The ultimate goal of the lesson was to let students search for information in order to solve a specific problem, an attitude and a competence that is central for their future jobs. Of course, the teacher was there to provide feedback and advice to students when needed.Interesting in this example is that students were working only with one tablet they would pass to each other as they tried to find out how to fix the bike....The “mobility” of the device was clearly visible in this lesson...
A third example illustrates the use of tablets to let students create and present content. This was a Dutch course with fourth year TSO students from technical science. Students were asked to identify the main characteristics of a book (e.g. book’s author, location, theme, characters, and narrative perspective) and represent them in a mind map (Popplet) using both text and images. Each group was later asked to explain their mind-map to the whole class using the Apple TV. Interesting in this example is that students had to first work on the mind map at home (each student had a tablet) and then discuss their work and create a group mind map in the classroom. This illustrates the use of tablets both at home as well as in the classroom context.
Guest lecture ict_at_university
ICT-integration in education: A multidimentional approachJo Tondeur University of Alcala:Ghent University 12 March 2013
Aim of the workshop (?)• Focus on the multidimensional interaction of both teacher and school characteristics in developing a richer understanding of the complex process of ICT integration in education.• Differential types of ICT use will be considered and how they are related to variables such as teacher attitudes, educational beliefs, and school policies.• We provide “good” practices and reflect about the participants own beliefs about education related to their use of technology, the development of an ICT policy plan, etc.• For researchers the focus can be on the different research methods used.
To illustrate:Exploring the potential of tablets in education #tablets360
Characteristics (Looi et al., 2009; Oakley et al., 2012)Mobile (light)Quick startWirelessconnectionMultimedia &AppsSmall
Mobile and wireless communication technologies could play an important role in transforming the ways in which we teach and learn (Liu & Hwang, 2010)◗ Help teachers in adapting instruction and facilitate richer interactions (Roschelle et al., 2007)◗ Allow teachers and students to access and create multimedia materials (Oakley, Pegrum, Faulkner & Striepe, 2012)◗ Learn in a multiplicity of (formal and informal) settings (Kearney et al., 2012)◗ Contribute to the development of digital literacy competences (e.g. Oakley, Pegrum, Faulkner & Striepe, 2012)
Search Drill & practice Self-evaluationinformation Create and Processing present content
What about architecture, engeneering, medicine?
Conclusion (1)1. multidimensional approach to look at ICT use in class [More info: Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M.(2007). Towards a typology of computer use in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 197-206]
Metaplan > green card OpportunityTechnology? According to Koehler & Mishra, (2008): YES!
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (see Koehler & Mishra, 2008)Voogt, J. Fisser, P. , Pareja Roblin, N., Tondeur, J.& Van Braak, J. (2012). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) - a review of the literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.
It’s not so much the program; more what you do with it [Jones, 1986]
Linking ICT use and educational beliefs • ICT integration cannot be restricted to merely technology-related factors, such as computer attitudes (Albirini, 2006; Hermans et al. , 2008) • Teachers more easily accept innovations that are in accordance with their educational beliefs (Ertmer, 2005) • Constructivist beliefs foster computer use in education (e.g., Becker, 2001) • Which teacher beliefs are connected to which types of computer use?
Teacher Beliefs Scale(Woolley, Benjamin, & Woolley , 2004) •“I like to make curriculum choices for students because they can’t know what they need to learn.” •“For assessment purposes, I’m interested in what students can do independently”
How active is your lecture? "Learning is not a spectator sport.Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves” (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)
Teacher Beliefs Scale(Woolley, Benjamin, & Woolley, 2004) •“I believe that expanding on students’ ideas is an effective way to build my curriculum.” •“I involve students in evaluating their own work and setting their own goals.” •“I make it a priority in my course to give students time to work together when I am not directing them”
Conclusion (2)1. multidimensional approach to look at ICT use in class2. IT’s about education [More info:Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). Exploring the link between teachers educational beliefs profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom: The impact of teacher beliefs Computers in Human Behavior(24), 2541- 2553]
1. Students have a positive attitude towards ICT, and are willing to use ICT to support their own learning process.2. Students use ICT in a safe, responsible and effective way.3. Students can work independently in a ICT enriched learning environment.4. Students can learn independently in a ICT enriched learning environment.5. Students can use ICT to elaborate their ideas in a creative way.6. Students can use ICT to search for, process and store digital information.7. Students can use ICT to present information to others.8. Students can use ICT to communicate in a safe, responsible and effective way.9. Students can chose adequately between a number of different ICT applications, depending on the specific goal to be achieved. 5710.Students are willing to redefine their actions after reflection on their own and others’ use of ICT.
