2012 Talent Shortage Survey


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ManpowerGroup surveyed nearly 40,000 employers in 41 countries and territories in 2012 to gauge the impact of talent shortages on the global labor market. The seventh annual survey also explored what impact talent challenges are having on their organizations and what they are doing to mitigate the situation.
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2012 Talent Shortage Survey

  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYDespite the continuing caution exercised by many developing candidates with potential becomes theorganizations amid ongoing economic uncertainty, a norm rather than the exception.substantial proportion of employers around the globe The Talent Shortage research results for 2012 areidentify a lack of available skilled talent as a continuing similar in many ways to the 2011 results. However,drag on business performance. ManpowerGroup’s 2012 the world is a much different place than it was oneTalent Shortage Survey, the seventh in the annual series, year ago, and there are several notable differences.explores the extent to which employers in the world’s To begin with, skilled trades workers are once againleading economies are having difficulty filling talent; identified as the most difficult position to fill globallywhat jobs are most difficult to fill and why; concern over after slipping to the third spot in 2011.stakeholder impact; and what strategies employers arepursuing to overcome the talent shortage. The most surprising response, however, involves the percentage of employers who indicate unfilledIn this year’s research, over a third of the employers positions are expected to have little or no impact onwe surveyed told us they were unable to find the key constituents, such as customers and investors;talent their organizations need. That so many this proportion has grown considerably—from 36%employers continue to identify talent shortages as in 2011 to 56% in 2012.a barrier to their business goals defies prevailinglogic, especially when viewed against the high levels The reason behind this shift in perceived impact isof unemployment in many economies—particularly puzzling. However, this finding could be revealingamong young adults. However, we asked a new normal. For example, employers wereemployers to identify why they were experiencing understandably cautious in the aftermath of theproblems filling positions in their organizations. recession, and responded to declining revenuesOverwhelmingly, a lack of available candidates with by allocating their resources—both financialthe right technical expertise and employability skills and human—cautiously. And although manycontinues to vex employers. organizations have emerged from the challenges of the recession operating at new levels ofThis talent mismatch will continue to challenge efficiency, they evidently remain reluctant to addemployers. In the Human Age, companies will employees at greater expense, or without proofhave to navigate the continued growth of emerging that additional talent will provide long-term benefits.markets, globalization, and the expanded use of This is, in part, why hiring has not kept pace withincreasingly sophisticated and rapidly changing the overall economic recovery—organizationstechnologies. Emerging trends put unprecedented have become more comfortable and adept atvalue on talent as the driver of business success. conducting business in an uncertain environmentThis will only increase the competition for proven, where systematic shortages of talent persist. Theytalented employees with skills employers need. are increasingly utilizing contingent workers toFurthermore, individuals with in-demand skills introduce more flexibility to their workforce to dealwill become more selective as they evaluate their with see-sawing demand. Since they believe theemployment options, compelling companies to talent challenges will persist, rather than focus ondevelop better recruitment and retention strategies. solving complex talent management issues, they areSimilarly, this lack of talent will force organizations to instead focusing on other areas of the business foradopt a new mindset regarding talent development, competitive advantage. However, for those companieswhere upskilling their existing employees and that maintain a longer-term view and realize that their2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 2
  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYtalent will differentiate them from their competitors, Other highlights from this year’s survey include:they will likely gain a major competitive advantage over • Worldwide, talent shortages are most acute inthose who choose to put talent management on the the Asia Pacific region, with particular difficultiesback burner. As we have only been tracking “impact” faced by employers in Japan, where an agingin the research for two years, only time will tell if workforce is exacerbating the issue. Among aconfidence operating with systematic talent shortages subset of this region’s employers who are mostis truly the new norm in business. concerned about inadequate talent supply,Nonetheless, failure to understand the impact unfilled soft skills deficits among IT and Engineeringpositions can have on the client experience and candidates are a current challenge.stakeholders, (and remember that an organization’s • Skilled trades positions are currently the mostemployees should be counted among this group) is difficult to fill in Europe, the Middle East anda monumental mistake. Organizations cannot remain Africa (EMEA), while employers in the Americasin denial about the long-term impact of talent on find engineering posts the hardest to fill. For thetheir businesses. Leaving positions unfilled may be a sixth consecutive year, Asia Pacific employersshort-term solution that organizations feel they can name the sales representative category as theendure at present and one that will boost the balance most challenging role to fill.sheet, however, as the shortage of specific skill sets • Despite the ongoing level of talent shortages,becomes even more acute, it is also a short-sighted, compared to last year employers expressunsustainable approach to addressing talent shortages notably less concern about the impactin the Human Age. shortages have on key stakeholders such asSigns that talent shortages are here to stay also customers and investors. This surprising findinghighlight a key difference between the 2011 and may represent a new normal.2012 surveys. In 2011, only 24% of employers • Environmental and organizational factors arenamed the “Lack of available applicants/no important concerns for all businesses sufferingapplicants” as the most common reason for from talent gaps, regardless of where thedifficulty filling jobs. In 2012, that percentage shortage lies. The top reason employers sayjumped to 33%. An equal percentage named “Lack they can’t fill roles is simply an overall lackof technical competencies/hard skills”—in particular of applicants; the second is the candidate-the lack of industry-specific qualifications in both based factor that applicants lack the technicalprofessional and skilled trades categories—up from competencies, or hard skills, required for the role.22% in 2011. Environmental factors, such as thislack of available applicants, may force organizations • Employers are becoming slightly more proactiveto counter Human Age trends with proactive, about closing skills gaps—more employers seekinnovative and flexible workforce management to address talent shortages by providing trainingstrategies. These strategies are likely to include and development for existing Staff than wasfocusing on the skills development of existing Staff. the case in 2011, particularly among employersIn fact, the 2012 research indicates that a growing saying that talent shortages are having a highpercentage of employers are addressing their talent impact on their businesses.shortages by upskilling current Staff and promoting • More organizations are adoptingStaff who demonstrate the potential to grow and ManpowerGroup’s “teachable fit” approach bydevelop, particularly among those employers who hiring individuals without all of the prerequisitereport that talent shortages are having a high job skills, but who have the potential to learnimpact on their businesses. and grow into the specific job role.2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 3
