Passive House Principles for Hot Humid Climates

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  • 1. Passive House Strategies for Hot and Humid Climates Gulf Coast Green 2013 Hot and Humid Climates © Passive House Institute US 2013 1
  • 2. Overview 1 Passive House Core Philosophy 2 Passive Building Metrics and Principles 3 Climate Specificity3 Climate Specificity 4 Enclosure Strategies 2© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 3. Passive House Core Philosophy Part One: Passive Building Principles 3© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 4. Optimize Orientation Super-insulate + Air Seal Optimize Window Performance Passive House Design Order of Operations Optimize Window Performance 1st Utilize Passive Space Conditioning Strategies 2nd Utilize High Efficiency Active Strategies Then…Zero Out with Onsite Renewables 4© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 5. …then zero out the remaining energy with active PV and generate plus energy for electric mobility… Passive Buildings: Most affordable Way to make Zero / Plus Energy Reality (Image source: Terry Hill, Berlin Germany) 5© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 6. Conventional Approach: Sizing Mechanical Systems (over)size the system to the shell 6© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 7. Conventional Approach: Passive House Approach: Sizing Mechanical Systems Size the Shell to the Heating System 7© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 8. Passive Building Metrics and Principles Part One: Passive Building Principles 8© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 9. Global CO2-Emissions 2006 per Country – determining a Carbon Metric Countries by carbon dioxide emissions in thousands of metric tones per annum, via the burning of fossil fuels (blue the highest) (Source: Wikimedia Commons 2006) 9© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 10. 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 energy-efficiency new geo-/ozean. power solar windpower waterpower new biomass trad. Biomass Worldwide Energy Resources and Consumption 0 200 400 600 800 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 2070 2090 trad. Biomass nuclear gas oil coal Reference: Shell-Study (till 2005), Scenario with high efficiency and regenerative usage of energy 10© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 11. K Standards & Rating Comparison 11© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 12. One Certification – Three Labels PHIUS+, Challenge Home, Energy Star V3 Mostly PrescriptiveMostly Performance Step1: 15-30%Step 2: 40-60%Step 3: 70-85% 100 ±±±±0
  • 13. One Certification – Three Labels PHIUS+, Challenge Home, Energy Star V3
  • 14. The 2030 Challenge Brought Forward by Architect Ed Mazria Passive Buildings 14 Passive Buildings © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 15. Human Comfort Cold Winter Interior Feels chilly and drafty: uncomfortable! Conventional Code House – Typ. 2x4 wall (actual R 10) Double glazed window – R 3 Factors affecting Comfort: • Air Temperature (dry bulb º F) • Relative Humidity (%) •Air Velocity (ft/min) Outside Temperature 0º F Glass Surface 51.2º F Interior Walls 68º F Exterior Walls 62.9º F •Air Velocity (ft/min) • Radiant Conditions (MRT º F or radiation value BTUh/ft²) RH: 20-50% 15© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 16. Human Comfort Cold Winter Interior Feels: comfortable! Temperate glass and wall surfaces and no drafts PH Example • R 60Envelope PH Comfort criteria: • (68 º F)Air Temp Glass Surface 62.4º F Interior Walls 68º F • R -9 Triple glazed (Climate specific) Window • 0º F Outside Temp Exterior Walls 67.1º F RH:40-50% • (40-60 % for PH) Relative Humidity • (<19.7 ft/min) Air Velocity • Max Delta T <7.2 º F (4 ºC) Radiant Condition © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 17. Human Comfort Hot Summer Interior Feels hot and humid: uncomfortable! Conventional Code House – Typ. 2x4 wall (actual R 10) Double glazed window – R 3 Factors affecting Comfort: • Air