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  • 1. Management (Contribution of Henri Fayol) Henri Fayol was real father of modern Management. Henri Fayol is the French industrialist in 1841-1925. He was a mining engineer in. Henri Fayol spent his entire working career in French industry; French cool and iron combine of commentary fourchambault. Henri Fayol developed a generaltheory of Business Administration. Henri Fayol was concerned the principles of organization and the function of management. Fayol laid the foundation of management as a separate body of knowledge. He always insisted that if scientific forecasting and proper methods are used in management than company can get satisfactory results. According to Fayol, management was not personal talent; it is a knowledge base skill. Henri Fayol’s Administrative Management is based on six admin activities. They are- 1. Technical : Production and manufacture 2. Managerial : Planning, controlling, co-ordination 3. Commercial : Purchasing and selling 4. Financial : Use of capital 5. Accounting : Asset, Liabilities, cost, profits 6. Security : Protection of goods and Person Fayol’s fourteen Principles of management Fayol derived the following fourteen principles.- Division of work: Division of work means specialization. Each job and work should be divided into small task and should be assigned to specialist of it. Authority and responsibility: Authority means right to give order and command while responsibility means to accomplish objective. Discipline: Discipline is required at every level in every organization. Fayol stated discipline in terms of obedience, application, and respect to superiors. Unity of command: A subordinate should receive order from only one boss. Unity of direction: It means that all the works of an organization must work together to accomplish a common objective in under one plan and head. Subordination of individual interest to common interest: Worker follows the common interest of organization rather than individual.
  • 2. Remuneration: Remuneration should be fair and adequate. It includes both types of incentives financial as well as non financial. Centralization: There should be one central point in organization which exercises overall direction and control of all the parts. Scalar Chain: Scalar chain is the chain or line of command from superior to subordinates. Order: Only proper order can give an efficient management. Equity: Equity creates loyalty and devotion among the employees. Stability of tenure personnel: Security of job for an employee in an organization is very important and pre-requisite condition. Retaining productive employee should always a higher priority of management. Esprit de corps: Management should encourage harmony and proper understandings between workers. Fayol said that in union there is strength. Whole organization should work as a team. Initiative: Manager should be encouraged the employees Initiative for creative working. QUALTIES OF MANAGER The list of qualities a good manager should have is exhaustive (to say the least), and would probably take quite some time to read, so we’ve saved you the trouble and picked out ten of the best Qualities of a Good Manager. Here they are: 1. Communication Skills This includes both written and spoken communication, including public speaking. A good manager understands the importance of clear communication, meaning that his or her instructions are always specific and unambiguous, presentations are always well prepared and delivered and feedback is constructive, frequent and effective. 2. Self-Motivation As the manager the onus is on you to motivate your team – this is simply not going to happen if you are unable to motivate yourself. Maintaining a positive outlook is vital, especially on the bleaker days. 3. Flexibility “The only constant is change.” This saying, make of it what you will, is particularly relevant to management. One thing you can be certain of as a manager is that you will be required to adapt to change regularly and without warning – how well you adapt to this change is what is important. 4. Delegation Managers with a “I’m the only one who can do this task properly” attitude soon learn that that’s the quickest way to go crazy with stress. Part of being a good manager is learning to trust your team enough to delegate work to them, as well as knowing when and what to delegate. 5. Industry Knowledge
