HIGH PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP“MAHATMA PHULE”Submitted to:- Prof. NaganandaDivision:- “B”
SUMMARY AND HIS LIFE SKETCHMahatma Jotiba Govindrao Phule also known as Mahatma Jotiba Phule was anactivist, thinker, social reformer, writer, philosopher, theologist, scholar, editorand revolutionary from Maharashtra, India in the nineteenth century. Jotiba Phule and hiswife Savitribai Phule were the pioneer of womens education in India. His remarkableinfluence was apparent in fields like education, agriculture, caste system, women and widowupliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known for his efforts to educate womenand the lower castes as well as the masses. He, after educating his wife, opened the firstschool for girls in India in August 1848.Jotirao Phule was born in 1827. His father, Govindrao was a vegetable vendor atPoona. Originally Jotiraos family, known as Gorhays, came from Katugan, a village in theSatara district of Maharashtra. His grandfather Shetiba Gorhay settled down in Poona. SinceJotiraos father and two uncles served as florists under the last of the Peshwas, they came tobe known as Phules. Jotiraos mother passed away when he was hardly one year old. Aftercompleting his primary education, Jotirao had to leave the school and help his father byworking on the familys farm. Jotiraos marriage was celebrated when he was not eventhirteen. Impressed by Jotiraos intelligence and his love for knowledge, two of hisneighbours, one a Muslim teacher and another a Christian gentleman persuaded his fatherGovindrao to allow him to study in a secondary school. In 1841, Jotirao got admission in theScottish Missions High School at Poona.An incident in 1848 made him aware of the qualities of the caste system, thepredominant position of the Brahmins in the social set up. He was invited to attend awedding of one of his Brahmin friends. As the bridegroom was taken in a procession, Jotiraoaccompanied him along with the relatives of his Brahmin friend. Knowing that Jotiraobelonged to the Mali caste which was considered to be inferior by the Brahmins, the relativesof the bridegroom insulted and abused him. Jotirao left the procession and returned home.With tears in his eyes, he narrated his experience to his father who tried to pacify him. Afterthis incident Jotirao made up his mind to defy the caste-system and serve the Shudras andwomen who were deprived of all their rights as human beings under the caste-system.
HIS GREAT CONTRUBITION TO SOCIETYGIRLS AND LOWER CASTE EDUCATION INITIATIVE:Education of women and the lower caste, he believed, deserved priority. Hence athome he began educating his wife Savitribai and open girls school in August 1848. Theorthodox opponents of Jotirao were furious and they started a vicious campaign against him.He refused to be unnerved by their malicious propaganda. As no teacher dared to work in aschool in which untouchables were admitted as students, Jotirao asked his wife to teach thegirls in his school. Stones and brickbats were thrown at her when she was on her way to theschool. The reactionaries threatened Jotiraos father with dire consequences if he did notdissociate himself from his sons activities. Yielding to the pressure, Jotiraos father askedhis son and the daughter-in-law to leave his house as both of them refused to give up theirnoble endeavour.Though the school had to be closed for sometime due to lack of funds, Jotirao re-opened it with the help of his Brahmin friends -Govande and Valvekar. On 3rd July, 1851, hefounded a girls school in which eight girls were admitted on the first day. Steadily thenumber of students increased. Savitribai taught in this school also and had to suffer a lotbecause of the hostility of the orthodox people. Jotirao opened two more girls schools during1851-52. In a memorial addressed to the Education Commission (popularly known as theHunter Commission) in 1882, he described his activities in the field of education - A yearafter the institution of the female school I also established an indigenous mixed school forthe lower classes, especially the Mahars and Mangs. Two more schools for these weresubsequently added. I continued to work and whereas them for nearly nine to ten years.Empathy―Effective leaders walk in another‘s shoes to create genuine empathy: the ability tounderstand experience from the other person‘s perspective. Followers need to know theleader can relate to their feelings, concerns, and desires…‖―Skillful walking in another‘s shoes means showing people you truly know them at theirlevel and can relate to the events of their lives. The best leaders walk in another‘s shoes to
demonstrate by behavior and to communicate in words that the other‘s feelings and beliefsare important and valid‖.―Studies from the Center for Creative leadership reveal that successful executivesderailed because of insensitivity and inability to understand him perspectives of otherpeople.――They undervalued the contributions of others, making them feel inadequate. Theylistened poorly, acted dictatorially, played favorites, and failed to give—or sometimes evenshare—credit with others…‖Jotirao was aware that primary education among the masses in the BombayPresidency was very much neglected. He argued that a good deal of their poverty, theirwant of self-reliance, their entire dependence upon the learned and intelligent classes couldbe attributed to the deplorable state of education among the peasantry. He blamed theBritish Government for spending profusely a large portion of revenue on the education of thehigher classes. According to him, this policy resulted in the virtual monopoly of all the higheroffices under the Government by the Brahmins.Jotirao boldly attacked the stranglehold of the Brahmins, who prevented other fromhaving access to all the avenues of knowledge and influence. He denounced them as cheatsand hypocrites. He asked the masses to resist the tyranny of the Brahmins. All his writingswere variations on this theme. His critics made fun of his ignorance of grammar andphilology, his inelegant language and far-fetched interpretations of India history and theancient texts. They brushed his criticism aside by saying that he was merely echoing whatthe Christian missionaries had said about the Indian society in general and Brahmins inparticular. The established scholars in his time did not take Phules arguments seriously. Hiscritics did not realise that Jotiraos acrimonious criticism was basically a spontaneousoutburst of a genuine concern for the equal rights of human beings. Emotionally he was sodeeply involved in his work that he could not make a dispassionate analysis and take adetached view of the social forces. Jotiraos deep sense of commitment to basic humanvalues made it difficult for his to restrain himself when he witnessed injustice and atrocitiescommitted in the name of religion by those who were supposed to be its custodians.