Temperature (dry bulb º F) • Relative Humidity (%) Outside Temperature 95 º F Glass Surface 81.4º F Interior Walls 77 º F Exterior Walls 78.3º F •Air Velocity (ft/min) • Radiant Conditions (MRT º F or radiation value BTUh/ft²) RH: 65-80% 17© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 18. Human Comfort Hot Summer Interior Feels: comfortable! Temperate glass and wall surfaces and no drafts PH Example • R 30Envelope PH Comfort criteria: • (77 º F)Air Temp Glass Surface 79.7º F Interior Walls 77º F Exterior Walls 77.4º F RH: 40-60% • R -5 Triple glazed (Climate specific) Window • 95º F Outside Temp • (40-60 % for PH) Relative Humidity • (<19.7 ft/min) Air Velocity • Max Delta T <7.2 º F (4 º C) Radiant Condition © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 19. PH “thermos bottle” summer comfort with RH, range without active cooling: Natural Ventilation and Passive Cooling Strategies? Fig. 4.186 Applicability of building cooling strategies. Alison Kwok, Walter Grondzik: The Green Studio Handbook, 2e 19© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 20. Adaptive Comfort 20© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 21. •< 15 kWh/m²a (4.75 kBTU/ft2yr) Annual Heat Demand •< 10 W/m²or 0.93W/ft2 (3.17 BTU/hr.ft2 ) Peak Heat Load •< 120 kWh/m²a (38 kBTU/ft2yr) Primary Energy Demand • ≤≤≤≤ 0.6 ACH50 Airtightness Baseline Criteria - Heating *Note: Window and Thermal envelope criteria Listed are for a cool moderate heating dominated Climate. Recommendations for these values may vary based on climate • ≥≥≥≥75% Recovery, ≥0.45 W/m³ (0.76 W/cfm) Ventilation •U ≤≤≤≤ 0.15 W/m2 K (R ≥≥≥≥ 38.5 hr. ft2°F/BTU,) Thermal Envelope: •Ψ ≤≤≤≤ 0.1 W/ mK Thermal-bridge Free •Uw-install ≤≤≤≤ 0.85 W/m2 K Windows installed: •50 – 55 %SHGC ≈10 W/m² or 1 W/ft² 21© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 22. •< 15 kWh/m²a (4.75 kBTU/ft2yr ) Annual Cooling Demand •< 10 W/m²or 0.93W/ft2 (3.17 BTU/hr.ft2 ) Peak Cooling •< 120 kWh/m²a (38 kBTU/ft2yr) Primary Energy Demand • ≤≤≤≤ 0.6 ACH50 Airtightness Baseline Criteria - Cooling *Note: Criteria in blue are based on a Central European heating dominated climate. Recommendations for these values will vary In N America cooling dominated climates! • ≥≥≥≥XX% Recovery, ≥0.45 W/m³ (0.76 W/cfm) Ventilation Cooling •U ≤≤≤≤ 0.15 W/m2 K (R ≥≥≥≥ 38.5 hr. ft2°F/BTU) Thermal Envelope: •Ψ ≤≤≤≤ 0.1 W/ mK Thermal-bridge Free •Uw-install ≤≤≤≤ 0.85 W/m2 K Windows installed: •50 – 55 % (??)SHGC ≈10 W/m² or 1 W/ft² 22© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 23. Five Main Passive Building Principles + Renewables= Zero/Plus Energy Envelope Losses + Gains HP Windows Losses + Gains Balanced Ventilation + Heat/Moisture Recovery 23 Airtightness Losses + Gains Hygrothermal Performance Passive Energy Balancing as Basis for Zero/Plus Energy © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 24. Structural insulated panels P1: Continuous Insulation Insulated Concrete Forms Masonry Structure w/Foamglass Various Passive House applicable Wall Type Sections 24© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 25. P1: Avoiding Thermal Bridging 25 Source: Building Science Corporation Newsletter #49: Aqua Tower and Infra Red by Fluke Corp © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 26. P2+3: Continuous Air-Tight & Wind-Tight Layer- The Red line Rule Air-tight Layer: 0.6 ACH50!Factors affected by air tightness: • Moisture Performance of wall • Heat loss through RED LINE RULE • Draw continuous air barrier Wind tight Layer • Heat loss through leaks • Comfort, no drafts! barrier • Identify each air barrier component • Identify connection between them 26© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 27. P4: High Performance Windows(PHI2006) Definition of a thermal bridge: A building element which has a linear thermal transmittance of greater than 0.006 BTU/(hr ft °°°°F) 27© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 28. The highly efficient Window Profile – warm climates, SHGC needs to be minimized! Exterior surface temperatures can get to 160 F!