  4. 4. GLOBALGLOBALFor the 2012 Talent Shortage Survey, ManpowerGroup than in EMEA. The highest proportion of employersresearched the views of more than 38,000 employers in reporting difficulty filing jobs is in Japan where 81%41 countries and territories. This is the seventh annual indicate that this is an issue. Notable shortagessurvey exploring the impact of talent shortages on the are also reported in other Asia Pacific markets,global labor market and how employers are responding including Australia (50%), India (48%) and Newto the challenges raised by the lack of available talent Zealand (48%). In the Americas, the most urgentin specific job categories. A total of 38,077 interviews talent shortage is reported in Brazil, where 71% ofwere conducted by phone with employers in three employers identify difficulty sourcing employees withregions during Quarter 1 2012, including 10,232 in the the relevant profile. In the U.S., 49% of employersAmericas, 8,786 in Asia Pacific and 19,059 in Europe, report difficulties filling jobs. In EMEA, meanwhile,the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). talent shortages are perceived as a less critical issue; recovery has yet to fuel meaningful employerDIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS hiring intentions, with the proportion of employersAgainst the backdrop of the slow-paced recovery in reporting difficulty filling jobs falling below the globalthe global economy, around one in three employers average in 15 of the 23 EMEA countries. (Figure(34%) continue to experience difficulties filling 2) Yet, even in Greece where the debt crisis hasvacancies due to lack of available talent. The severely shaken employer confidence, nearly oneproportion is unchanged when compared with out of four employers tells us they have difficulty2011, and is four percentage points above the sourcing talent to fill vacant roles.level reported in 2009, at the height of the global The percentage of employers reporting difficultiesfinancial crisis. (Figure 1) While the percentage has filling specific job roles remains relatively consistentnot reached pre-crisis levels, results show a gradual over time among some of the world’s leadingtightening of the global labor market. economies. For example, in Japan, the proportionTalent supply and demand issues are generally more has remained between 76% and 81% in each of theacute in the Asia Pacific and the Americas regions past three years, while in the UK the proportion has Figure 1 GLOBAL: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS 80% 60% 40% 41% 31% 31% 34% 34% 40% 30% 20% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 20122012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 4
  5. 5. GLOBAL Figure 2 % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS 81% 71% 51% 50% 49% 48% 48% 47% 47% 45% 45% 43% 42% 41% 41% 40% 37% 37% 36% 36% 36% 35% 35% 34% 34% 33% 29% 28% 27% 26% 25% 24% 23% 22% 17% 14% 14% 11% 10% 9% 7% 2% Japan Brazil Bulgaria Australia U.S. India New Zealand Taiwan Panama Romania Argentina Mexico Germany Turkey Peru Austria Singapore Poland Guatemala Sweden Israel Hong Kong Costa Rica Global Average Hungary Colombia France Switzerland Belgium Slovenia Canada Greece China Norway Slovakia Italy Czech Republic UK South Africa Spain Netherlands Irelandranged from 9% to 15%. Elsewhere, however, there has resulted in the decline of vocational/technicalis notably more volatility, particularly in India, where programs—both curricula and enrollments havethe proportion increased from 16% to 67% between eroded over the past several decades. In addition,2010 and 2011 only to fall back to 48% in 2012. with fewer new workers to offset current retirementsOnly in France does the survey reveal a noteworthy in the skilled trades, many economies will faceincrease in the number of employers struggling to continued shortages in the future.find appropriate talent with the proportion increasingfrom 20% to 29%. Conversely, beleaguered Italian The second most in-demand category isemployers report a considerably less pressing talent engineering Staff which rises from fourth place inshortage, with the proportion declining from 29% in 2011. Mechanical, electrical and civil engineers are2011 to 14% this year. (Figure 3) most often identified in short supply by employers. This finding continues to highlight the lack ofMOST DIFFICULT POSITIONS TO FILL focus on developing STEM (science, technology,At a global level, vacancies for skilled trades engineering and math) skills in many economiesworkers top the list of the most difficult positions to around the world. Similar to the situation in thefill. Skilled trades Staff topped the list from 2008 to skilled trades, demand is simply outstripping supply.2010, were displaced to third position in 2011, but Sales representatives are the third most soughtreturned to the top in 2012. This should come as no after category (down from second in 2011) and thesurprise. As educational systems around the world role’s continued presence in the top 10 is a resulthave focused on four-year university education, this of companies continuing to seek out experienced2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 5
  6. 6. GLOBAL Figure 3 MOVEMENT ACROSS THE LARGEST GLOBAL ECONOMIES 81% 80% 76% 67% 52% 2010 2011 2012 49% 48% 42% 40% 40% 31% 29% 29% 29% 29% 25% 24% 23% 23% 21% 20% 16% 15% 14% 14% 11% 9% Japan U.S. India Germany France Canada China Italy UKsales people who can help drive revenue growth. widespread they do not statistically surface to theSales representatives are followed by technicians top of the list.in fourth place (down from the top spot in 2011). IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERSIT Staff roles are evidently more of a challenge foremployers to source this year, with this type of All employers who indicated they face talentemployee now ranked fifth, up from eighth in 2011. shortages, and identified a specific talent categoryNew technology trends, such as cloud computing, as the most difficult to fill, were asked how failure to fill these vacancies would likely affect keywill continue to present a challenge for employers constituents such as customers and investors.as they seek to keep the latest IT skills in their Overall, 13% of employers worldwide believeworkforce. (Figure 4) that unfilled