  • 3. It is essential for a good manager to keep on top of industry related news and developments, both so s/he can work more effectively in his or her industry and also to facilitate better networking and relationship building, 6. Confidence Managers are decision-makers. This means a manager needs to be able to make decisions with confidence, lead with confidence and stand by his or her convictions. Any team would find difficulty working with a manager who seems unpredictable and unsure of himself, just as conversely teams as a whole become more confident with a strong leader. 7. Reliability Are you dependable? Can your team, including juniors and superiors, rely on you? This is a vital trait that any good manager should have. 8. Mediation As a manager you will be required to resolve disputes in the workplace. Are you capable of remaining objective? Can you smooth over issues before they turn into disputes? 9. Implementing Training A good manager improves his workforce (both as a whole and individually) by implementing training to increase skill sets, improve cohesion among workers and tackle relevant problems within the workplace. Not only does training create a more skilled workforce but it also boosts morale. 10. Organisation Being organised, in terms of projects, your staff, goals etc. is important for any manager. Without organisation you will be unable to plan effectively, execute goals or measure you success/failure We all have our ideas about what constitutes a good manager. Attributes that most people associate with effective, successful managers are the follows: Basic Knowledge And Information 1. Command of Basic Facts Successful managers know what's in their organisation. They have a command of such basic facts as goals and plans (long and short-term), product knowledge, who's who in the organisation, the roles and relationships between various departments, their own job and what's expected of them. If they don't store all this information, they know where to get it when they need it. 2. Relevant Professional Knowledge This category includes 'technical' knowledge, eg. production technology,
  • 4. marketing techniques, engineering knowledge, relevant legislation, sources of finance, and knowledge of basis background management principles and theories, eg. planning, organising and controlling. Skills 3. Continuing Sensitivity to Events Managers vary in the degree to which they can sense what is happening in a particular situation. The successful manager is relatively sensitive to events and can tune it to what's going on around him. He/She is perceptive and open to information - 'hard' information, such as figures and facts, and 'soft' information, such as the feelings of other people. The manager with this sensitivity is able to respond in an appropriate way to situations as they arise. 4. Analytical, Problem-solving, and Decision/judgement making skills The job of the manager is very much concerned with making decisions. Sometimes these can be made using logical, optimising techniques. Other decisions call for the ability to weigh pros and cons in what is basically a very uncertain or ambiguous situation, calling for a high level of judgement or even intuition. The manager must therefore develop judgment-making skills, including the ability to cope with ambiguity and uncertainty, striking a balance between the necessity at times to be guided by his/her subjective feelings without throwing objective logic completely out of the window. 5. Social Skills and Abilities One definition of management often cited is 'getting things done through other people'. This definition may be inadequate, but it does point to one of the key features of the manager's job - it requires interpersonal skills.
  • 5. The successful manager develops a range of abilities which are essential in such activities; communicating, delegating, negotiating, resolving conflict, persuading, selling, using and responding to authority and power. Personal Qualities 6. Emotional Resilience The manager's job involves a degree of emotional stress and strain, which arises as a natural consequence of working in situations involving authority, leadership, power, interpersonal conflict, meeting targets and deadlines, all within a framework of a degree of uncertainty and ambiguity. The successful manager needs to be sufficiently resilient to cope with this. 'Resilient' means that they feel the stress (he/she doesn't become thick- skinned and insensitive) but is able to cope with it by maintaining self-control and by 'giving' to some extent, but not so much that they become permanently deformed. 7. Proactivity - Inclination to Respond Purposefully to Events Effective managers have some purpose or goal to achieve, rather than merely responding to demand. They cannot plan everything carefully in advance and, at times, they must respond to the needs of the instant situation - but when making such a response the effective manager manages to consider the longer term. They relate immediate responses to overall and longer-term aims and goals, whereas the less successful manager responds in a relatively unthinking or uncritical way to the immediate pressure. This category of ability also includes such qualities as seeing a job through, being dedicated and committed, having a sense of mission, and taking responsibility for things that happen rather than 'passing the buck' to someone else.