  • 29. Passive Solar Opportunities and Challenges 29© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 30. Venetian Blinds, trellises, overhangs, balconies, decks, trees etc. Exterior Shading Devices http://www.warema.com 30© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 31. 1. Ventilation 2. Dehumidification 3. Cooling P5: Balanced Ventilation System With Minimal Space Conditioning 3. Cooling 4. Heating 5. Domestic Hot Water 31 Image source: www.greenbuildingstore.co.uk/mvhr.php © Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 32. • A Most Popular Ventilation Models UltimateAir 200DX (ERV)Zehnder ComfoAir 350 (ERV/HRV) 32© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 33. Night-time cooling Passive Cooling (Image Source: passive-on.org) PH Cooling-Passive Design Strategies Ground cooling Source: Zehnder Heat Recovery BypassGround Temperature @ 3-4m (10-13 ft) = Annual Mean Air Temperature ±±±±2 ºC (4 ºF) Radiative cooling Evaporative cooling
  • 34. Heating, Cooling and Dehumidification (Images:http://compressors.danfoss.com/) Samsung Mini-Split Air-to-Air Heatpump 20 SEER, point source Samsung EH slim ducted Mini- Split, integrated in ventilation ductwork 34© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 35. Heating and DHW (Image: www.enerworks.com) 35© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 36. Climate Specificity Part Two:
  • 37. Heating Degree DaysHeating Degree Days Cooling Degree DaysCooling Degree Days Winter Design TempratureWinter Design Temprature Summer Design TemperatureSummer Design Temperature Passive Building is Climate Dependent!! Summer Design TemperatureSummer Design Temperature HumidityHumidity Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Night Sky RadiationNight Sky Radiation Ground TemperatureGround Temperature
  • 38. Latent vs Sensible Ventilation Load Indexes U.S. has more climate zones than the entire European Union!! (Image Source: from ASHRAE Journal, November, 1997 pp 37 - 45) Image Source: www.energycodes.gov
  • 39. Climate Specific Space Conditioning Requirements Graph Courtesy of Global Buildings Performance Network
  • 40. 400 600 800 1000 1200 Qlatent(watts) Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr heating and dehumidification cooling and dehumidification 66-76F -400 -200 0 200 -3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Qsensible (watts) Qlatent(watts) Apr May June July Aug heating and humidification cooling and humidification 30- 60%rh Grafics: Newell Instruments, Inc.
  • 41. SI Units IP 1 Heat Load: ≤10 W/m2 ≤ 1 W/ft2 Cooling Load: ≤ 8 W/m2 ≤ 0.8 W/ft2 2 Envelope Insulation:2 Envelope Insulation: Very Cold/humidVery Cold/humid Minneapolis, MNMinneapolis, MN U≤0.08 W/mU≤0.08 W/m22KK R≥71 hrR≥71 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu ColdCold Chicago, ILChicago, IL U≤0.094 W/mU≤0.094 W/m22KK R≥60 hrR≥60 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu Mixed/humidMixed/humid Ashville, NCAshville, NC U≤0.14 W/mU≤0.14 W/m22KK R≥40 hrR≥40 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu Mixed/dryMixed/dry Las Vegas, NVLas Vegas, NV U≤0.14 W/mU≤0.14 W/m22KK R≥40 hrR≥40 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu MarineMarine Seattle, WASeattle, WA U≤0.13 W/mU≤0.13 W/m22KK R≥44 hrR≥44 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu Hot/humidHot/humid Houston, TXHouston, TX U≤0.16 W/mU≤0.16 W/m22KK R≥35 hrR≥35 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu Climate Specific