Greening What's Already Here

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  • Slide illustrates the life cycle of a building and how the LEED rating systems align with the project phases. There is quite a bit of green building and LEED activity in the higher education sector. Colleges and universities have a higher percentage of LEED®-certified green space than any other sector, including government, retail and hospitality, with more than 4300 registered and certified LEED projects. College campuses are essentially small cities and can become models for sustainability and green building practices. Every LEED rating system has a place on a college campus however we have found that most institutions are not familiar with the complete suite of LEED rating systems.
  • Greening What's Already Here

    1. 1. GREENING WHAT’S ALREADY HERE GULF COAST GREEN MAY 2nd , 2013 Barbara A. Campagna, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C
    2. 2. GULF COAST GREEN AIA HOUSTON Especially Julie Hendricks THANK YOU Julia Ideson Building, Houston Public Library
    3. 3. Houston AIA is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non- AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
    4. 4. The construction and operation of buildings accounts for almost 50% of the United States greenhouse gas emissions. But reusing and retrofitting our existing buildings can reduce these emissions dramatically. Reusing what we have – buildings, landscapes and communities – is the best way to make the biggest, most immediate impact in controlling climate change. New construction and major renovation comprises less than 10% of the country’s real estate portfolio, so it is clear that making a substantial impact on our planet will require focusing on the greater than 90% of buildings that are not new. While older, traditional buildings use less energy on average than more recent buildings, some worry that a push to green historic buildings will threaten valuable cultural resources. Greening What’s Already Here
    5. 5. Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: 1. Demonstrate how original character defining features in existing and historic buildings can be reactivated to improve energy and resource efficiency. 2. Identify the cultural and preservation metrics in past, current and future versions of the LEED rating system and how the recognition and use of these metrics has been improving. 3. Discuss the importance of greening the operations of existing and historic buildings. 4. Review the difference between LEED capital products and the LEED operations and maintenance product, and why the maintenance product will have a more significant impact on world resource use.
    6. 6. GREENING WHAT’S ALREADY HERE From Traditional Historic to Modernism Lee H. Nelson Hall, NCPTT Headquarters, Natchitoches, LA and the Philip Johnson Glass House, New Canaan, CT
    7. 7. WHY ARE HISTORIC & EXISTING BUILDINGS IMPORTANT TO CLIMATE CHANGE? BUILDINGS ACCOUNT FOR ALMOST HALF OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES Smog in the Hollywood Hills, CA
    8. 8. U.S. CARBON EMISSIONS US = 22% of greenhouse gases 5% of world population The Reynolds Factory Winston-Salem, NC
    9. 9. Why Existing Buildings Matter Annually— 43% of carbon emissions are from the operation (not including construction) of buildings Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change 70%+ of electricity goes to buildings Source: USGBC 40% of raw materials are used for construction Source: USGBC City Hall, Houston
    10. 10. Why Buildings Matter Annually— 43% of carbon emissions are from the operation (not including construction) of buildings Source: Pew Center on Climate Change 71% of electricity goes to buildings Source: USGBC 40% of raw materials are used for construction Source: USGBC Benedict Hall, University of Texas at Austin
    11. 11. Retrofit Green… Debunking The Myth Many historic buildings are already energy efficient Average energy consumption Btu/sq. ft Commercial Buildings (non malls) Before 1920 80,127 1920 – 1945 90,234 1946 – 1959 80,198 1960 – 1969 90,976 1970 – 1979 94,968 1980 – 1989 100,077 1990 – 1999 88,834 2000 – 2003 79,703 Source: Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, 2003 U.S. Department of Energy
    12. 12. RESIDENTIAL IS THE OPPOSITE The Advent of Insulation US Energy Information Administration
    13. 13. LIFE CYCLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION… Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute
    14. 14. Retrofit Green Energy performance can be improved Understand Your climate – Reactivate original features Potomac Avenue House, Buffalo, NY
    15. 15. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX Retrofit Green Energy performance can be improved Understand Your climate – Reactivate original features Historic House in the King William Historic District, San Antonio, TX
    16. 16. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX Graphic Prepared by Elaine Gallagher Adams, Rocky Mountain Institute
    17. 17. Retrofit Green Energy performance can be improved Many rehabilitation projects are going green Nakamura Courthouse, Seattle, WA A General Services Administration Project
    18. 18. THE NATIONAL TRUST & THE US GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL Building a Partnership 2007-Today Changing the Face of LEED LEED 3.0/2009 Weighting using LCA Alternative Compliance using Durability of Materials LEED v4 Preservation/Social Metrics
    19. 19. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEED PRODUCTS A POINT IN TIME THE LIFE OF THE BUILDING State Capitol Restoration, Austin, TX State Capitol Visitor Center, Austin, TX
    20. 20. REVISING LEED – LEED 2009 Changed LEED to a weighted system based on LCA Indicators & starting to add Preservation/Social/Cultural Metrics Calistoga, Napa, California
    21. 21. LEED ND – Adding Historic Preservation Language LEED ND — Green Infrastructure Building Credit 5 EXISTING BUILDING REUSE Reliance Building/ Hotel Burnham, Chicago, IL
    22. 22. REVISING LEED – LEED v4 Materials & Resources Credit – Building Life-Cycle Impact Reduction – 5 points for designated landmarks
    23. 23. THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    24. 24. THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS 1870 Thayer Hall, Harvard University Cambridge, MA LEED EBOM 2008 - Silver #5 Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    25. 25. THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS 1869 Pittsburgh Opera (Westinghouse Air Brake Company) Pittsburgh, PA LEED EBOM 2008 - Silver #4 Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    26. 26. THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS 1864 Barton Group Headquarters Glens Falls, NY LEED NCv2.2 - Platinum #3 Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    27. 27. THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS 1856 New York State Executive Mansion Albany, NY LEED EBv2.0 - Gold #2 Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    28. 28. 1842 U.S. Treasury Building Washington, DC LEED EBv2.0 Gold THE OLDEST LEED-CERTIFIED BUILDINGS #1 Slide Courtesy Christopher Davis, GBCI
    29. 29. Other Rating Systems
    30. 30. SUSTAINABILITY & PRESERVATION POLICIES
    31. 31. Green Building Initiatives Seattle Portland, OR Minneapolis, MN Washington, DC US Department of Agriculture Montgomery County, MD Chicago, IL Nashville, TN New York, NY Pennsylvania Public School Districts Tybee Island, GA Massachusetts San Jose, CA Colorado General Services Administration Scottsdale, AZ Honolulu, HI Wisconsin Washington State Austin, TX
    32. 32. THE GREEN STANDARD OF 2004 CHICAGO, IL All new city-funded construction and major renovation projects MUST earn LEED certification.
    33. 33. THE GREEN PERMIT PROGRAM CHICAGO, IL Offering expedited permitting for projects that incorporate innovative green building strategies, including LEED certification.
    34. 34. A CITY TAKES ON GREEN ROOFS - 2000 Chicago City Hall & 200 other roofs Chicago City Hall Green Roof, 2002
    35. 35. THE GREEN BUILDING ACT OF 2006 WASHINGTON, DC Requires LEED compliance with municipal and private projects over 50,000 sq ft.
    36. 36. INTERNATIONAL GREEN CONSTRUCTION CODE The New Code Can Be Ordered Now Pioneer Courthouse, Portland, OR
    37. 37. SAN FRANCISCO GREEN BUILDING ORDINANCE – 2008 Points for LEED or ―Greenpoint‖ System
    38. 38. PlaNYC, NYC’s SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA: 2008, updated 2011 http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/home/home.shtml
    39. 39. PlaNYC, NYC’s SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA Create a handbook for energy efficiency strategies for historic buildings
    40. 40. BENCHMARKING, PART OF NYC’s SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA Use the EPA’s Portfolio Manager to track energy use in buildings over 50,000 sq. ft.