  • 6. 8. Creativity By 'creativity' we mean the ability to come up with unique new responses to situations, and to have the insight to recognise and take up useful new approaches. It involves not only having new ideas oneself, but also the ability to recognise a good idea when it is presented from another source. 9. Mental Agility Although related to general intelligence level, the concept of 'mental agility' includes the ability to grasp problems quickly, to think of several things at once, to switch rapidly from one problem or situation to another, to see quickly the whole situation (rather than ponderously plough through all its components), and to 'think on one's feet'. Given the hectic nature of managerial work these are particularly necessary qualities for success. 10. Balanced Learning Habits and Skills Data collected by observing and interviewing managers show that a significant proportion of the degree of their success can be explained by the presence or absence of habits and skills related to learning. - Successful managers are more independent as learners; they take responsibility for the 'rightness' of what is learned, rather than depending, passively and uncritically, on an authority figure (a teacher or an expert) to define 'truths'. - Successful managers are capable of abstract thinking as well as concrete, practical thought. They are able to relate concrete ideas to abstract ones (and vice versa) relatively quickly. This ability - which is sometimes known as a 'helicopter mind' - enables the manager to generate his own theories from practice, and to develop his own practical ideas from theory. - The ability to use a range of different learning processes is necessary for managerial success. Three such processes are:
  • 7. (a) input - receiving expository teaching, either formal (eg. on a course) or informal (eg. teaching by a colleague); (b) discovery - generating personal meaning from one's own experiences; (c) reflection - a process of analysing and re-organising pre-existing experience and ideas. Successful managers are more likely to have a relatively wide view of the nature of the skills of management. For example, they are more likely to recognise the range of managerial attributes as presented in this model, than to believe that management is a unitary activity, involving, for example, dealing with subordinates (ie. needing only a certain set of social skills) or simply involving basic decision making. 11. Self - Knowledge Whatever the manager does is in some way affected by his/her own view of their job and role, their goals, values, feelings, their strengths and weaknesses, and a host of other personal or 'self' factors. If then, he/she is to retain a relatively high degree of self-control over their actions, they must be aware of these self-attributes and of the part they are playing in determining this behaviour. The successful manager must therefore develop skills of introspection. Functions of Managers Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their responsibilities. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Planning: This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. Say, for example, that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include increasing advertising, inventory, and sales staff.
  • 8. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales. Organizing: After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing. Staffing: After a manager discerns his area's needs, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal. Leading: A manager needs to do more than just plan, organize, and staff her team to achieve a goal. She must also lead. Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging. It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees. Controlling: After the other elements are in place, a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions, but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization.  Principles of co-ordination Simplified organization: – authority, responsibility, duty and other job description should clearly be described by the organization. Coordination may be simple and easy when all duties and power are clearly simplified, 2. Harmonized programs and policies: – an organization must set the programs and policies. These programs and policies must be harmonized. Harmonized policies helps to make coordination effective 3. Well designed system of communication: – without effective communication coordination and harmonizing activities is not possible. Therefore, communication system must be well designed. 4. Voluntary cooperation:- when all members of the organization are voluntarily cooperated, then only coordination can be successful. 5. Coordination through supervision: -supervisors are most important actor to coordinate the workers and their work. Mainly in all organization supervisors coordinate the resources and activities. 6. Continuity: – it is never ending process. When it is done continuously, the resources are not used effectively and they cannot provide the contribution. 7. Direct contact: – direct contact is necessary in effective coordination. Face to face contact may provide more effectiveness 8. Clearly defined goals: – organizational goals and other departmental goals must be clearly defined otherwise it isn’t easy to coordinate the resources and activities.
  • 9. 9. Effective leadership: – leadership must be effective. It helps o increase the confidence of employees and it develops the morale of workers. In fact effective leadership helps in effective coordination. 4 important Principles of Co-Ordination Mary Follett explains the following fundamental principles of coordination: (1) Co-ordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned. (2) Co-ordination in the early stages. (3) Co-ordination as the reciprocal relating of all the factors in a situation. (4) Co-ordination as a continuing process. (1) In regard to the first principle, co-ordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned, we find in some industries that control is coming more and more to be effected through cross-relations between heads of departments instead of up and down the line through the chief executive. (2) The second principle of co-ordination in the early stages means that the direct contact must begin in the earliest stages of the process. We see how this works in the correlation of policies in a business. If the head of the production department meets the heads of the sales and finance and personnel departments with a predetermined policy, and is confronted by them) each with a pre-determined policy, agreement will be found difficult. Of course, they then begin to 'play polities', or that is often the tendency - a deplorable from a coercion. But if the head of the production department, while he is forming his policy, meets and discuss with the other heads the questions involved, it is far more likely to lead the successful coordination. That is, you cannot with the greatest degree of success for your undertaking, make policy-forming and-policy adjustment two separate policies have been completed. (3) The third principle, co-ordination as the reciprocal relating of all the factors in a situation, shows us just what this process of co-ordination actually is. Think for a moment what happens between the heads of departments in a business. You cannot envisage the process accurately by thinking of A as adjusting himself to B, to C and to D. A adjusts himself to B and also to a B influenced by C and to a B influenced by D and to C influenced by A himself -and so on. One could work it out mathematically. This sort of reciprocal relating this interpenetration of every part by every other part, and again every other part as it has been permeated, by all, should be the goal of a U attempts at co-ordination, a goal, of course, never wholly reached.