Recommendations Passive House Hot/humidHot/humid Houston, TXHouston, TX U≤0.16 W/mU≤0.16 W/m KK R≥35 hrR≥35 hr--ftft --°°F/BtuF/Btu Hot/dryHot/dry Phoenix, AZPhoenix, AZ U≤0.16 W/mU≤0.16 W/m22KK R≥35 hrR≥35 hr--ftft22--°°F/BtuF/Btu 3 Thermal Bridge Free Construction:3 Thermal Bridge Free Construction: Linear Thermal TransmittanceLinear Thermal Transmittance ΨΨ≤0.01 W/≤0.01 W/mKmK ΨΨ≤0.006 Btu/hr≤0.006 Btu/hr--ftft--°°FF 4 High Performance Windows installed:4 High Performance Windows installed: Overall Thermal Transmittance (Very Cold)Overall Thermal Transmittance (Very Cold) UU≤0.6 W/m≤0.6 W/m22KK UU≤0.11 Btu/hr≤0.11 Btu/hr--ftft22--°°FF Overall Thermal Transmittance (Cold/Mixed)Overall Thermal Transmittance (Cold/Mixed) UU≤0.85 W/m≤0.85 W/m22KK UU≤0.15 Btu/hr≤0.15 Btu/hr--ftft22--°°FF Overall Thermal Transmittance (Hot)Overall Thermal Transmittance (Hot) UU≤1.55 W/m≤1.55 W/m22KK UU≤0.27 Btu/hr≤0.27 Btu/hr--ftft22--°°FF Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Mixed/Cold) g-value≥50% SHGC≥50% Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Hot) g-value ≤ 30% SHGC ≤ 30% 5 Heat Recovery Ventilation: Net Efficiency η≥80% η≥80% Electric Consumption of motor ≤0.45 Wh/m3 ≤0.76 W/cfm
  • 42. Climate on the Move Source: www.globalchange.gov 42© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 43. Enclosure Strategies
  • 44. Cold and Humid Climate Wall Assembly - Chicago Vapor Drive End of Feb End of Oct End of Jul Spring and Fall Winter SummerEnd of Jul Summer
  • 45. Wall Assembly Warm Humid Climate -Houston Vapor Drive End of October End of February End of July Spring and Fall Winter Summer
  • 46. Orientation and Shading a Must: Windows to the N, S and E-W limited 46
  • 47. LeBois Project – 2010, Lafayette, LA 47
  • 48. North American Passive Building Uptake 2003-2013 Part One: Passive Building Principles 48© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 49. PHIUS Certifications over last 10 Years in US and Canada 49© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 50. PHIUS Certification Programs: PHIUS Certification Programs PHIUS Certification Mark ® ® PHIUS Certification Programs: Certified Passive House Consultant, CPHC® PHIUS Certified Builder PHIUS+ Certified Rater PHIUS+ Certified Passive House Projects Window Performance Data Verification Program Mark 50© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 51. PHIUS+ Certified Passive Projects www.passivehouse.us/projects 48 certified and pre-certified Projects,Projects, Total of more than 130 projects currenty Registered in National Data Base to be completed! 51© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 52. www.passivehouse.us/consultants Certified Passive House Consultants (CPHC®) 421 Certified ProfessionalsProfessionals currenty listed in National Data Base! 52© Passive House Institute US 2013
  • 53. Passive House Alliance US 53
  • 54. Save the Date! October 16-19, 2013 8th Annual North American Passive House 7th7th7th7th Annual North American Passive House ConferenceAnnual North American Passive House ConferenceAnnual North American Passive House ConferenceAnnual North American Passive House Conference September 27September 27September 27September 27----30, 2012 Denver CO30, 2012 Denver CO30, 2012 Denver CO30, 2012 Denver CO 8th Annual North American Passive House Conference, Pittsburgh, PA Katrin Klingenberg katrin@passivehouse.us Executive Director | PHIUS
  • 55. Thank You!Thank You! Questions? 55© Passive House Institute US 2013