich people.Prejudice. Tendency to judge others.
  • 18. How might people living with HIV experience stigma or discrimination?
  • 19. Name-calling. Scapegoating. Finger-pointing. Teasing. Ridicule. Labelling.Blaming. Shaming. Judging. Backbiting. Rumour. Gossiping. Making assumptions. Suspecting. Neglecting. Rejecting. Isolating. Separating.Not sharing utensils. Hiding. Staying at a distance. Harassment. Physical violence. Abuse. Self-stigma – blaming and isolating oneself. Stigma by association – whole family or friends also affected by stigma. Stigma by looks/appearance. Associated stigma – family and friends also affected by stigma
  • 20. What might be the consequences of people living with HIV feeling stigmatised?
  • 21. Shame. Denial. Self-isolation. Loneliness. Neglect. Loss of hope.Depression. Death. Alcoholism. Isolation. Self-rejection – give up onyourself. Self-blame. Self-pity. Self-hatred. Anger. Violence. Withdraw frompublic activities, e.g. church membership. Become very quiet. Commitsuicide or start thinking about suicide. Die alone, without love. Feelunproductive/useless/not contributing. Forced to leave community. Familydisruption. Divorce or separation. Kicked out of family. Fired from work.Loss of promotion, scholarship opportunities, rented accommodation.Decline in school performance or dropout from school. AIDS orphans andstreet kids. Abuse or poor treatment by relatives. Deprived of medical care –health staff argue that this is a “waste of resources”. Sent back to thevillage and property grabbing. Quarrels within the family – argue over whois responsible for this situation and who will take care of the sick PLHIV.Stop making use of clinics, voluntary counselling and testing programme,and home-based care programme. Reluctance to take medication. Notreatment. Spread of infection.
  • 22. Do only drug users andgay men need to know about HIV?
  • 23. Do only drug users and gay men need to know about HIV?NoHIV, unlike human beings, does not discriminate against drug users, gay men, women, Africans, British, Baptists, Roman Catholics or Atheists. Every member of the Human Race can be affected by this virus.
  • 24. If I were infected withHIV would I feel sick?
  • 25. If I were infected with HIV would I feel sick?Not necessarilyAlthough many people get flu-like symptoms in thefirst few weeks after infection (sometimes calledseroconversion illness) some do not, and the virus cantake as long as 10 years to reveal itself. An HIV test isthe only way of diagnosing infection.
  • 26. What are the main routes of HIV transmission?
  • 27. What are the main routes of HIV transmission? Sharing Sexual drug Contact needles Mother to (Blood baby products)
  • 28. Can you become infectedwith HIV through oral sex?
  • 29. Can you become infectedwith HIV through oral sex?YesThe risk is very remote (0.01% for the person performingoral sex, 0.005% for the person receiving it) but may beincreased by sores in the mouth or pre-existingimmune suppression
  • 30. HIV is a devastatingly effective virus in many ways, butit is relatively ineffective at transmitting itself fromperson to person. Apart from a direct bloodtransfusion (and birth without prophylactic treatment),the risks of infection are perhaps surprisingly low.
  • 31. Exposure Route Risk per exposure to an infected sourceBlood transfusion 90%Mother to child without treatment 25%Mother to child with treatment and other measures 1 – 2%Needle sharing in drug use 0.67%Needle stick through the skin 0.3%Receptive anal intercourse 1.7%Insertive anal intercourse (uncircumcised men) 0.62%Insertive anal intercourse (circumcised men) 0.11%Vaginal intercourse male to female 0.1%Vaginal intercourse female to male 0.05%Performing oral sex 0.01%Receiving oral sex 0.005%
  • 32. How is HIV transmitted most often?
  • 33. How is HIV transmitted most often?Heterosexual intercourse is how HIV is most oftentransmitted world wide
  • 34. Is HIV/AIDS not aproblem now that we have a cure?
  • 35. Is HIV/AIDS not a problem now that we have a cure?FalseThere is no cure for HIV currently or in the foreseeablefuture – it is a lifelong condition. However the virus andthus the symptoms can be controlled withantiretroviral therapy.
  • 36. Is HIV present in male semen?
  • 37. Is HIV present in male semen?YesThe semen of infected men is the perfect medium forHIV transmission, as well as blood and vaginal fluids ofinfected women.
  • 38. Is it safe for an HIV positive woman tobreastfeed her baby?
  • 39. Is it safe for an HIV positive woman to breastfeed her baby?NoUnfortunately, breastfeeding can also transmit HIV, soin „developed‟ countries where formula milk isavailable and safe it should be used instead. In thisinstance breast is not best.
  • 40. How can you tell ifsomeone has HIV or AIDS?
  • 41. What protects you mostagainst HIV infection?
  • 42. What protects you most against HIV infection?(Apart from not reusing needles)ABC• Abstinence• Being faithful• Condoms
  • 43. Is AIDS another name for HIV?
  • 44. Is AIDS another name for HIV?NoAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a term usedto describe an advanced stage of HIV infection. AIDSis typically diagnosed in HIV patients with a very lowlevel of circulating CD4 T cells (<200 per mm3 ofblood) and one or more characteristic opportunisticinfections and cancers which would otherwise bestopped by the immune system. Some of these arealmost unheard of in the general population.
  • 45. Opportunistic infections System Examples of infection/cancer Repiratory Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) Tuberculosis Gastro- Cryptosporidiosis Intestinal Candida Cytomegalovirus Nervous Toxoplasmosis System Cryptococcosis Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma Skin Herpes simplex Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • 46. How is HIV treated?
  • 47. Behind every statistic There is a human being A human family A history A face