  • 10. (4) The fourth principle of co-ordination as a continuing process means that the machinery for co- ordination would 'be continuous, not set up for special occasions. Now continuous machinery for working out the principles of relation, whether it be in a factory or nations or internationality, is of the very essence of freedom. Collectively to discover and follow certain principles of action makes for individual freedom. Continuous machinery for this purpose is an essential factor in the only kind of control we can contemplate. Another advantage is that then the circle, of spiral, is not broken in the transition from planning to activity and from activity to further planning, facts change, we must keep up with the facts, keeping up with the facts changes the facts. In other words, the process of adjustment changes the things to be adjusted. Techniques of coordination . Well defined goals: – the first means or technique of coordination is well defined goals. The goals of the organization should be clear and well defined. Each individual in the organization should understand the overall goals. When the goals are not well defined the coordination may not effective. 2. Sound organization structure: – coordination is the essence of management. It is not possible without sound organization structure. The authority and responsibility for each and every positions and employees should be clearly defined. 3. Effective communication: – coordination helps in creating proper understanding among persons. Without effective communication, coordination may be effective. The ideas, opinions should be interchanged freely. It is only through effective communication that even individual understand his/her limitations, positions and responsibility in the organization. Effective communication helps in coordination. Therefore, it is also an important means of coordination. 4. Proper leadership: – proper leadership leads the subordinates effectively and efficiently. A good managerial leader uses the motivational tools to coordinate the employees with effective communication system. In short, coordination is made possible through proper leadership. 5. Proper supervision: – supervisors coordinate the subordinates and their activities. Top level management cannot coordinate all employees. In short, proper supervision helps in effective coordination. 6. Better plans and policies: – coordination is made according to plans and policies of the organization and departments. When the plans and policies are not better coordination is not effective in the organization. 7. Cooperation: – without cooperation, coordination may not succeed because coordination is related to employees and their activities. When they are not cooperative, coordination may not be made. So, cooperation is essential in the organization. 8. Meeting and conference: – coordination may be possible when all employees their all activities and departmental goals are involved in organizational planning and policies. Their all problems and matters may be involved. When there is environment of constructive discussion and debate with meeting and conference 9. Group decision: – the group decision is a decision in which all members of the organization are participated to make decisions. The ideas and feelings are mixed into the decision and coordination may succeed.
  • 11. The Organizational Control Process The control process involves carefully collecting information about a system, process, person, or group of people in order to make necessary decisions about each. Managers set up control systems that consist of four key steps: 1. Establish standards to measure performance. Within an organization's overall strategic plan, managers define goals for organizational departments in specific, operational terms that include standards of performance to compare with organizational activities. 2. Measure actual performance. Most organizations prepare formal reports of performance measurements that managers review regularly. These measurements should be related to the standards set in the first step of the control process. For example, if sales growth is a target, the organization should have a means of gathering and reporting sales data. 3. Compare performance with the standards. This step compares actual activities to performance standards. When managers read computer reports or walk through their plants, they identify whether actual performance meets, exceeds, or falls short of standards. Typically, performance reports simplify such comparison by placing the performance standards for the reporting period alongside the actual performance for the same period and by computing the variance—that is, the difference between each actual amount and the associated standard. Effective control system in management (1) Objectives: A system of control can work more effectively when it is based on the main objectives or goals of the organisation. It should be related to the persons. It becomes essential that the standards, which are set by the management, should not be too high or too low. These should be told to the workers in time so that the standards can be judged with the actual performance. (2) Suitability: A business organisation should adopt such a system of control which suits its requirement.-There is no hard and fast rule and readymade system of control which give the correct and most favourbale, results in all type of organisations and in all circumstances. Suitability of a system of control differs from organisation to organisation and to make it favourable, it is necessary to know the nature of the business, needs of the workers a circumstances prevailing inside the organisation. (3) Forward looking:
  • 12. The system of control should be forward looking which enables the managers to keep a control on operations in advance. Each and every deviation from the standards should be noted in time to take corrective action before the task is completed. This will avoid or minimise the deviation in future. (4) Feedback: The success of a business depends on a system of control and for a systematic control advance planning is needed. This advance planning should be based on actual accurate post information collected through investigation. The control system should be such that it is based on past information and. which would also adjust if necessary to future actions. (5) Quick action: Management gets the information from various line managers or supervisors about the deviation in standards and these should be suggested to the planner to take a correct and quick action to avoid future wastage. Actually speaking, the success of control depends entirely on quick action and its implementation. (6) Directness: In order to make the system of control more effective, it is necessary that the relation between the workers and management should be direct. It is quite obvious that if the number of line supervisors is less in the organisation then workers would work effectively and objectives may be achieved in time because they will not take much time in getting the correct information. (7) Flexibility: The system of control should be such that it accommodates all changes or failures in plans. If plans are to be revised due to change in its objectives, the system of control should also be adjusted to suit the changed circumstances. (8) Economy: The system of control must be economical. In simple words, cost of the control system should not exceed its benefits. A system of control to be adopted by the organisation should be cheaper in terms of expenses. (9) Regular revision: The system of control should be based art objective results, after proper technical and analytical studies. They must be revised regularly and kept to meet the objectives of the organisation. (10) Active Participation:
  • 13. All members in the organisation should participate in the effective implementation of the control system. This is only possible when each and every worker in the organisation is asked to take active part in the discussions and exchange views while selecting the system of control. (11) Suggestive: The control system should also be suggestive. A system which detects deviations only should not be held good, but should also tell the accurate and correct alternative. (12) Competent and talented staff: Controlling A system of control can work more effectively if it has talented and competent people to work in the organisation. Planning Meaning of planning: - Planning is the important and primary function of management. It sets all other functions into action. It is the beginning of process of management. A manager must plan before coming in action. It is concerned in deciding in advance what to do? How to do? When to do? Why to do? Where to do? And who to do? And answering all these questions depends upon intelligence. Planning is a fully mental work. Planning is the conscious process selecting and developing the best course of action to accomplish an objective. It is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done .it also involves the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programs from among alternatives. It also includes selecting purposes and objectives of the actions to achieve them. Planning requires decision-making that is choosing from among alternative future course of action. Planning is thus: - ® Planning is concerned with future and it helps the management to look ahead. ® It involves thinking about organization’s prosperity and helps analysis of information. ® It involves a predetermined course of action. ® It specifies the objectives to be attained in future. ® It is basically a problem of choosing from the alternative courses of action. ® It relates with thinking before doing. ® It involves both decision making and problem solving. ® Its objective is to achieve better results. Types of planning
  • 14. Corporate or strategic plan Tactical or division plan Operational or unit plan This plan is prepared by the top level management by considering the long term objectives of the organization and strategies to achieve the defined objectives., the strategic plan may concern with product or service, market competition, social responsibility , introduction of technology, goodwill etc. it is based on analysis of future opportunities and threats. Tactical plan is prepared by the middle level management by considering short term objectives of the organization. It is the sub division of corporate plan. It is prepared to allocate divisional activities like production, finance, marketing, personnel and others. These plays a mediator between corporate or operational rule This plan is prepared by the lower level management by considering day to day function of the organization. It is consistent with tactical plan. It prepares schedule of each unit of work. It is concentrated in the best use of organizational resources consisting of manpower materials, money, methods and machine. Procedures of planning 1. Setting objectives: - objectives are the main part of plan. Setting objectives is the first step of formulating plans, the success or failure of plan depends upon the objectives of the organization. To determine the objectives is the first step and most important procedure of making plan 2. Developing planning premises: - after setting the objectives of the organization planning premises is necessary. It is the second step of formulating plans. Premises are the assumptions of internal and external environment of the organization in which plans are to be implemented. It is related to collect and make analysis of information concerning internal and external environment. 3. Determining alternatives: - after developing planning premises the third step of formulating plan is to determine the alternatives. The process of searching and identifying alternatives is known as determining alternatives. There may be so many alternatives. Reasonable alternatives should be selected among them 4. Evaluating alternatives:- after determining alternatives, each and every alternatives must b evaluated separately. After that, it is determined that which alternative has how much advantage and disadvantages. In other words, plans are evaluated in so many factors like cost factors, risk , benefits, facilities etc 5. Choosing one course of action: - after evaluating alternatives one best alternative must be selected. When all the alternatives are evaluated then all the weaknesses and strength of the alternatives are known. After this, best alternative must be selected. It is the most important step of planning. 6. Formulating detail plan of action: - after choosing one course of action, detailed plan must be formulated. Selecting one course of action is the organized plan. After choosing organizational plan, other departmental plan must be formulated. In other words, basic plan must be expanded into functional areas. 7. Implementation of plan:- Without this step, other procedures of plan remains as a paper work. This step brings all procedures of plan into action.