vacancies have a high impact onEmployers also report increasing demand for stakeholders, and a further 29% think there is aaccounting and finance Staff and professional medium impact. However, the majority of employersdrivers, with candidates in both categories moving feel there is little (31%) or no impact (25%).up the list year-over-year, while the eighth and When compared with 2011, employers are notablyninth-placed categories—management/executives less concerned about how unfilled vacancies willand laborers—both slip down the rankings. As in impact customers and other stakeholders. Last2011, secretarial, administrative and support Staff year, a clear majority said this had a medium or highplace tenth in the rankings. It is important to note impact (57%) compared to just over two-fifths thisthat just because a particular role did not make year (42%). (Figure 5)employers’ top 10 most difficult-to-fill list it does notmean that those jobs are not in demand. Specific There could be a reason for this drastic change.industry sectors may have niche talent shortages Having been tested by the latest recession,that are very acute, but because they are less organizations have become more comfortable2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 6
  7. 7. GLOBAL Figure 4 GLOBAL: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING 1 | Skilled Trades Workers 6 | Accounting & Finance Staff 2 | Engineers 7 | Drivers 3 | Sales Representatives 8 | Management/Executives 4 | Technicians 9 | Laborers Secretaries, PAs, 5 | IT Staff 10 | Administrative Assistants & Office Support Staff Figure 5 GLOBAL: IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS 2012 2011 13% High impact 20% 29% Medium impact 37% Low impact 31% 25% 25% No impact 11% 2% Don’t know 7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%and adept at conducting business in an uncertain issues, they are instead focusing on other areasenvironment where systematic shortages of talent of the business for competitive advantage. Otherpersist. They are increasingly utilizing contingent ManpowerGroup research suggests that manyworkers to introduce more flexibility to their employers still have the attitude that talent isworkforce to deal with see-sawing demand. Since plentiful and can be “bought” wherever andthey believe the talent challenges will persist, rather whenever it is needed. This attitude could also bethan focus on solving complex talent management coloring employers’ perception regarding the impact2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 7
  8. 8. GLOBALof talent supply on their businesses. Only time will The second key reason employers give to explaintell whether the data is revealing a new normal their difficulty sourcing qualified candidates is aregarding how employers perceive the impact of lack of technical competencies in the workforce.talent shortages. This is an issue for 36% in the Americas, 34% in EMEA and 29% in Asia Pacific. This challengeREASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS comprises a number of different factors whichEmployers cite a variety of causes behind their summarize an overall definition of “hard skills.”inability to fill jobs, ranging from undesirable Typically, employers are referring to a shortage ofgeographic locations, to candidates looking for candidates with industry-specific qualifications, bothmore pay than employers were offering. However, for professional roles (16%) and skilled trades rolesour research reveals one of the two most frequently (11%). The category also includes other specificreported reasons why employers say they have hard skills ranging from the ability to speak a foreigndifficulty filling vacancies is a simple lack of language to IT capabilities and machine-operationavailable applicants in their local labor market. This skills. (Figure 7) In fact, analysis of the subset ofstructural market issue is more common in the employers saying that talent shortages are havingAmericas (36%) and Asia Pacific (35%), but is also a high impact on their businesses reveals that thea significant issue in EMEA (30%). In each region, lack of hard skills in IT and engineering candidatesparticular countries stand out for lack of available is their biggest concern.applicants. The biggest applicant shortage in the One in four employers (24%) globally says lack ofAmericas region is in the U.S., where 55% say this experience in general is an underlying reason foris a factor, while in Asia Pacific, employers in New the talent shortages they face, with employers inZealand (50%) and Taiwan (46%) report the most the U.S. (44%), Turkey (43%), Hungary (43%) anddifficulty. The most pressing candidate shortage in Brazil (40%) most often citing this issue. AnotherEMEA is reported by employers in Austria (67%) 18% select categories classified as employabilityand Switzerland (62%). (Figure 6) skills or soft skills gaps where candidates are felt Figure 6 GLOBAL: REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS Lack of available applicants/ no applicants 33% Lack of technical competencies (hard skills) 33% Lack of experience 24% Lack of employability skills (soft skills) 18% Looking for more pay than is offered 13% Candidate unwilling to work ‘part-time’/‘contingent’ roles 4% Undesirable geographic location 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 8
  9. 9. GLOBAL Figure 7 GLOBAL: TECHNICAL SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (HARD SKILLS) Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—professional 16% Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—skilled trades 11% Operating mechanical/ industrial equipment 3% Computer/IT skills 3% Speaking/verbal skills 3% Foreign language 3% 0% 10% 20% Figure 8 GLOBAL: EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (SOFT SKILLS) Interpersonal skills 6% Enthusiasm/motivation 6% Collaboration/team work 4% Professionalism (e.g. personal appearance, punctuality) 4% Flexibility/adaptability/agility 4% Ability to deal with ambiguity/ complexity 3% Attention to detail 3% Problem solving & decision making 3% 0% 10% 20%to be lacking. These soft skills deficiencies are most additional training for current Staff and boostingprevalent in the Asian countries of Japan (70%) and compensation, to partnering with educationalTaiwan (67%). Among the most commonly identified institutions to provide candidates with the essentialsoft skills employers found lacking are interpersonal skills that organizations cannot impart on theirskills and enthusiasm/motivation. (Figure 8) own. But their responses clearly point to a need for solutions that help them close specific skills gapsOVERCOMING TALENT SHORTAGES that handicap efforts to drive their organizationsEmployers were asked what strategies they are forward. In addition, the percentage of employersimplementing to overcome the difficulty of filling adopting the top three strategies to overcome talentjobs. Responses vary widely, from providing strategies all increased from last year and suggests2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 9