WIDOW Re-MARRIAGE:Widow remarriages were banned and child-marriage was very common among theBrahmins and other upper castes in the then Hindu society. Many widows were young andnot all of them could live in a manner in which the orthodox people expected them to live.Some of the delinquent widows resorted to abortion or left their illegitimate children to theirfate by leaving them on the streets. Out of pity for the orphans, Jotirao Phule established anorphanage, possibly the first such institution founded by a Hindu. Jotirao gave protection topregnant widows and assured them that the orphanage would take care of their children. Itwas in this orphanage run by Jotirao that a Brahmin widow gave birth to a boy in 1873 andJotirao adopted him as his son.Mahatma Phule vehemently advocated widow-remarriage and even got a home builtfor housing upper caste widows during 1854. In order to set an example before the people,he opened his own house and let all make use of the well water without any prejudice.Similarly, he started the infanticide prevention centre (‗Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha‘) forinfants born to hapless widows because of their deviant behaviour or exploitation.SATYA SHODHAK SAMAJOn 24th September, 1873, Jotirao convened a meeting of his followers and admirersand it was decided to form the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) withJotirao as its first president and treasurer. Every member had to take a pledge of loyalty tothe British Empire. The main objectives of the organisation were to liberate the Shudras andAti Shudras and to prevent their exploitation by the Brahmins. All the members of the SatyaShodhak Samaj were expected to treat all human beings as children of God and worship theCreator without the help of any mediator. The membership was open to all and the availableevidence proves that some Jews were admitted as members. In 1876 there were 316members of the Satya Shodhak Samaj. While condemning the prevalent religion, Phuleestablished Satya shodhak Samaj with the ideals of human well being in broader aspects,human happiness, unity, equality, and easy religious principles and rituals.When Phule established the SatyaShodhak Samaj, Savitribai became the head of thewomens section which included ninety female members. Moreover, she worked tirelessly asa school teacher for girls. Deenbandhu publication, the mouthpiece of the Satya ShodhakSamaj, played an important role in Satya Shodhak Samaj‘s movement. After Jotibas deathin 1890 his spirited followers went on spreading the movement to the remotest parts of
Maharashtra. Shahu Maharaj, the ruler of Kolhapur princely state, gave a lot of financial andmoral support to Satya Shodhak Samaj.SOCIAL ACTIVITIES:Jotirao travelled to various villages for mass – awakening and for the spread of themessage of the Satya shodhak Samaj.He initiated the strike by tenants against money lenders.He initiated and carried out various social movements.He initiated big awareness movement among farmers, in order to prevent the transfer oflands from farmers to money lenders.As a result of his speeches and activities, people in various villages boycotted the Bhatsand money lenders to protest against their injustice.Jotirao tried to stop a Devdasis so called marriage which was being conducted accordingto hollow rituals.He helped poor children by opening food centre during the famine in 1877.He encouraged and conducted widow re-marriages.Started the first Indian Workers organization – Bombay Mill Hands Association, with thehelp of Shri. Narayan Meghaji Lokhande ; Jotirao ceaselessly worked for this organization.He worked continuously for liberating women from bondage.While doing the work, he criticized the affluent in the society which included even hisfriends.He started a Maternity Home for helping the widows from higher castes, to deliver safelyand thus prevent infanticides.He initiated the strike of barbers , against the inhuman act of keshavapan - tonsuring theheads of widows.He imparted Education for improvements in agriculture.He initiated the following movements and missions -decreasing the hardships laid upon farmers, by the Forest Department.decreasing the exorbitant tax upon farmers.worked for improvements in agriculture.Submitted many request applications to the Government for –helping the farmers.making canals.decreasing the hardships faced by laborers in various factories.granting concessions to the laborers on humanitarian grounds.He understood the problems of the farmers by actually working and mingling with them .After understanding these problems, he wrote a book- Shetkaryacha Aasood (Cultivators
Whipcord). The contents of this book were read in various villages. This reading helped inrevising this book.Thus it is observed that to succeed in his Public and Social Work-He resorted to requests, applications, representations, letters etc.He resorted to movements, struggles, strikes against troublesome members of societysuch as – moneylenders, Bhats etc.
