To Reclad or not to Reclad?


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  • To Reclad or not to Reclad?

    1. 1. Evaluating Re-use of Existing Exterior Envelope Re-skin vs. Renovate
    2. 2. • is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. •This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. •Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. •In October 2010, the AIA/CES system was updated with the new CES Discovery system, in that time we have transferred more than one million records. This new update has made it necessary to remind us of the AIA/CES policies and procedures, to introduce the “new” provider ethics, and to reintroduce the AIA/CES audits/quality assurance program. This presentation covers those areas giving providers the opportunity to give feedback and input.
    3. 3. Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: 1) Will understand the typical service life of different cladding materials in the Texas Gulf Coast area. 2) Will be able to identify critical failures of different cladding materials that indicate replacement. 3) Will be able to calculate the life cycle implications of re-cladding vs. cladding repair. 4) Will be able to identify the potential energy impacts of replacing or maintaining a building’s envelope.
    4. 4. The greenest building is the one that is already built. Evaluation of Existing Structures
    5. 5. • Structural failure of façade or cladding • Water intrusion • Master Plan for long term Ownership • New Ownership Major Reasons to Review the Envelope
    6. 6. Step One - Investigation and Evaluation of Existing • Owner • Architect • Building Envelope Consultant • Structural Engineer • MEP Engineer • Project Manager or Broker • Facilities Engineer
    7. 7. 5 Key Items Structural Integrity Thermal Performance Permeance Significance Life Cycle Good Condition Poor Condition Good Performance Low Performance Low Permeance High Permeance Existing Image vs New Design Short Life vs Long Term
    8. 8. Program, Design and Client Input User Inputbuilding envelope M,C,R Option 1 • re-glaze only • conventional HVAC • bldg. envelope repairs T,D Option 2 • modify precast: raise header • new vertical strip curtainwall • underfloor HVAC Option 3 • remove all precast: new unitized curtainwall • underfloor HVAC Option 1 • re-glaze only • conventional HVAC • new arch. metal at monitors • new skylights Option 3 • remove all precast, new unitized curtainwall • underfloor HVAC • all new monitors & piping Option 2 • remove precast below brim, new curtainwall • underfloor HVAC @ 1st fl, conventional HVAC @ 2nd • mods to monitors for daylight amenities building schematic design T C Kirksey / WPM renovated offices 8 Nov 2007 M R program detail WORKSuser list Kirksey D Kirksey amenities building Program, Design and Client Input – Building Use
    9. 9. Significance of façade Historic Tax credits or Federal $ - must comply with review (Professional recommendation is the same) Iconic Represents Campus Identity or Owner History Intangibles - Façade Value
    10. 10. •Change of Use •5% increase of Lateral Load •Improvements worth over 50% of Building Value What triggers a code upgrade? 2012 IBC - Chapter 34 Existing Building Code Energy Code Compliance Code and standards
    11. 11. Code and standards If the owner wants windstorm insurance through TWIA, evaluation and/or upgrades may be required
    12. 12. Physical/Structural Characteristics of the Building Envelope Deficiencies in one or more of these areas can lead the decision matrix for recladding: • Condition of Façade Materials • Condition of Vertical Support Systems • Performance of façade systems Visual Inspection
    13. 13. • Document Review • Visual Assessment • Establish Monitoring Investigative Techniques
    14. 14. Performance of façade systems • Differential Movement • Displacement • Cracking Control of water • Plugged weepholes • Malfunctioning downspouts • Improper flashing Visual Inspection
    15. 15. • Condition of Vertical Support Systems Shelf angle Lintels Panel support clips Typical distress conditions • Corrosion • Cracking • Displacements Visual Inspection -