  10. 10. GLOBALthat more companies are now feeling enough pain particularly challenging, particularly in Hungaryto begin doing something about it. (38%), the U.S. (37%), Italy (30%) and Japan (27%). A further 8% offer increased starting salaries toOne in four employers (25%) actively provide further attract candidates. This “pay more” approach istraining to existing team members, a proportion being implemented most often in China (27%),which increases from 21% in 2011. Countries with the U.S. and Panama (16%) and Slovakia (15%).the highest incidence of boosting training efforts Three further strategies are each indicated by 7%include Mexico (49%), Turkey (48%), Peru (48%) of employers: offering enhanced benefits packagesand Brazil (46%). The second most common including a sign-on bonus; increasing the focusstrategy to address the talent shortage is expanding on improving the organization’s talent pipeline; and partnering with educational institutions tothe candidate search outside the immediate region create a curriculum more closely aligned with their(12%); employers in the United States (28%), organization’s talent needs. (Figure 9)Taiwan (23%) and Spain (21%) most often employthis strategy. Ranking third is appointing people An analysis of the subset of companies feelingwho do not currently have the skills for the role, the greatest impact from talent gaps indicatesbut show potential to learn and grow (12%). This that these are the companies doing the most toapproach of finding individuals who are a “teachable close those gaps. Compared to the norm, thesefit” is most common in the United States (36%), organizations are prioritizing the development ofTaiwan (31%), South Africa (30%) and Bulgaria skills in-house and focusing on retaining employees(26%). Almost one in ten (9%) employers focus in positions where recruitment is difficult, rather thanon Staff retention in roles where recruitment is focusing on external recruitment. Figure 9 GLOBAL: STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO OVERCOME THE TALENT SHORTAGE Providing additional training and development to existing Staff 25% Broadening search outside of local region 12% Appointing people without job skills currently, but do have 12% potential to learn/grow Focusing more on Staff retention in jobs where recruitment is difficult 9% Increasing starting salaries 8% Enhancing benefits packages, including signing bonus 7% Increasing the focus on improving pipeline 7% Partnering with educational institutions to create curriculum 7% aligned to talent needs 0% 10% 20% 30%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 10
  11. 11. AMERICASAMERICASManpowerGroup surveyed 10,232 employers in filling vacancies in seven of the 10 countries. Thethe Americas region, covering Argentina, Brazil, proportion of Peruvian employers reporting hiringCanada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, difficulties increases by 31 percentage points,Panama, Peru and the U.S., during Quarter 1 2012. and increases of 14 and 11 percentage points are reported by Brazilian and PanamanianDIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS employers, respectively.Finding the right candidates to fill job vacanciesis becoming increasingly difficult, according to MOST DIFFICULT POSITIONS TO FILLemployers in the Americas. This year, 41% report For the first time in the series of seven annual Talentthis kind of difficulty, up from 37% in 2011 and Shortage Surveys, employers in the Americas report34% in 2010. Indeed, the proportion reporting engineering roles are the most difficult to fill acrosshiring difficulties is at its highest since 2007, before the region. The engineering category moves intothe credit crunch and the weaker economy led the top spot having been ranked fourth in 2011.to diminished employer hiring demand. Overall, While the role does not top the list in any country,employers in the Americas report greater levels of it ranks second in Argentina, Canada, Costa Ricadifficulty in filling jobs than their global counterparts and the U.S. The technician category was regardedwith those in eight of 10 countries reporting greater by employers across the region as the most difficultdifficulty in filling jobs than the global mean (34%). to fill each year from 2008 to 2011, but is now(Figure 10) ranked second. This year, the technician role tops employers’ most-wanted lists in Argentina, Brazil,The most acute shortages are reported in Brazil, Colombia and Guatemala. (Figure 11)where 71% of employers face this issue, followedby the U.S. (49%) and Panama (47%). Meanwhile, According to employers in the Americas, particularlytalent shortages are somewhat less pressing in those in Costa Rica, sales representatives areboth Canada (25%) and Colombia (33%). Year- the third most difficult-to-fill skills category, downover-year, employers report greater difficulty from second in 2011. Similarly, skilled trades Figure 10 AMERICAS: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS 80% 62% 60% 70% 40% 41% 41% 36% 34% 37% 40% 31% 20% 30% 31% 34% 34% 28% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 20122012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 11
  12. 12. AMERICAS Figure 11 AMERICAS: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING Secretaries, PAs, 1 | Engineers 6 | Administrative Assistants & Office Support Staff 2 | Technicians 7 | Accounting & Finance Staff 3 | Sales Representatives 8 | Drivers 4 | Skilled Trades Workers 9 | IT Staff 5 | Production Operators 10 | Laborers Figure 12 AMERICAS: IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS 2012 2011 13% High impact 24% 28% Medium impact 37% Low impact 42% 31% 16% No impact 7% 1% Don’t know 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%workers rank fourth, down from third last year, ninth to seventh; and IT Staff places ninth, enteringand according to employers they still are the the top 10 for the first time.most difficult-to-fill roles in Canada and the U.S. IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERSProduction operators are the fifth most difficult Despite the rising incidence of employers in thehiring target, up two places on 2011. Two other Americas reporting difficulties filling vacancies, theycategories move up in the rankings in 2012: the appear to be less anxious about the impact talentaccounting and finance skills category rises from shortages have on key stakeholders such as customers2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 12
  13. 13. AMERICASand investors. Overall, 41% feel the talent shortage is REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBShaving a high or medium impact, compared to 61% When asked to explain what lies behind the talentin 2011. Correspondingly, the proportion feeling there shortages in their local labor markets, more thanwill be low impact is up from 31% to 42%, and the a third of employers in the Americas cite theproportion who believe talent shortages bear no impact overall lack of available applicants. The shortageincreases from 7% to 16%. (Figure 12) Regionally, of applicants is most often identified by employersemployers in Brazil (59%) and Argentina (47%) fear in the U.S. (55%), Peru (42%) and Canada (41%).the greatest impact to stakeholders. Conversely, Even in Mexico, with the lowest regional proportionemployers who are least concerned about impact of employers reporting a shortage of applicants,to stakeholders—citing low or no impact—are in 22% say the lack of available applicants is aMexico (67%) and Canada (63%). problem. (Figure 13) Figure 13 AMERICAS: REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS Lack of available applicants/ no applicants 36% Lack of technical competencies (hard skills) 36% Lack of experience 31% Looking for more pay than is offered 19% Lack of employability skills (soft skills) 15% Candidate unwilling to work ‘part-time’/‘contingent’ roles 8% Overqualified candidates 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Figure 14 AMERICAS: TECHNICAL SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (HARD SKILLS) Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—professional 19% Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—skilled trades 10% Operating mechanical/ industrial equipment 4% Computer/IT skills 4% Foreign language 3% 0% 10% 20% 30%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 13