  • 15. 8. Reviewing the panning process;- the planning procedures is a continuous function up to the attainment of defined objectives. For this purposed, the evaluation of achievement of work according to time is necessary to know about actual performance Meaning of motivation Motivation is an inspiration that helps to use the employees’ knowledge and skill for the growth and development of the organization. It is an act of persuading the people who work in the organization. It is defines as the psychological process that hell to increase the will to do work. It is the process of inspiring people from which the people can use their ability. It is an important function of management,. The employees who are engaged in the organization must be motivated. Without motivation, their ability and skill can’t be used properly. Every employee has the capacity to do work. It is the process that helps the employee to explore their talent. “The concept of motivation is mainly psychological. It relates to those factors or forces operating with the individual employee or subordinate which impel him to act or not to act in certain ways.” Techniques of motivation 1. Financial incentives: First techniques of motivation are financial incentives as money is indicator of success. Therefore it fulfills psychological safety and status need as people satisfy their needs by money. Wages, salary motivates employees to perform better. 2. Job enlargement: Under this technique, task assigned to do job are increased by adding simile task. So the scope of job enlargement is high for the motivation of subordinates. It is also known as horizontally leading of job. 3. Job enrichment: Under this technique jobs are made challenging and meaningful by increasing responsibility and growth opportunities. In such technique of motivation, planning and control responsibility are added to the job usually with less supervision and more self evaluation. It is also called vertical leading. 4. Job rotation: it refers to shifting an employee from one job to another. Such job rotation doesn’t mean hanging of their job but only the employees are rotated. By this it helps to develop the competency in several job which helps in development of employees.
  • 16. 5. Participation : Participation refers to involvement of employee in planning and decision making .it helps the employees feel that they are an asset of the organization which helps in developing ideas to solve the problems. 6. Delegation of authority:Delegation of authority is concerned with the granting of authority to the subordinates which helps in developing a feeling of dedication to work in an organization because it provides the employees high morale to perform any task. 7. Quality of work life:It is the relationship between employees’ and the total working environment of organization. It integrates employee needs and well being with improves productivity, higher job satisfaction and great employee involvement. It ensures higher level of satisfaction. 8. Management by objectives:It is used as a motivation and technique for self control of performance. By this technique superior and subordinates set goals and each individual subordinates responsibilities clearly defined which help to explore the sill and use in the organization effectively. 9. Behavior modification:The last technique of motivation is behavior modification. It develops positive motivation to the workers to do the work in desired behavior in order to modify behavior. Communication Communication is the process of transformation of information from one person to another. It is a process of exchanging opinions ideas, feelings, information, views and other fast between or among two or more people. It involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Communication skill means conveying the message to others and understanding the message from others. Business communication is a bridge of passing information between the management and the employees. Purposes of Communication. The topic of purpose can be looked at in two ways. First, what does the child accomplish by communicating a message TO others through some form of communication and secondly, how does he respond to the same purposeful message when provided to him FROM others? So, for example, can a child request an object? What happens if a person requests an object from him? While the second question is important, this article will only focus on the first question (i.e., the impact of the child’s messages TO others). It may be easier for the non-speech pathology person to have noted the characteristics of intentionality and means of communication before addressing the element of purpose. Sometimes the purposes are very obvious and other times, it may take trial and error and/or consultation with others, to figure out the exact message. The following two categories are not inclusive of every purpose for communication. They basically reflect the common types of communication that are part of a repertoire of a young child under the age of five. A few other references at