    16. 16. (Natural Stone, Cast Stone, Brick, Terra Cotta) Indefinite service life with proper design and maintenance Typical Deterioration Conditions Cracking Spalling Delamination Displacement Efflorescence Mortar condition Prior remedial treatments Envelope Exterior - Masonry
    17. 17. Envelope Exterior - Masonry
    18. 18. Condition of Façade Materials: Precast Panels Indefinite service life with proper design and maintenance Typical Deterioration Conditions • Cracking • Spalling • Prior remedial treatments Envelope Exterior - Concrete
    19. 19. Condition of Façade Materials: Glazing Systems 10-20 year lifespan (sealants and gaskets ) 50+ year lifespan -CW structure and single pane glazing Traditional Windows • Flanged • Punch Systems • Curtainwall / Unitized • Stick/Storefront Sealants/Gaskets • Polyurethane • Silicone • Compressed gaskets • Zipper gasket • Structural silicone Envelope Exterior – Curtainwall & Windows
    20. 20. Insulated panels Metal building type Aluminum composite panels Copper or Stainless Flashing 20-40 year service life with proper design and maintenance Typical Deterioration Conditions • Oil-canning • Corrosion Envelope Exterior – Metal
    21. 21. Step Two - Present Options & Constructability Review • Design Alternatives • Impact of Codes and Standards • Hidden Conditions • Constructability • Budget
    22. 22. Physical/Structural Characteristics of the Building Envelope Deficiencies in one or more of these areas can lead the decision matrix for recladding: • Condition of Lateral Support Systems • Condition of Substrate/Weatherbarrier • Condition of Structure (At perimeter) Hidden Conditions
    23. 23. • Arms-length investigation • In-situ testing • Non-destructive Evaluation Investigative Techniques
    24. 24. • Condition of Substrate/Weatherbarrier • Does system permit remedial repair of lateral systems? • Does a weather barrier exist? • Water • Air • Vapor • Insulation • What is condition of existing materials? • Antiquated systems • Asbestos Containing Materials • Water Damage Substrate Analysis
    25. 25. Systems are typically concealed Failure represents significant risk to public safety Typical warning signs • Outward displacement of masonry • Spalling • Localized failure Current wind load requirements VS Building Code in effect at time of construction Condition of Lateral Support Systems
    26. 26. Condition of Structure (At perimeter) • Façade elements may restrict access to superstructure Condition of Structural Frame & Foundation
    27. 27. Thermal performance of existing wall Wufi Model to evaluate existing Wufi Model to evaluate proposed renovation Affect of hot-humid climate Affect HVAC assumptions/systems and operation - Existing and Future Review of Water Vapor Permeance
    28. 28. Air and Water permeance of existing wall Air/Water vapor barrier location and integrity Vapor drive - new 2013 materials vs Historic or late 20th century alternates Tar paper Tyvek Peel & stick Mass wall Intrusion from leaks – any opening in envelope Review of Water Vapor Permeance
    29. 29. Tools for review of Insulation & Vapor Barrier
    30. 30. Sample WUFI Output Air Temperature Dew PointRelative Humidity Water Content Exterior Interior BRICK CAVITY AIR BARRIER & EXT. GYP INSULATION INT. GYP. & VINYL WALLPAPER 3 Year Cycle Shaded Area = 3 Year Cycle Tools for review of Water Vapor Dewpoint
    31. 31. • THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a system energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. Tools for review of Thermal Performance
    32. 32. Step Three - Cost Benefit Analysis Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program—Economic analysis tool developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). LCCA can be performed at various levels of complexity. Its scope might vary from a "back-of-the-envelope" study to a detailed analysis with thoroughly researched input data, supplementary measures of economic evaluation, complex uncertainty assessment, and extensive documentation. The extensiveness of the effort should be tailored to the needs of the project.