MAHATMA PHULE AS LEADERAs a leader we have to look on to how he leaded his team and which type of leaderMahatma Phule was. It is explained in two different types:TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER:1. Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission, gains respect and trust. He was avisionary and also a great motivator as he had shown the same vision to his wife andhis friend. He gained respect and trust among millions through his vision and deeds.He was equal to god and guru to many girls and women still today.2. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts,expresses important purposes in simple ways. He was very simple man and man ofhis own words. He never followed the inequality created by people. He consideredeveryone equal and son of god. He helped every ill-fated people he met in his life. Heinspired every followers by his deeds and ability to overcome barriers.3. Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problemsolving. As we have been seeing how he tactfully solved every problem he faced orevery difficulty he came with. He promoted the awareness of equal rights of women.He had done many deeds and managing such was his remarkable rationality.4. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employeeindividually, coaches, and advises. Whoever came to meet mahatma phule, he neveravoided people, he always considered them and met them personally, motivatedthem. He was away from the hierarchy of religions made by human from ages. Hetreated everyone equally.CHARISMATIC LEADER :1. Self Confidence- Savitribai Phule was a devoted wife of Mahatma Phule, she wasattacked by Opponents many a times when she had started school for girls andwomen. but her husbands‘ mahatma phule self-confidence was so great that inspiredSavitribai and kept her motivated all the time2. A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo.The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likelythat followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader.He had strong vision which can be summarized in two words: education and equality.
3. Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in termsthat are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding ofthe followers‘ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force.Mahatma phule had articulate his vision and clearly indicate it to society that what hewants to change for the society in terms of education and equality.4. Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as beingstrongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, andengage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.His strong dedication towards his vision shown his conviction about vision and hissuccess.5. Behaviour that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behaviourthat is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. Whensuccessful, these behaviours evoke surprise and admiration in followers.The medal of honour, mahatma alone is capable of showing the extraordinarinessJotirao Phule. He made radical changes in the perception of society, no one ever thoughtof allowing untouchables in the temples, giving them water and other food items butMahatma phule was a man of his principles, he came up with completely new way ofthinking.6. Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agentsof radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.The last few years of the nineteenth century in India were years of rapid changebrought about by social and religious movements. The leadership of thesemovements rested with Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, a thinker and a revolutionary activistcommitted to the common good7. Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments ofthe environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.Lack of education leads to lack of wisdom, which leads to lack of morals, which leadsto lack of progress, which leads to lack of money, which leads to the oppression ofthe lower classes. See what state of the society one lack of education can cause!)This poem is indicative of Mahatma Phule‘s keen observation and understanding ofthe social environment
LEADERSHIP QUALITIESA leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in terms that cause followers to buyinto it. He or she must communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious.A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his or her vision single-mindedly, aswell as to direct his or her actions and those of the team toward the goal. Action is the markof a leader. A leader does not suffer “analysis paralysis” but is always doing something inpursuit of the vision, inspiring others to do the same.Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is thesame on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or shenever veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader musthave the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity.Honest dealings, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotions, and an absence of tantrumsand harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will bemore approachable by followers.Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task athand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the nextstep toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that thereare no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great.Magnanimity means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that creditfor successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a goodleader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps otherpeople feel good about themselves and draws the team closer together. To spread the fameand take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership.Humility Leaders who recognize that they are no better or worse than other members of theteam. A humble leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders withhumility also understand that their status does not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is arole model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a “follower-centric” leadership role.Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usualway of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others’ ideas,as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness buildsmutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team wellsupplied with new ideas that can further its vision.Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrainssolutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus
lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, “Whatif … ?” Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is, “I know this is a dumb question ... ”Fairness means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the factsand hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusionsbased on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, theyreward a leader with loyalty and dedication.Assertiveness is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state whatone expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get thedesired results. Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand whatfollowers expect from their leader.