  • 17. the end can be used to add more detail. It is important to know what communicative purposes a child with ASD is using so new purposes can be taught. While requesting objects is the frequent goal of early intervention programs, requesting is not the primary function expressed during conversations. Expansion of the child’s repertoire of purposes can occur while teaching use of some of the means of communication outlined in the previous section. The Purposes of Communication According to Camp & Satterwhite (2002), there are four main purposes of communication: i. To inquire [hide] This involves obtaining information in various ways, for instance, by asking questions or through formulating questionnaires. ii. To inform [hide] This entails the dissemination of information using different channels of communication. iii. To persuade [hide] This aims to influence people and bring them round to your way of thinking. iv. To develop goodwill [hide] This involves maintaining and forming cordial and harmonious relationships with people you are communicatin Advantages and disadvantages of miscommunication The topic of miscommunication has taken centre stage in both communication psychology and linguistics. Miscommunication is wide since it is inclusive of speaking sarcastically, exaggerating, insulting, joking, flattering, kidding, lying, understating, defaming, fabricating, speaking metaphorically and misleading among others. All the above mentioned hinders clear and concise communication as people are likely to misinterpret the intended message making it vital to study miscommunication. Consequently, miscommunication should be taken in a positive stride as it is used in enhancement of the available degrees of freedom to the communicator during interaction. Communication is not a mathematical formula as it is always made up of a mixture of implicit and explicit aspects that are less or more consistent and connected with one another (Annoli, 2006). In this sense, miscommunication is viewed as luck as it enables the communication between people to be intriguing and interesting. This concept is commonly used by politicians during political campaigns where they make unattainable promises they will fulfill if they are elected to represent the people. Nevertheless, the politicians who
  • 18. make utopian promises to the electorates pull the biggest crowds and end up achieving euphoric wins. Though exaggeration is miscommunication, such politicians manage to use it positively to win votes. Miscommunication also helps people in clarifying the lack of communication as it shows there is a breakdown in communication that needs to be corrected. It also helps us in improving our communication skills since we correct the communication errors that might have happened prior to this. The main gain that can be reaped out of miscommunication is the ability to communicate more effectively in the future once the breakdown is corrected. Functions of Communication i) Information function: The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to the environment is information. There must be some information about what is going on in the environment which concerns the people. The receiving or giving of information underlines all communication functions, either directly or indirectly. ii) Command or instructive function: Those who are hierarchically superior in the family, society or organization, often initiate communication either for the purpose of informing their subordinates or for the purpose of telling them, what to do, how to do when to do etc. The command and instructive functions of communication are more observable in formal organizations than in informal organizations. iii) Influence or persuasive function: According to Berlo (1960), the sole purpose of communication is to influence people. Persuasive function of communication i.e. to induce people is extremely important for extension in changing their behaviour in the desirable direction. iv) Integrative function: A major function of communication is integration or of continuously offsetting any disintegration at the interpersonal or at the organizational level. This helps in maintaining individual, societal or organizational stability and identity. Process of communication
  • 19. 1. Source or sender: – the first step in the communication process is source or sender. The source is also called communicator. Communication begins when someone has some idea, information, view, feeling to transmit. The communicator may be a person, group or an organization. When the communicator intends to communicate to somebody communicator prepares the message 2. Encoding: – the idea or feeling the sender has to be translated into some language or symbols. This process is called encoding. The sender must choose appropriate words, symbols, pictures etc to express his/her idea.. While selecting the symbols, the sender has to pay attention about the receiver understanding the message. 3. Message or medium: – the medium is simply the pathway for transmission of the message. Some medium must be selected. This channel is chosen by the sender. They can be formal or informal. Examples are face to face , email, letters, fax. Telephone etc 4. Decoding to the receiver: – the receiver assigns some meaning to the symbol transmitted by the source, so the receiver interprets the message and the process is known as decoding. It is not an easy task because words have different meaning for different people. Problems of communication break down frequently. 5. Feedback: – this is the final phase. Feedback is the reaction of the receiver. The receiver has to confirm whether or not the message has been received or not. It is only taken in two-way communication. 6. Noise: – it is interference with the normal flow of information. It disturbs the communication system. No matter how well designed is the communication system; if noise exists the message received is different from message sent. Example: – noise of machines, vehicles, loud voice etc. Importance of communication 1. Managerial efficiency: – Communication helps in smooth operation of management. Managerial task can only be performed when communication system is effective. 2. Enhance morale and relations: – Effective communication emphasizes the employee’s participation in management. It helps to build the employees morale and cordial industrial relations between management and employees 3. Effective leadership: – effective leadership depends upon effective communication. Two-way communication helps in effective communication. Managerial leader must handle the subordinates. For ordering qualitative leadership is essential. And that can be obtained from proper system of communication. 4. Mutual trust and confidence: – mutual trust and confidence between labor and management is necessary for effective movement of organization. When there is effective communication, it helps to reduce misunderstanding and develop mutual trust. 5. Better decision: – the success of organization can be measured in better decision. When the information, data and other fact are not effectively communicated, it hampers the decision making. So, when the facts are communicates to concerned department, organization and person. It is easy to make decisions promptly. 6. Staffing: – when the information are correctly communicates in time, it helps in the function of selection, placement, socialization , promotion and transfer,