  14. 14. AMERICASThe second-most cited reason underlying the percentage of all the countries in the region. Aregion’s talent shortage is the candidates’ lack of further 19% report that they struggle to fill rolestechnical competencies, otherwise known as “hard because applicants are expecting higher payskills.” Within this overall category, employers are rates than those offered. The pay issue is mostmost likely to be referring to a lack of industry- pronounced in U.S. where over half of employersspecific professional qualifications (19%) and a lack indicate that inadequate compensation makesof relevant skilled trades qualifications (10%). it difficult to land candidates. This suggests(Figure 14) This issue is most pervasive in Brazil employers may need to consider paying more to(56%) and Argentina (46%) and points to the need attract the talent they need. In addition, 15% ofto have focused programs that help individuals gain employers report that applicants lack “soft skills” orthese certifications. employability skills, such as enthusiasm/motivationHowever, analysis of the subset of employers in the (5%) and professionalism (5%). (Figure 15)Americas saying that talent shortages are having a OVERCOMING THE TALENT SHORTAGEhigh impact on their businesses reveals lack of hard The most common strategy implemented byskills is a particular problem for those organizations employers in the Americas to address talentseeking IT Staff. Similarly challenging is the level of shortages is additional training and developmentpay being sought by IT candidates. for existing Staff. The proportion that adopts thisOverall lack of experience among candidates is a approach stands at 37%, up from 32% in 2011,factor cited by 31% of employers in the Americas, and considerably more than the global average ofwith those in the U.S. (44%) reporting the highest 25%. Mexican (49%) and Peruvian (48%) employers Figure 15 AMERICAS: EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (SOFT SKILLS) Enthusiasm/motivation 5% Professionalism (e.g. personal appearance, punctuality) 5% Interpersonal skills 4% Attention to detail 4% Collaboration/team work 3% Flexibility/adaptability/agility 3% Ability to deal with ambiguity/ 3% complexity Problem solving & decision making 3% Learning mindset/Intellectual curiosity 3% Critical/analytical thinking 3% 0% 10% 20%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 14
  15. 15. AMERICASare most likely to boost training investments in particularly by employers in the U.S. (28%) andexisting Staff to help fill vacancies. On the other Mexico (14%). Meanwhile, focusing more on Staffhand, U.S. employers are least likely to employ retention in roles that correspond to the more acutethis tactic compared to their counterparts in the talent shortage issues (13%) is also a commonregion. Other common strategies include appointing strategy, and used most often in the U.S. (37%) andpeople who don’t currently have the requisite job Panama (14%). Around one in ten (11%) employersskills but have the potential to grow (18%), most offer increased starting salaries and/or partner withoften used by U.S. (36%), Mexican (22%) and Costa educational institutions to develop a curriculumRican (22%) employers. Broadening the candidate more in line with their organizations’ identified skillssearch beyond the local region (14%) is also used, needs (10%). (Figure 16) Figure 16 AMERICAS: STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO OVERCOME THE TALENT SHORTAGE Providing additional training and development to existing Staff 37% Appointing people without job skills currently, but do have 18% potential to learn/grow Broadening search outside of local region 14% Focusing more on Staff retention in jobs where recruitment is difficult 13% Increasing starting salaries 11% Partnering with educational institutions to create curriculum 10% aligned to talent needs Enhancing benefits packages, including signing bonus 8% Increasing the focus on improving pipeline 8% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 15
  16. 16. ASIA PACIFICASIA PACIFICThe 2012 Talent Shortage Survey includes the consecutive year, Japan is ranked at the top of allviews of 8,786 employers in the Asia Pacific region. participating countries and territories, with 81%The survey was carried out in eight countries and of employers reporting talent shortages. Australiaterritories–Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, is fourth, with 50% of employers reporting talentJapan, New Zealand, Singapore and Taiwan. shortages, followed by those in India and New Zealand tied in sixth place at 48%. Taiwan is closeDIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS behind in the top 10, with 47% reporting talentTalent shortages continue to be a problem for almost shortages. When compared with the previoushalf of employers in Asia Pacific. As in 2011, 45% year, the most striking decline in the proportion ofsay they experience difficulty filling jobs, indicating employers reporting hiring challenges is in India,that the post-recession hiring climate remains an where the figure is 19 percentage points lower—ongoing challenge from an employer perspective. perhaps the result of weaker demand for ITeSWhen compared with the first in the series of services from Europe—while the most notableseven annual surveys back in 2006, the proportion increase of 4 percentage points is reported byexperiencing hiring difficulties has increased by a employers in New Zealand.considerable margin of 17 percentage points. Theproportion of employers reporting difficulty sourcing MOST DIFFICULT POSITIONS TO FILLthe talent they need is also 11 percentage points Sales representative positions continue to be theabove the global average (34%). (Figure 17) most difficult-to-fill job roles in Asia Pacific: theAsia Pacific countries and territories occupy five category has now topped the rankings in each ofof the top 10 places when all 41 countries and the seven years that the Talent Shortage Surveyterritories that participate in the survey are ranked has been carried out. The role tops the list in bothby the percentage of those employers who report Hong Kong and Taiwan. This is due in part to thedifficulty recruiting the right people. For the second continued expansion of multinational brands in the Figure 17 ASIA PACIFIC: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS 60% 45% 45% 40% 41% 41% 40% 31% 32% 33% 34% 34% 31% 30% 31% 20% 28% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GLOBAL ASIA PACIFIC2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 16
