Discourse &
Context 1:
Function
2
Text as Discourse
Text
…the representation in written
language
cohesive
coherent
A. Texts as Discourse
I. Definition of ...
3
Text as Discourse
Discourse
…mode of speaking or writing
…process of activation of a text
by relating it to a context of...
4
Text as Discourse
Text as discourse
Discourse is embedded in
texts and that texts make up
discourse.
A. Texts as Discour...
5
Text as Discourse
Text as discourse
The text is the observable
product of the writer’s or
speaker’s discourse.
A. Texts ...
6
Functional Categories
& Style
modality
…it is used to reflect the producer’s
opinion about what s/he is saying
or writin...
7
Functional Categories
& Style
Types of Modality
* Epistemic
* Perception
* Deontic
* Boulomaic
A. Texts as Discourse
I. ...
8
Functional Categories
& Style
Epistemic
…speaker’s level of confidence in
the truth of their utterances
She may come
=
I...
9
Functional Categories
& Style
Perception
…usually delivered by verbs of
perceiving such as ‘see’ & ‘hear’
I see that you...
10
Functional Categories
& Style
Deontic
…indicate the necessity of the
proposition in utterance
You should do more exerci...
11
Functional Categories
& Style
Boulomaic
…indicate the desirability of the
proposition in utterance
I wish you would hel...
12
Functional Categories
& Style
Cohesion
…gives the idea of textual ‘tie’
between units in different
sentences which help...
13
Functional Categories
& Style
A boy run towards the gate of their
house. He forgot his lunchbox.
* tie between a pronou...
14
Functional Categories
& Style
Main Mechanisms of Cohesion
* Repetition
* Reference
* Substitution
* Ellipsis
* Conjunct...
15
Functional Categories
& Style
Transitivity
…the way meanings are encoded
in the clause to the way different
types of pr...
16
Functional Categories
& Style
Transitivity Key Components
* Verb Phrase
* Participants
* Prepositional &
Adverb Phrases...
17
Functional Categories
& Style
Discourse Presentation
…most of the formal features
differentiating the various modes of
...
18
Functional Categories
& Style
Categories of Discourse/Speech
Presentation
(Leech and Short 1981)
* Narrative Report of ...
19
Functional Categories
& Style
Narrative Report of Speech Act (NRSA)
He agreed.
Direct Speech
He said, ‘I Agree.’
Indire...
20
Functional Categories
& Style
Formal differences between direct
and indirect discourse
• The inverted commas are remove...
References
http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=JOHAfctPly8C&p
g=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=functional+categories+and+sty
le+in+styli...
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STYLISTICS: Discourse and Context 1: Function

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STYLISTICS: Discourse and Context 1: Function

  1. 1. Discourse & Context 1: Function
  2. 2. 2 Text as Discourse Text …the representation in written language cohesive coherent A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  3. 3. 3 Text as Discourse Discourse …mode of speaking or writing …process of activation of a text by relating it to a context of use A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  4. 4. 4 Text as Discourse Text as discourse Discourse is embedded in texts and that texts make up discourse. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  5. 5. 5 Text as Discourse Text as discourse The text is the observable product of the writer’s or speaker’s discourse. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  6. 6. 6 Functional Categories & Style modality …it is used to reflect the producer’s opinion about what s/he is saying or writing …A tendency to conform to a general pattern or belong to a particular group or category. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  7. 7. 7 Functional Categories & Style Types of Modality * Epistemic * Perception * Deontic * Boulomaic A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  8. 8. 8 Functional Categories & Style Epistemic …speaker’s level of confidence in the truth of their utterances She may come = It’s possible she’ll come = She’ll possibly come A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  9. 9. 9 Functional Categories & Style Perception …usually delivered by verbs of perceiving such as ‘see’ & ‘hear’ I see that you can that you are qualified for the position. I hear her complaints about the new branch manager. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  10. 10. 10 Functional Categories & Style Deontic …indicate the necessity of the proposition in utterance You should do more exercise. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  11. 11. 11 Functional Categories & Style Boulomaic …indicate the desirability of the proposition in utterance I wish you would help me with the homework. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  12. 12. 12 Functional Categories & Style Cohesion …gives the idea of textual ‘tie’ between units in different sentences which helps the reader to perceive the referential identity or topical consistency of different parts of a text. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  13. 13. 13 Functional Categories & Style A boy run towards the gate of their house. He forgot his lunchbox. * tie between a pronoun and its antecedent The boy introduced by an indefinite article ‘a’ (a boy) and on the next sentence, the pronoun ‘he’ and ‘his’ were used to pertain to the boy. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  14. 14. 14 Functional Categories & Style Main Mechanisms of Cohesion * Repetition * Reference * Substitution * Ellipsis * Conjunction * Lexical Cohesion A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  15. 15. 15 Functional Categories & Style Transitivity …the way meanings are encoded in the clause to the way different types of process is represented in language. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  16. 16. 16 Functional Categories & Style Transitivity Key Components * Verb Phrase * Participants * Prepositional & Adverb Phrases A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  17. 17. 17 Functional Categories & Style Discourse Presentation …most of the formal features differentiating the various modes of speech and thought presentation are the same. However, the effects are different, especially the distance from or the closeness of the narrator’s language and ideology. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  18. 18. 18 Functional Categories & Style Categories of Discourse/Speech Presentation (Leech and Short 1981) * Narrative Report of Speech Act (NRSA) * Direct Speech * Indirect Speech * Free Direct Speech * Free Indirect Speech A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  19. 19. 19 Functional Categories & Style Narrative Report of Speech Act (NRSA) He agreed. Direct Speech He said, ‘I Agree.’ Indirect Speech He said that he agreed. Free Direct Speech I agree. Free Indirect Speech He was in an agreement. A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  20. 20. 20 Functional Categories & Style Formal differences between direct and indirect discourse • The inverted commas are removed • The speech is marked by a subordinate (e.g. that) • Any 1st and 2nd person pronouns change to third person • Any present tense verbs change to past (including auxiliaries) A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
  21. 21. References http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=JOHAfctPly8C&p g=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=functional+categories+and+sty le+in+stylistics&source http://stylistics.minb.de/index.php?c=Speech%20and% 20Thought%20Presentation Simpson, P. (2004). Stylistics : A resource Book for Students. New York, Routledge 21 A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories Content 21 A. Texts as Discourse I. Definition of Text II. Definition of Discourse III. Texts as Discourse B. Functional Categories and Style I. Modality A. Types of Modality 1. Epistemic 2. Perception 3. Deontic 4. Boulomic II. Cohesion A. Main Mechanisms III. Transitivity A. Key Components IV. Discourse Presentation A. Categories B. Formal Differences References Content
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