    41. 41. BUFFALO GREEN BUILDING CODE Zoning Buffalo for the 21st Century • Focus on Placemaking • Transform Buildings • Advance Downtown • Capitalize on Canada- US Trade • Keep $ in Buffalo Neighborhoods
    42. 42. 43 Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    43. 43. New solutions are needed for smaller, older buildings to meet aggressive carbon reduction mandates 73% of our existing commercial buildings are less than 10,000 square feet Smaller, older buildings are uniquely challenged – both physically and financially - to meet aggressive carbon reduction goals Buildings in Denver’s Historic District Photo by Wally Gobetz US Energy Information Administration, 2003 Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    44. 44. Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    45. 45. Case Study Buildings Single Family Residential Multifamily Residential Urban Village Mixed Use Commercial Office Building Elementary Schools Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    46. 46. Test Conditions Portland Phoenix Chicago Atlanta Climate Regions Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    47. 47.  Building reuse typically offers greater environmental savings than demolition and new construction.  It can take between 10 to 80 years for a new energy efficient building to overcome, through efficient operations, the climate change impacts created by its construction.  The majority of building types in different climates will take between 20-30 years to compensate for the initial carbon impacts from construction Reuse Matters Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    48. 48.  The environmental benefits of reuse are maximized by minimizing the input of new construction materials.  Renovation projects that require many new materials can reduce or even negate the benefits of reuse. For more information…. Patrice_Frey@savingplaces.org www.preservationnation.org Design Matters Slides Courtesy Patrice Frey, National Trust
    49. 49. PRESERVATION GREEN LAB’S LATEST RESEARCH….
    50. 50. SUSTAINABILITY & PRESERVATION PROJECTS
    51. 51. Reuse, Reinvest, Respect, Retrofit THE NATIONAL TRUST’S FIRST LEED CERTIFIED PROJECT
    52. 52. The VEC – 44 Points Makes it a LEED GOLD, 2009 THE NATIONAL TRUST’S FIRST LEED CERTIFIED PROJECT – LEED NC 2.2
    53. 53. INNOVATION & DESIGN PROCESS – All 5 http://www.lincolncottage.org/visit/ecotour.htm
    54. 54. Going Green at Historic Sites BEST PRACTICES February 2010 Applying Policies and Best Practices to National Trust Historic Sites http://barbaracampagna.com/best-practices- manual/
    55. 55. Going Green at Historic Sites BEST PRACTICES February 2010 Section on Green Housekeeping & Sustainable Practices
    56. 56. Going Green at Historic Sites GREEN HOUSEKEEPING Lyndhurst, Tarrytown, NY
    57. 57. Going Green at Historic Sites SUSTAINABILITY MASTER PLAN Kykuit, Tarrytown, NY
    58. 58. Going Green at Historic Sites RETHINKING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Villa Finale, San Antonio, TX
    59. 59. Going Green at Historic Sites RETHINKING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Villa Finale, San Antonio, TX Compost Pile and Bat House
    60. 60. Making the Case for HISTORIC WINDOWS Restored Wood Windows at Shadows-on-the-Teche
    61. 61. HUMIDITY, LEED & MUNICIPAL SEWERS How To Go Green When You Can’t Meet a Prerequisite Cliveden, Philadelphia, PA
    62. 62. Cliveden - Passive Approaches for Improved Environmental Control • Separate humans from collections – Relocate offices out of the Main House – Relocate collections storage out of the Main House • Improve envelope performance – Reduce water penetration and humidity at basement – Reduce air infiltration – Insulate and seal attic
    63. 63. • Replace attic insulation • Refurbish site drainage to reduce water penetration at basement Cliveden - Low Tech Improvements
    64. 64. Cliveden - New HVAC System • Replace gas-fired boiler in Wash House • Replace basement air handler • Control heat by humidistat--maintain winter humidity levels above 25%, with steam humidifier back-up
    65. 65. • Cooling coil at the air handler to maintain summer humidity level below 70% • Air circulation from basement to attic w/ returns in new air shafts and lined chimneys • New chiller behind Wash House sized for future air conditioning in tenant spaces Cliveden - New HVAC System
    66. 66. CAN MODERN GO GREEN? How to Green a Campus of Modern Buildings The Brick House, Philip Johnson’s Glass House, New Canaan, CT
    67. 67. CAN MODERN GO GREEN? How to Green a Campus of Modern Buildings The Brick House, Philip Johnson’s Glass House, New Canaan, CT
    68. 68. RESTORING THE BRICK HOUSE A Sound Preservation Methodology
    69. 69. RESTORING THE BRICK HOUSE A Sound Preservation Methodology
    70. 70. Greening Historic Buildings With LEED EB Rethinking a Painted Lady in San Francisco Why Would an 1886 House Museum Care About LEED?