  17. 17. ASIA PACIFIC Figure 18 ASIA PACIFIC: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING 1 | Sales Representatives 6 | Accounting & Finance Staff 2 | Engineers 7 | Management/Executives 3 | Technicians 8 | Laborers 4 | Skilled Trades Workers 9 | Researchers (R&D) Marketing & Public 5 | IT Staff 10 | Relations Staffregion, which require sales talent to support their vacancies can have a high or medium impact ongrowing footprint. Engineering roles are the second stakeholders such as customers and investors.most difficult jobs to fill, particularly in Japan and While this proportion is down slightly from 2011New Zealand, with this skills category moving up the (54%) it remains higher than that reported byrankings from fourth in 2011. Third on the regional employers in the other two regions. However, therelist is the technicians category, down from second in is also a notable rise in the proportion of employers2011 and the most difficult-to-fill job in China. Ranking who feel talent shortages have a low impact (upfourth, skilled trades workers continue to be in great from 22% to 30%) and the percentage saying itdemand, particularly in Australia. Skilled trades roles has no impact (up from 10% to 18%). (Figure 19)move up five places from ninth in 2011. (Figure 18) Countries in the region that are most concerned about talent shortages impacting stakeholders areThe fifth-placed job category in 2012 is IT Staff, Japan (84%), Hong Kong (68%) and Singaporeup from seventh last year. It should be no surprise (65%). Conversely, Taiwanese (71%) and Indianthat IT Staff tops the list in India, as employers in (60%) employers are least likely to believe that talentthe Indian ITeS sector continue to seek qualified shortages will impact their stakeholders.Staff to meet business objectives. Meanwhile,accounting and finance Staff slip back from fifth to REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBSsixth. Ranked seventh, the management/executives Lack of available applicants is the top reasonskills category moves up one place from 2011, employers give to explain why certain job titleswhile the laborer category slips considerably, down remain so difficult to fill. More than one in three (35%)from third in 2011 to eighth this year. The shortage report this as the primary source of the talentof researcher (R&D) applicants appears to be shortages they face. The perceived lack of applicantsless of an issue in 2012, with the skills category is most acute in New Zealand (50%), Taiwan (46%)slipping down the rankings from sixth to ninth. In and Australia (42%). Meanwhile, a complete lack oftenth place, the marketing & public relations Staff candidates is less likely to be a concern for employerscategory makes its first appearance in the top ten. in China (13%) and India (17%). (Figure 20)IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS The second key reason jobs are hard to fill,Approximately half the employers surveyed in the according to Asia Pacific employers, is related toAsia Pacific region (49%) believe the inability to fill shortages of hard skills, or technical competencies.2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 17
  18. 18. ASIA PACIFIC Figure 19 ASIA PACIFIC: IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS 2012 2011 14% High impact 16% 35% Medium impact 38% Low impact 30% 22% 18% No impact 10% 3% Don’t know 14% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Figure 20 ASIA PACIFIC: REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS Lack of available applicants/ no applicants 35% Lack of technical competencies (hard skills) 29% Lack of employability skills (soft skills) 28% Lack of experience 17% Looking for more pay than is offered 13% Undesirable geographic location 6% Poor image of business sector/occupation 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%Nearly three in ten (29%) believe this is a key factor, cite this lack of hard skills as an issue in Japanand employers identify a wide range of candidate (62%) and Taiwan (56%). (Figure 21)deficiencies, including a lack of professionalqualifications specific to the industry (10%), a lack Notably, among the subset of Asia Pacificof skilled trades qualifications (7%) and a lack of employers saying that talent shortages are havingspeaking/verbal skills (7%). Employers most often a high impact on their businesses, lack of hard2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 18
  19. 19. ASIA PACIFICskills among candidates are particularly problematic with concern about hard skills, employers in Japanfor employers seeking IT and engineering talent. and Taiwan are the most likely to cite lack of softCandidates looking for more pay than what is being skills among candidates’ shortcomings. The softoffered also makes recruiting engineers in this skills most often identified in the region are poorregion a challenge. interpersonal skills (12%). Employers also reportA shortage of applicants with suitable employability particular issues with enthusiasm/motivation (9%),skills—soft skills—is highlighted as an issue by collaboration and teamwork (9%), and flexibility/28% of Asia Pacific employers. As was the case adaptability/agility (9%). (Figure 22) Figure 21 ASIA PACIFIC: TECHNICAL SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (HARD SKILLS) Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—professional 10% Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—skilled trades 7% Speaking/verbal skills 7% Computer/IT skills 4% Foreign language 4% Commercial/business acumen 4% 0% 10% 20% Figure 22 ASIA PACIFIC: EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (SOFT SKILLS) Interpersonal skills 12% Enthusiasm/motivation 9% Collaboration/team work 9% Flexibility/adaptability/agility 9% Problem solving & decision making 7% Professionalism (e.g. personal appearance, punctuality) 6% Attention to detail 6% Ability to deal with ambiguity/ 6% complexity 0% 10% 20%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 19
  20. 20. ASIA PACIFICOVERCOMING THE TALENT SHORTAGE by 11%, with employers in Taiwan most likely toAsia Pacific employers consider a range of help individuals grow into the role. No Chinesestrategies to address talent shortages, the most employers are currently using this approach butcommon being additional training and development would do well to consider it as another tool tofor existing Staff. The proportion of employers combat the talent crunch. Meanwhile, 9% ofpursuing this approach is up slightly across employers indicate they have increased startingthe region from 17% in 2011 to 19% in 2012. salaries in an effort to attract applicants, led byEmployers in China (27%) and Japan (22%) are employers in China (27%). (Figure 23)most often employing this strategy. Approximately Furthermore, among the subset of employersone in eight Asia Pacific employers (13%) isprepared to recruit outside their local region to saying that talent shortages are having a highaddress workforce gaps, most notably in Taiwan impact on their businesses, employers in the Asia(23%). Interestingly, Indian employers (5%) are Pacific region—more than in any other region—areleast likely to recruit outside their local region. focusing on improving their talent pipelines, suchAn additional 13% of employers say they focus as identifying high potentials, building a successionon developing their existing pipeline of talent, led management approach, etc. More employers shouldby employers in Taiwan (38%) and Japan (35%). consider this longer-term approach to developingThe “teachable fit” strategy is being implemented talent to help solve global talent mismatch. Figure 23 ASIA PACIFIC: STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO OVERCOME THE TALENT SHORTAGE Providing additional training and development to existing Staff 19% Broadening search outside of local region 13% Increasing the focus on improving pipeline 13% Appointing people without job skills currently, but do have 11% potential to learn/grow Increasing starting salaries 9% Focusing more on Staff retention in jobs where recruitment is difficult 8% Broadening search outside my country 8% 0% 10% 20% 30%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 20