  • 20. 7. Better managerial concern: – all managerial functions such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling etc can’t be conducted without communication. Types of communication 1. Horizontal communication: – it is the process of lateral flow of information in order to coordinate work activities at the same level of management hierarchy. It helps in coordination of task, share information and minimize the conflict. In other words, it is the flow of information between the activities and to solve the organization problems, this can be shown by following figure. 2. Vertical communication: – it is the process of upward and downward flow of information in order to coordinate work activities at the different level of management hierarchy. It helps in task directives, share information about rules and regulations, responsibility, problem, achievement and suggestions and minimize the conflict between subordinates and superior. There are two types of vertical communication I. Downward communication: – it is the flow of information from top to bottom through formal lines of authority. Top level management transmits the information to subordinates about objectives, policies, strategies and responsibility.
  • 21. II. Upward communication: – it is the flow of information from bottom to top in an organization. Middle and low level management transmits the information to superior about problems, suggestions 3. Diagonal communication: – it is the flow information between the superior and subordinates who are neither in the same department nor at the same level. It violates the principle of chain of command and unity of command. Barriers to effective communication A. Physical barriers Internal structure of the organization and layout of office machines and equipments creates physical barriers in communication a. Distance: – communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication between America and Nepal.
  • 22. b. Noise: – it is from external sources and affects the communication process. Noise negatively affects the accuracy c. Physical arrangement: – the physical arrangement of organizational sources like men, money, material and machine obstruct the communication process. B. Semantic barriers The use of difficult and multiple use of languages, words, figures, symbols create semantic barriers. a. Language: – we can find some words having different meaning. As meaning sent by the sender can be quite different from the meaning understood by the receiver. Long and complex sentences creates problem in communication process. b. Jargons: – technical or unfamiliar language creates barriers to communication that may be drawn from the literature. So message should be simple and condensed as far as possible so that no confusion creation will be there to the receiver. C. Organizational barriers It is raised from the organizational goals, regulations, structure and culture. a. Poor planning: – it refers to the designing, encoding, channel selection and conflicting signals in the organization. b. Structure complexities:- difficult organizational structure barrier for free flow of information. Appropriate communication process must be used. c. Status differences: – it creates barrier for communication. Superior provides information to the subordinate about plans and policies. Different information is provided by different subordinates who create barrier in communication. d. Organizational distance:- distance between sender and receiver also creates barriers to effective communication. e. Information overload: – if superior provides too much information to the subordinate in short period receiver suffers from information overload which creates barriers to effective communication. f. Timing: – communication can be obstructed if not done on time. If the information is not provided in time it creates barriers to effective communication. D. Psychological barriers It is the barriers to effective communication created from the lack of interest of the people from whom the communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication which are not interesting to them and which do not fulfill their want.
  • 23. a. Perception: – it is the process of accepting and interpreting the information by the receiver. People receive things differently for a various number of reasons. b. Filtering: – communication some time filters the negative information to make it more favorable to the receiver. In this process, knowingly or unknowingly some valuable information may be disposed. c. Distrust: – superior provides information or message to the subordinates to their own view, ideas and opinion which create obstruction in communication. d. Emotions: – emotion also creates barriers to effective communication like anger, het, mistrust, jealousy etc. e. Viewpoint: – it also creates barriers to effective communication. It the receiver doesn’t clear the message and ignore without hearing, the message may create obstructions. f. Defensiveness: – if the receiver receives the message as threat and interprets that message in the same way, it creates barriers to effective communication.