    71. 71. Sustainability Goals 1. The Haas-Lilienthal House is a symbol of San Francisco Architectural Heritage and ―Heritage‖ would like to expand this symbol of the organization to act as a model of sustainable preservation.
    72. 72. 2. ―Heritage‖ intends to ―green‖ the Haas-Lilienthal House to improve the resource use of the site, broaden the audience of the organization and to prove the relevance that a house museum can continue to have in our culture. Sustainability Goals
    73. 73. Assess • Analyze current physical assets • Determine areas for improvement • Set realistic goals • Establish measurable objectives • Select LEED strategies
    74. 74. SCHEDULED PROJECTS Window Repairs
    75. 75. Source: Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, 2003 U.S. Department of Energy Source: Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, 2003 U.S. Department of Energy
    76. 76. Two-Day Eco-Charrette Greening the Haas- Lilienthal House August 2011
    77. 77. Sustainability Management Plan The Greening Plan® http://barbaracampagna.com/haas-lilienthal-house/
    78. 78. 1. Utilize roofs and porches with wide roof overhangs to manage heating and cooling 2. Use interior pocket doors to compartmentalize spaces and control heating and cooling. Leverage Original Character-Defining Features
    79. 79. 1. Determine Which Capital Improvements Will Be Undertaken and Whether Construction Will Be Phased. 2. Conduct an Energy Audit. 3. Develop a Weatherization Program. 4. Develop a Green Housekeeping Program. Sustainability Management Plan Strategy
    80. 80. 5. Initiate a comprehensive maintenance and operations program using LEED EB:O&M. AND 6. Conduct a Major Rehabilitation. 7. Stretch Goals to Net Zero. Sustainability Management Plan Strategy
    81. 81. Select LEED Strategies
    82. 82. Lee H. Nelson Hall, NCPTT Headquarters, Natchitoches, LA Sustainability Management Plan The Greening Plan®
    83. 83. CONDUCTING THE ENERGY AUDIT Meeting ASHRAE Level 1 Energy Audit with a Whole Building Blower Door Test
    84. 84. CONDUCTING THE ENERGY AUDIT Looking for Energy Loss with the Infrared Camera
    85. 85. CONDUCTING THE ENERGY AUDIT Sample Image of Energy Loss Viewed Thru the Infrared Camera
    86. 86. EVALUATING THE ENERGY AUDIT Twelve split systems with no real humidity control using most of the energy
    87. 87. SETTING GOALS AND STRATEGIES Two Eco-Charrettes to Develop the goals, programs and strategies
    88. 88. EVALUATING THE ENERGY AUDIT Identifying the ―low hanging fruit‖
    89. 89. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX EVALUATING THE SITE AND DRAINAGE What Can NCPTT Change and What is under the University’s Control?