  21. 21. EMEAEUROPE, MIDDLE EAST & AFRICAFor the 2012 Talent Shortage Survey, the EMEA region. The most notable talent shortagesManpowerGroup interviewed 19,059 employers are reported in Bulgaria (51%) and Romania (45%),in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, across 23 and at least two in five employers are struggling todifferent countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech fill vacancies in Germany (42%), Turkey (41%) andRepublic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Austria (40%). Meanwhile, hiring activity is leastIreland, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, likely to be affected by talent shortages in IrelandRomania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, (2%), the Netherlands (7%), Spain (9%) and SouthSweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. Employers Africa (10%).in Israel and Slovakia are surveyed for the first time. Year-over-year, employers in seven countriesDIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS report increasing difficulty filling vacancies, mostOne in four EMEA employers (25%) reported difficulty notably in Sweden, Norway and Austria wherefilling jobs due to a lack of available talent. This employers report increases of 19, 13 and 13proportion is considerably lower than in the Americas percentage points, respectively. Meanwhile, the(41%) and Asia Pacific (45%). The percentage is proportion of employers reporting difficulty is lowerrelatively stable when compared with 2011, and in 13 countries this year, with steep declines ofthe proportion of employers citing difficulty has not 18 percentage points reported by employers inbeen notably greater since before the credit crunch Switzerland and a 17 percentage point declinein Quarter 1 2008. (Figure 24) Clearly, a weaker reported in Greece.recovery trend continues to suppress employer hiring MOST DIFFICULT POSITIONS TO FILLtrends, making talent supply less of an issue in this For the sixth consecutive year, employers reportregion due to lukewarm demand. that skilled trades positions are the most difficultDespite the overall trend, pockets of acute talent type of vacancy to fill across EMEA as a whole. Inshortages are identified by employers throughout fact, employers in 16 of the 23 countries identify Figure 24 EMEA: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS 60% 40% 41% 40% 32% 31% 34% 34% 30% 39% 31% 31% 20% 25% 26% 25% 23% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GLOBAL EMEA2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 21
  22. 22. EMEA Figure 25 EMEA: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING 1 | Skilled Trades Workers 6 | Laborers 2 | Engineers 7 | IT Staff 3 | Sales Representatives 8 | Accounting & Finance Staff 4 | Technicians 9 | Chefs/Cooks 5 | Drivers 10 | Management/Executivesskilled trades positions as their first or second most PAs/office support workers—drop out of the topchallenging position to fill. Skilled trades workers 10 altogether.have been at the top of the list in France for seven IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERSconsecutive years and in Germany and Italy forsix consecutive years. The second most difficult This year, EMEA employers are considerably lesspositions to fill in 2012 are in engineering (climbing concerned about the impact talent shortages willfrom third in 2011)—particularly in Poland and the likely have on key stakeholders, including customersUK where engineering positions have been the most and investors. The proportion of employers who saydifficult positions to fill for two consecutive years. they see no impact has almost tripled, increasingThe sales representative category moves up one from 14% to 39%. Employers have evidently grownplace to third, with this category listed as the top accustomed to working around the dilemma.challenge by employers in Greece, Norway and However, this may be a risky approach to ongoingSweden. This year, employers report comparatively talent management, and employers should notfewer difficulties filling technician roles; however, the presume that their stakeholders will continue totalent category remains in demand in many EMEA look past whatever shortcomings in service andcountries and only slips from second in the region to performance result from the current shortages.fourth overall. (Figure 25) Furthermore, new business gains may be difficult to achieve—and then sustain—if companiesThe fifth-placed category on the list of most difficult remain unwilling to commit business spend onjobs to fill is professional drivers, up from sixth in needed employees.2011, and the category ranking sixth—laborers—has also moved up the ladder, from ninth in 2011. Surprisingly, in two countries where shortages ofThe IT Staff category re-enters the top 10 this year, skilled workers would normally be expected to haveand is ranked seventh. Accounting and finance a serious impact on stakeholders and handicaproles were not listed among the top 10 difficult-to-fill continued success, more than one out of twopositions in 2011, but places eighth in 2012. Also employers in Germany and Switzerland indicatemoving up the rankings is the chefs/cooks category, that the shortage is expected to have no effectplacing ninth while the management/executive on customers and other stakeholders. However,category slips from fifth to tenth. Two talent despite the current inadequate supply, it is entirelycategories—production operators and secretaries/ possible that traditionally robust apprenticeship2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 22
  23. 23. EMEA Figure 26 EMEA: IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS 2012 2011 13% High impact 21% 25% Medium impact 36% Low impact 22% 24% 39% No impact 14% 1% Don’t know 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%programs in both countries are providing employers Switzerland (62%), Slovakia (56%) and Sloveniathere with at least some assurances that they will (49%). Meanwhile, a lack of applicants is onlybenefit from an ongoing pipeline of talent. marginally impacting employers in Romania (4%), Sweden (5%) and Turkey (6%). Employers inThe pattern of diminishing concern with talent Hungary and Turkey (both 43%) were most likely toshortages is evident elsewhere, too; the proportion cite the absence of “experienced” candidates as theof employers reporting a high impact is down from reason behind their talent shortages. (Figure 27)21% to 13% year-over-year, and the percentage ofemployers saying it has a medium impact declines When asked to distinguish between hard skills andfrom 36% to 25%. (Figure 26) soft skills, EMEA employers indicate that the lack of hard-skill related technical competencies are inREASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS shorter supply than soft-skill competencies. 