    33. 33. Owner’s long term plans : calculate the life cycle implications of recladding vs. cladding repair. Government - Lifetime Developer - 100% Lease and Sell Owner/Operator - Lifetime with Exit strategy High Maintenance cost – deferred maintenance problem Life Cycle Cost Analysis
    34. 34. At what point does the cost of remediation approach the cost of recladding? Repair vs Reclad Low cost Repair High Cost Removal Repair Scope Extents of façade material removal Improve Performance of façade systems Typically local Repair of Vertical Support Systems Typically local (10%) Repair of Structure Typically local (20%) Repair of Façade materials Varies greatly - Local to Global Repair of Lateral Support Systems Minimal with appropriate substrate, Global with poor substrate Repair of Substrate Typically global Extents of façade removal required for various repairs
    35. 35. Park Towers - 2000 YEAR BUILT: 1972 ENVELOPE REVIEW ISSUE: New Owner PROJECT START DATE: 1998 COST: $27M Core & Shell + Garage DESIGN SUMMARY – Vacant 13 years; purchase price allowed consideration of re- branding for new Class-A image. 24” floor extension was added to perimeter for NRA of 24,000 SF Case Study – Park Towers RECLAD
    36. 36. Restore for Historic Significance and PerformanceCase Study – U of H Roy G Cullen RESTORE YEAR BUILT: 1938 ENVELOPE REVIEW ISSUE: Campus Master Plan, Water Intrusion of Historic First Building on U of H Campus PROJECT START DATE: Not Started PROJECT COST: Est. $3.2 M DESIGN SUMMARY: Detailed review of documents and Broroscope investigation revealed that water intrusion was impacting limestone anchors. Previous re-windowing was not draining correctly. Limestone panels spalling.
    37. 37. Case Study – Sylvan Beach Pavilion RECLAD + RESTORE YEAR BUILT: 1956 with 1962 & 1980 additions ENVELOPE REVIEW ISSUE: Hurricane Ike Damage to Curtainwall – Building abandoned since damage PROJECT START DATE: 2012 PROJECT COST: $3.2 Million DESIGN SUMMARY: Historic Restoration of 1950’s Mod Building for Harris County.
    38. 38. YEAR BUILT: 1973 ENVELOPE REVIEW ISSUE: Campus precast buildings had some repairs and exposed rebar and spalls, but iconic imagery in a build to suit campus. PROJECT START DATE: 2009 PROJECT COST: $300 Million DESIGN SUMMARY: Restoration of Campus Lab Building with interior and glass element update for new office use Case Study – Shell Technology Center RESTORE
    39. 39. Pros • New head height at window openings (9’-0”) allows more daylight and use of underfloor air on both floors. • Replacing glass w/ high performance low-e glass allows more visible light, less solar heat gain • Improved waterproofing at windows and overall exterior with new installation • New window mullion spacing will be closer to 5’-0” OC • Replacement of monitor allows upgrade of 30 year old pipe infrastructure. It allows phased replacement during construction by having pipes at base roof level installed prior to demo. Future maintenance of piping at roof level is safer. Re-using structural slab (previous monitor floor) below pipe rack improves waterproofing below pipes. • Replacement of monitor improves campus appearance by lowering overall height of secondary roof structure. • New skylight at center allows double loaded office with perimeter circulation on glass and along skylight • Additional demo will require construction waste recycling • Construction sequence will expose interior to weather; requires full building shut down to optimize contractor’s work time Cons
    40. 40. If 30% - 50% of exterior cladding must be removed for remediation, replacement may be a more cost effective alternate, depending on cost of cladding materials. Integrity of Façade Assembly Other factors – what is the business decision?! • Will new façade lead to increase in rent? • Can it lower energy usage? • Project staging - is building occupied? Re-skin vs Rehabilitate Existing
    41. 41. Typically Reactive Implementation Mandates Periodic Inspections Future – Façade Ordinances
    42. 42. Questions? This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course
    43. 43. Sustainable Design The BIM model allows for early staged energy calculations using DOE-2 compatible energy modeling software. This helps with glazing selection and adds valuable cost/payback calculations for the owner. BIM @ Kirksey
    44. 44. • EVALUATION Structural Air / Water /Heat infiltration Market position Site and Context • COST Project cost life cycle cost improved energy performance. • APPEARANCE Historic importance of the façade Market position Site and Context •
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