    90. 90. GOING GREEN IN EXTREME WEATHER Adapting a Historic Orphanage for a Leadership School Using LEED for Schools 2009 Jesse Lee Home, Seward, Alaska
    91. 91. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX
    92. 92. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX
    93. 93. AREA: Non-Residential Buildings 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1919 or Before 1920 to 1945 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2003 Construction Decade AreainMillionsSF ―Historic‖ Buildings Commercial Building Inventory Department of Energy 10,640 Million SF 16 %
    94. 94. AREA: Non-Residential Buildings 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1919 or Before 1920 to 1945 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2003 Construction Decade AreainMillionsSF Modern-Era Buildings Commercial Building Inventory Department of Energy 36,250 Million SF 55 %
    95. 95. AREA: Non-Residential Buildings 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1919 or Before 1920 to 1945 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2003 Construction Decade AreainMillionsSF LEED Buildings Commercial Building Inventory Department of Energy 3,200 Million SF 5 % 1,283 Certified / 9,867 Registered
    96. 96. SOME CHALLENGES: Climate Change & Historic Sites Farnsworth House, Plano, IL Flash Flood August 24, 2007
    97. 97. Climate Change & Historic Sites Farnsworth House, Plano, IL Flash Flood August 24, 2007
    98. 98. Climate Change & Historic Sites Farnsworth House, Plano, IL Flash Flood September 2007
    99. 99. Climate Change & Historic Sites Farnsworth House, Plano, IL Flash Flood September 2008
    100. 100. SPRAWL vs. Historic Preservation… Promotes reinvestment in existing Neighborhoods, but NOT with McMansions and Teardowns.
    101. 101. CHALLENGES – ATTACKS ON MODERN Using Data to Attack Whole Building Types
    102. 102. CHALLENGES – AUTHENTICITY Do We Have to Restore Experimental Materials & Assemblies? Lever House built 1952, listed on NR in 1983, SOM, New York, NY Philip Johnson Glass House, New Canaan, CT, 1949, National Historic Landmark
    103. 103. ADAPTING A 1965 HISTORIC TOWER The Tishman Building
    104. 104. RETHINKING PRESERVATION – OR… Midcentury Modern House, San Antonio, TX
    105. 105. OR IS IT JUST EXPANDING WHAT WE CARE ABOUT? Midcentury Modern House, San Antonio, TX
    106. 106. CHALLENGES – UNATTRACTIVE TO MANY How To Convince the Public that Brutalism is Worthy of Saving? The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX Boston City Hall
    107. 107. The Christman Building Lansing, Michigan The First Triple Platinum Project: Core & Shell, Commercial Interiors & EB:O&M Tax Act Project New Market Tax Project Brownfield
    108. 108. The Empire State Building – LEED Gold EB: O&M, 54 Points
    109. 109. A FOLK LANDMARK The Beer Can House, Houston, TX
    110. 110. The Richardson Olmsted Complex this past winter, Buffalo, NY TO A National Historic Landmark Richardson Olmsted Complex
    111. 111. GSA’s First LEED Platinum Building The Hipolito Garcia Federal Building & Courthouse in San Antonio NC 2.1 - 54/69 pts. The Alley Theatre, Houston, TX
    112. 112. BY 2030 50% OF ALL BUILDINGS WILL HAVE BEEN ERECTED AFTER 2000: 82 billion sq. ft. demolished – Brookings Institute, 2004 The Menil Collection, Houston, TX by Renzo Piano
    113. 113. WE CAN’T BUILD OUR WAY OUT OF CLIMATE CHANGE…. Clos Pegase Winery, Calistoga, Napa, CA Michael Graves, Architect
    114. 114. WE ALSO CAN’T FREEZE OUR WAY OUT OF IT…. The Governor’s Palace, Colonial Williamsburg, VA
    115. 115. IT’S ALL ABOUT CHOICE & BALANCE Iron Spring, Manitou Springs, CO
    116. 116. EVERY BUILDING MAKES A DIFFERENCE….. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA , Renzo Piano
    117. 117. EVERY BUILDING MAKES A DIFFERENCE….. Haas-Lilienthal House Museum, San Francisco, CA
    118. 118. My goal is that one day we won’t make a distinction between preservation and sustainability. Seattle Central Library, Rem Koolhaas, Opening Day, May 2004 with the historic Nakamura Courthouse behind it – both have been applauded as sustainable projects
    119. 119. We will just call it good architecture.
    120. 120. SPREAD THE WORD True Green Cities http://barbaracampagna.com/blog
    121. 121. SPREAD THE WORD UBM’s Future Cities www.ubmfuturecities.com
    122. 122. THANK YOU, AIA HOUSTON!! Chapel of St. Basil, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX by Philip Johnson
    123. 123. bcampagna@bcampagna.com http://barbaracampagna.com/blog Twitter: @bcampagna This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course

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