17% ofThe most frequently cited reason for talent EMEA employers most frequently identify a lack ofshortages in EMEA is a lack of technical industry-specific qualifications at the professionalcompetencies (hard skills) among applicants (34%). level—particularly in Romania (43%) and SpainEven in Spain where unemployment hovers near (32%). Shortages at the skilled trades level were23% (and near 50% for those under 25), a lack of named by 15% of employers as the most difficulthard skills is cited by nearly six out of 10 employers hard skills to source—particularly in Romania (57%)as their chief challenge sourcing suitable talent. and South Africa (31%). (Figure 28)Other key reasons employers cite is simply an By far, a lack of soft skills among potentialoverall lack of applicants (30%) and a lack of candidates was named by fewer employersexperience among applicants (24%). The shortage throughout EMEA than elsewhere on the globe,of applicants is most pronounced in Austria (67%), and only occasionally named by employers as the2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 23
  24. 24. EMEAreason behind their difficulty accessing suitable employers in the region were a lack of enthusiasmtalent. Approximately one in ten (11%) employers and motivation (4%) and a lack of professionalismreported that candidates lacking soft skills—such as (3%). The overall lack of soft skills was mostplanning, organizing and collaborating—were at the often named as a barrier to hiring by employersroot of their concerns. When soft skills were cited, in Bulgaria (23%), Italy (22%) and Turkey (27%).the most common shortcomings mentioned by (Figure 29) Figure 27 EMEA: REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS Lack of technical competencies (hard skills) 34% Lack of available applicants/ no applicants 30% Lack of experience 24% Lack of employability skills (soft skills) 11% Looking for more pay than is offered 9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Figure 28 EMEA: TECHNICAL SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (HARD SKILLS) Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—professional 17% Industry-specific qualifications/ certifications—skilled trades 15% Foreign language 3% 0% 10% 20% Figure 29 EMEA: EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFICIENCIES (SOFT SKILLS) Enthusiasm/motivation 4% Professionalism (e.g. personal 3% appearance, punctuality) Interpersonal skills 2% Collaboration/team work 1% Flexibility/adaptability/agility 1% 0% 10%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 24
  25. 25. EMEAAmong the subset of EMEA employers indicating the Eurozone to move fluidly from one country tothat talent shortages are having a high impact on another in pursuit of work opportunities.their businesses, engineering candidates’ hard An identical percentage of employers (9%) expressskills deficiencies are of most concern, while a willingness to appoint people who do not currentlythe perceived lack of soft skills is the main issue have relevant skills but who demonstrate theconcerning accounting and finance candidates. potential to learn and grow. This is particularly trueOVERCOMING THE TALENT SHORTAGE in South Africa where 30% of employers say theyEMEA employers identify a number of methods their are willing to help promising candidates grow into aorganizations use to address the talent shortages role. In 7% of cases, employers are focusing morethey face. As in the Americas and Asia Pacific, on Staff retention in key areas of talent shortageoffering training and development to existing and 6% are offering enhanced benefits packagesemployees is by far the most commonly used including signing bonuses. As is the case in the Asiaapproach, cited by more than one in five EMEA Pacific region, only 6% of EMEA employers indicateemployers (21%)—slightly up from 19% in 2011. that they partner with local education providers toOther strategies adopted by around one in ten create a curriculum more closely aligned with their(9%) employers include expanding the search for talent needs. However, this may be because manycandidates outside of their local region. However,this proportion is lower than elsewhere on the globe organizations throughout EMEA respond to theand may be indicative of the general sluggishness challenge internally, taking a more independent andof the labor market throughout much of EMEA— proactive approach to training the talent they needespecially given the ability of many candidates in in order to fill specific skills gaps. (Figure 30) Figure 30 EMEA: STRATEGIES EMPLOYED TO OVERCOME THE TALENT SHORTAGE Providing additional training and development to existing 21% Staff Broadening search outside of local region 9% Appointing people without job skills currently, but do have 9% potential to learn/grow Focusing more on Staff retention in jobs where recruitment is 7% difficult Enhancing benefits packages, including signing bonus 6% Partnering with educational institutions to create curriculum 6% aligned to talent needs Increasing starting salaries 5% Broadening search outside of my country 4% 0% 10% 20% 30%2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 25
  26. 26. APPENDIXAPPENDIXAMERICAS ARGENTINA: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS ARGENTINA: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING100% 59 64 60 47 49 55 1 | Technicians 6 | IT Staff 80% 60% 2 | Engineers 7 | Production Operators 53 51 40% 45 Customer Service 41 40 3 | Skilled Trades Workers 8 | Representatives & 36 Customer Support 20% Secretaries, PAs, 4 | Administrative Assistants & 9 | Laborers Office Support Staff 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % HAVING DIFFICULTY % NOT HAVING DIFFICULTY 5 | Accounting & Finance Staff 10 | Drivers Argentina joined survey in 2007. BRAZIL: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS BRAZIL: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING100% 36 43 29 1 | Technicians 6 | Accounting & Finance Staff 80% 71 60% 64 2 | Skilled Trades Workers 7 | Sales Representatives 57 40% 3 | Engineers 8 | IT Staff 20% 4 | Drivers 9 | Laborers 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % HAVING DIFFICULTY % NOT HAVING DIFFICULTY 5 | Production Operators 10 | Mechanics Brazil joined survey in 2010. CANADA: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS CANADA: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING100% 34 64 69 76 79 71 75 1 | Skilled Trades Workers 6 | Management/Executives 80% 60% 66 2 | Engineers 7 | Teachers 40% 3 | Sales Representatives 8 | Laborers 36 31 29 20% 24 25 21 4 | Drivers 9 | IT Staff 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % HAVING DIFFICULTY % NOT HAVING DIFFICULTY 5 | Technicians 10 | Mechanics COLOMBIA: % HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING JOBS COLOMBIA: TOP 10 JOBS EMPLOYERS ARE HAVING DIFFICULTY FILLING100% 61 65 75 67 1 | Technicians 6 | Management/Executives 80% 60% 2 | Production Operators 7 | Accounting & Finance Staff 40% Customer Service 39 3 | Representatives & 8 | IT Staff 35 Customer Support 33 20% 25 4 | Engineers 9 | Drivers 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Secretaries, PAs, % HAVING DIFFICULTY % NOT HAVING DIFFICULTY 5 | Administrative Assistants & 10 | Receptionists Office Support Staff Colombia joined survey in 2009.2012 TALENT SHORTAGE SURVEY RESEARCH RESULTS 26