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  • 1. Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition Kaia Morrow, Jeff Cooper, Kat Malek and Zo ë Atlas
  • 2. Glucose Regulation
    • Energy is stored as glycogen, which can be secreted if needed
    • Insulin decreases blood glucose
    • Glucagon increases blood glucose
    • Glucose regulation is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism
  • 3. Deficiency Diseases
    • Malnutrition - lack of essential nutrients
    • Ex. The protein deficiency Kwashiorkor causes the swelling of the belly because blood cannot absorb as much water from the body cavity through osmosis because of the lack of blood proteins
    • Undernourishment - calorie deficiency that can lead to starvation and death
  • 4. Essential Nutrients - Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids
    • Proteins - broken down and used as fuel
    • Carbohydrates - oxidized for the generation of ATP, energy-rich, organic
    • Lipids - provide ATP when oxidized during cellular respiration, energy-rich, organic, stores energy in the form of glycogen
  • 5. Essential Nutrients - Vitamins and Water
    • Vitamins - organic molecules, necessary in small amounts (0.01 to 100 mg/day), have diverse physiological functions
    • Water - used by water-soluble vitamins that function as coenzymes in metabolic processes
  • 6. Essential Nutrients - Minerals
    • Minerals - inorganic compounds, required in small amounts (less than 1 to 2,500 mg/day)
  • 7. Essential Amino Acids
    • Amino acids are required to make proteins
    • Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body, so they must be consumed though diet
  • 8. Modes of Heterotrophic Nutrition
    • Carnivores - eat meat
    • Herbivore - eat vegetation
    • Omnivores - eat both meat and vegetation
  • 9. Four Main Stages of Food Processing
    • Ingestion - the act of eating
    • Digestion - the act of breaking up food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
    • Absorption - animal cells take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment
    • Elimination - wastes are eliminated from the body
  • 10. Intracellular Digestion
    • Food particles are taken in by endocytosis and digested inside of food vacuoles
    • Occurs safely within a compartment that is enclosed by a membrane
    food vacuole
  • 11. Food Vacuoles
    • Simplest digestive compartment
    • Used by heterotrophic protists
    • Fuse with lysosomes
  • 12. Extracellular Digestion
    • In extracellular digestion, Hydrolysis occurs outside of cells (in an alimentary canal or gastrovascular cavity)
    • Advantage - it allows an animal to digest larger prey than can be intracellularly digested
  • 13. Adaptive Value of the Alimentary Canal
    • The alimentary canal moves food one way down the canal and can be organized into special regions for digestion
  • 14. Changes to Food in the Mouth
    • Bacteria is killed by the saliva in the mouth
    • Food shape
    • changes and
    • becomes a
    • bolus
  • 15. Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus
    • Lubricate food and begin digestion
    • Carry food into the stomach through peristalsis
    • Salivary amylase breaks down food for preparation of full digestion
  • 16. Stomach
    • Churns and digests food with hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin
    • Porous walls of stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin to digest food
    • Walls of the stomach are coated with mucus to protect them from gastric juices
  • 17. Secretions of the Duodenum
    • Acid chyme from the
    • stomach is combined
    • with digestive juices from
    • the pancreas, gallbladder,
    • liver, and gland cells of
    • the intestinal wall
    • Hydrolytic enzymes
    • from the pancreas are
    • activated in the duodenum
    • Bile is produced by the liver and secreted into the duodenum, aiding in fat digestion
    • Digestive enzymes enter the duodenum from the epithelial lining
  • 18. Pancreas Peptidases
    • The pancreas prevents digesting itself by producing enzymes and bicarbonate-rich solutions
    • Bicarbonate is a buffer that offsets the enzyme’s acidity, and allows their secretion in an inactive form
    • Once in the intestine, the enzymes are activated
  • 19. Human Digestive System
  • 20. Location of Carbohydrate, Protein, Nucleic Acid, and Fat Digestion
    • Carbohydrates- oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, lumen of small intestine, epithelium of small intestine
    • Protein – stomach, lumen of small intestine, epithelium of small intestine
    • Nucleic Acid – lumen and epithelium of small intestine
    • Fat – lumen of small intestine
  • 21. Small Intestine and Features that Improve Its Function
    • Major organ of digestion and absorption
    • The brush border, or epithelial lining of the duodenum, provides many digestive enzymes
    • Microvilli increase the surface area and rate of nutrient absorption
    • Lacteals are vessels of villi that carry lymph and absorb nutrients, putting them into the bloodstream
    • The hepatic portal vein leads directly to the liver, ensuring that it is supplied with the nutrients absorbed in the small intestine
  • 22. Roles of Gastrin, Secretin, and Cholecystokinin
    • Gastrin - begins gastric juice production
    • Secretin - discharge into the filtrate from wastes of the body
    • Cholecystokinin -
    • Causes
    • digestive
    • enzyme
    • release
  • 23. Large Intestine
    • Functions as a home for vitamin-synthesizing bacteria
    • Aids in the absorption of water
  • 24. Dental Adaptations
    • Dentistry of
    • mammals is usually
    • specialized for their
    • diet
  • 25. Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations of Herbivores
    • As vegetation has cell walls that are difficult to digest, herbivores have longer alimentary canals than carnivores
    • Many herbivores have fermentation chambers specialized for cellulose digestion