“Vision without action is a daydream.Action without vision is a nightmare.” (Asian proverb)
Conclusion1. multidimensional approach to look at ICT use in class2. IT’s about education3. Need for a shared vision at Institutional level [More info:Tondeur, J., Van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers and Education.51, 212-223.]
Are universities doing a better job because of their embrace of technology?Can universities improve their teaching effectiveness by investing more heavily in technology? How can universities best use technology? Questions spring up on all sides.
“Although several evaluators found educationally meaningful effects onstudent achievement in reading, most studies found only small effects in this area.”
Meta-analysis• Letterie (2003) ‣ Quality of the research questioned• Is it possible to comme to a final conclusion about ICT in education? ‣ Dependent variables too diverse (scores, time, satisfaction, confidence, feasibility, …) ‣ Independent variables too diverse ‣ Contexts/conditions/audiences too diverse
Read this:“When we pull the lever air can pass via thevalve in the room between valce and air-valve. When we push the lever, the valve isshut closed and the air-valcve is pressed openso that air is pushed outside via the air-valveinto the tire.”
Read this text:“When we pull the lever air can pass via the valve in theroom between valce and air-valve. When we push the lever,,the valve is shut closed and the air-valcve is pressed openso that air is pushed outside via the air-valve into the tire.”
When we pull When we push the lever, the lever leverAir passes The valvealong the closesvalve Air-valve Valve And air enters the room between And air is pressed through the The valve and air-valve air-valve to the tire.
Microlevel: Informationcomponent• General hypothesis: ICT supports Information Processing of Learners Mayer (2001) and Paivio (1986)
Microlevel: Informationcomponent• General hypothesis: ICT supports Information Processing of Learners
ICT fosters information presentation• Practical relevance: imaging, virtual reality, 3D, CAVE-technologies• Empirical base: convincing impact in variety of content domains (Mayer, 2003) ‣ Higher retention ‣ Better transfer of knowledge
Application of CAVE technology; walking in bone structure Kral (2004) 74
ICT fosters information organisation• Higher education: processing large amounts of complex and interrelated information.• Information organisation implies structuring, comparing, ordering, relating, and analysing of new information.
Knowledge integration: games• Howell (2005) - overview of ICT-based interactive games and evaluative research; some relevant for (para)medical education• Mann, Eidelson, Fukuchi, Nissman, Robertson, & Jardines (2002) - computer assisted board game to manage patients with breast cancer. Students send the patient to physical examination, mammography, ultrasound, or office procedures, … : significant learning gains about work-up procedures.
Screendump from the Breast Cancer Detective Game(http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/breastcancerdetective/) 79
Conclusions • Relevance of ICT in medical education should consider the expected outcomes, context, conditions and target audience • Is ICT effective? Wrong question ‣ (Jacobsen, 2001) The major question is now: under what circumstances, in what particular learning environment, with what type of students and in view of what kind of learning tasks, does ICT have an impact? • ICT impact positive IF … ‣ Combined with real life experiences ‣ Sufficient prior knowledge available ‣ Novice or advanced student ‣ Staff development • Most convincing impact: ‣ Microlevel: collaborative learning ‣ Mesolevel: flexibility
Interactive @ workshop?•Do you tweet about the workshop?•Do you share info @ the educational portal?•Do you try Facebook?•Are you on Academia now?•Did you visit the website of out department?•Did you sent an e-mail about the workshop?•Some more interesting videos on you tube?•Perhaps you can create a blog post?•Do you want to develop a mindmap?•Do you want to explore Turning Point?• Scoop It!•Do you like to explore a tablet?•Create a Prezi?
Papers ? Information ? Jo.Tondeur@UGent.behttp://ugent.academia.edu/JoTondeur http://ugent.academia.edu/JoTondeur Ruben.Vanderlinde@UGent.be