What was the voyage like


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What was the voyage like

  1. 1. The Voyage
  2. 2. What was the Voyage Like? <ul><li>  Slave ships followed a triangular pattern known as the “Middle Passage”. </li></ul><ul><li>This triangular pattern consisted of three different “legs”. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of this journey varied from 1 to 5 months. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Middle Passage- The First Leg <ul><li>On the first leg of their voyage,vessels left their European home port laden with widely assorted cargo of manufactured goods. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>What was the cargo for? </li></ul><ul><li>The slave traders brought the cargo to be bartered for slaves and other African produce on the ship’s arrival on the African coast. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Second Leg of the Voyage <ul><li>The manufactured cargo was unloaded. </li></ul><ul><li>The human cargo was then loaded into the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>The slaves were then transported across the Atlantic to the Caribbean islands or North American colonies, on what became known as the notorious 'Middle Passage'. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slave Ship
  7. 7. The Third Leg of the Voyage <ul><li>On arrival to their destination, the slaves were auctioned like cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>As payment the slaver captains generally took on board produce. </li></ul><ul><li>cotton, sugar, coffee or tea </li></ul><ul><li>Then they would start the final stage of their voyage home. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What was it Like on the Ships? <ul><li>The ships used were designed for the transport of goods rather than people since two of the legs of the triangular trade involved cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to this design, the conditions aboard ships running the Middle Passage with human cargo were very poor. </li></ul>                                    
  9. 9. <ul><li>There were no sanitation facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Because they were not designed for the transport of people. </li></ul>
  10. 10. On the Ships <ul><li>The male captives were normally chained together in pairs to save space — right leg to the next man's left leg — while the women and children may have had somewhat more room. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What did they eat? <ul><li>The captives were fed very small portions of corn, yams, rice, and palm oil, normally just enough to sustain them. Sometimes captives were allowed to move around during the day; however, the shackles remained on the majority of the journey. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diseases and Starvation <ul><li>About 3 million Africans died during the journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did they die? </li></ul><ul><li>Many slaves died due to disease and starvation. </li></ul><ul><li>The longer the length of the passage… the more people died. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Diseases did they die From? <ul><li>amoebic dysentery </li></ul><ul><li>scurvy </li></ul><ul><li>smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>measles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Did They Ever Fight Back? <ul><li>Yes ! </li></ul><ul><li>African slaves are known to have engaged in at least 250 shipboard rebellions during the period of the transatlantic crossings. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Happened if They Fought Back? <ul><li>Slave ships carried extra crew members for the purpose of containing slaves during the Middle Passage. </li></ul><ul><li>The crew members were armed whenever slaves were on deck, and ready to subdue resistance by any means necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, mutinies occurred regularly, usually resulting in the severe punishment of the African slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>www.cultures.com/features/amistad/amistad_02.html </li></ul>                                             
  16. 16. Emancipation Timeline <ul><li>1761, February 12, Portugal abolishes slavery [2] in mainland Portugal and in Portuguese possessions in India </li></ul><ul><li>1772 Slavery declared illegal in England, including overseas slaves living in England. </li></ul><ul><li>1787 Sierra Leone founded by British as state for emancipated slaves </li></ul><ul><li>1791 Haiti gains independence and emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>1804 Haiti abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1808 United States -- importation of slaves into the US prohibited after Jan. 1. </li></ul><ul><li>1811 Spain abolishes slavery at home and in all colonies except Cuba , [2] Puerto Rico , and Santo Domingo </li></ul><ul><li>1813 Argentina abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1821 Ecuador , Colombia , Venezuela abolish slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1823 Chile abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1829 Mexico abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1831 Bolivia abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1834 Jamaica abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1836 Portugal abolishes transatlantic slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>1842 Uruguay abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Peru abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Venezuela abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1862 Cuba abolishes slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>1863 United States: Emancipation Proclamation declares those slaves in Confederate -controlled areas to be freed. </li></ul><ul><li>1865 United States abolishes slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . </li></ul><ul><li>1869 Portugal abolishes slavery in the African colonies </li></ul><ul><li>1871 Brazil declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers after 28 September 1871. </li></ul><ul><li>1873 Puerto Rico abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1886 Cuba abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1888 Brazil abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1962 Saudi Arabia abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1963 United Arab Emirates abolishes slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1969 Peru abolishes the encomiendas regime through a land reform [1] ending slavery in the country </li></ul><ul><li>1981 Mauritania abolishes slavery (Mauritania has repeatedly abolished slavery. It is the last country to still have chattel slavery.)[ </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery continues today with illegal human trafficking </li></ul>
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