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Chapter+45
 

Chapter+45

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    Chapter+45 Chapter+45 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Endocrine and Nervous System Similarities and Differences
      • Similarities: Both the Nervous system and the Endocrine system use several of the same chemicals such as Epinephrine. The regulation of several physiological processes involve structural and functional overlap between the two systems. Each system affects the output of the other. They both use positive and negative feedback when regulating.
      • Differences: The Nervous system and Endocrine system use difference methods of communication among the cells and tissue. How quickly the desired response occurs and how long the response continues is also difference in the two systems. Also the area affected by the signal is different.
    • Negative and Positive Feedback
      • Negative Feedback is a primary mechanism of the homeostasis, where by a change in a physiological variable being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
      • Positive Feedback is also a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that amplifies the change.
    • Steroid and Protein Model
      • Protein Model: Chemical signals secreted by sending cell either ( a) bind to receptor proteins on the surface of a target cell or (b) penetrate the target cell’s plasma membrane and bind with a receptor protein in the cytoplasm.
      • Steroid Model: Lipid-soluble steroid hormone passes through the plasma membrane and binds to a receptor protein present only in target cells. The hormone-receptors complex then enters the nucleus and binds to a specific regulatory site, stimulating the transcription of a specific gene into mRNA, which is then translated into a specific protein.
    • Signal-Transduction Pathways
      • Signal-transduction pathways convert the extracellular chemical signal to a specific intracellular response, thereby changing the behavior of the target cells.
      • Hormone and receptor interactions are based on Signal-Transduction pathways .
    • Paracrine Signaling
      • Paracrine Signaling: signaling molecules released by a cell only affect target cells in close proximity. A signal molecule released by one cell travels through the extracellular environment and acts on the receptor molecule of adjacent cells. The influence of the signal molecule is short-lived, as it reacts with the receptor cell and is removed from the environment.
      • An example of Paracrine Signaling agents include growth factors and clotting factors.
    • Ligand
      • Ligand is a small molecule that specifically binds to a larger one.
    • G-Protein-receptors
      • G-Protein: a plasma-membrane receptor that works with the help of a protein called a G protein.
      • When a GTP is bound to a G-protein is activated. When the activated G-protein binds to another protein it alters that proteins activity.
    • Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors
      • Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors: membrane receptors that attach phosphate to a protein tyrosine.
      • Activation occurs in three steps: (1) The ligand binding causes two receptor polypeptides to aggregate, forming a dimer. (2) This aggregation activates the tyrosine-kinase parts of both polypeptides, each of which then (3) phosphorylates the tyrosine on the tail of the other polypeptide.
    • Ligand-gated channel
      • Ligand-gated channels are protein pores in the plasma membrane the when stimulated by chemical signals, open or close allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions, such as Na+ or Ca².
    • Models for Ligand/Receptor Interactions
    • Models for Ligand/Receptor Interactions
    • Models for Ligand/Receptor Interactions
    • Steroid Hormones and Cell Signaling
      • Steroid hormones initiate cell signaling by binding to a signal receptor in the cell. This causes a signal transduction pathway leading to a response from the cell. In some cases the response is to release a cell signal.
    • Phosphorylation Cascade
      • A phosphorylation cascade is a sequence of events where one enzyme phosphortlates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins.
      • This can be seen in signal transduction of hormone messages.
      • An advantage of the phosphorylation cascade is that is can be helpful to regulate the activation of proteins
    • Second Messengers
      • Molecules that serve as “second messengers” are cyclic AMP, Ca² ions, diacyglycerol and inositol trisphosphate.
      • Second Messengers transport the signal throughout the cell quickly as well as amplifying it.
    • Calcium and inositol trisphosphate in signaling pathway
      • (1) A signal molecule binds to a receptor, leading to
      • (2) activation of an enzyme called phospholipase C.
      • (3) This enzyme cleaves a plasma0membrane phospholipid called PiP2 into DAG and IP3. Both can function as second messengers.
      • (4) IP3 a small molecule, quickly diffuses through the cytosol and binds to a ligand0gated calcium channel in the ER membrane, causing it to open.
      • (5) Calcium ions flow out of the ER, raising the Ca²+ level in the cytosol.
      • (6) The calcium ions activate the next protein in one or more signaling pathways, often acting via calmodulin, a ubiquitous Ca²+ binding protein. DAG functions as a second messenger in still other pathways.
    • Typical Cellular Response to a Cell Signaling Pathway
      • The typical cellular response to a cell-signaling pathway has to do with relaying information from one place to another. This can include direct contact between the neurons and or gap functions. The neurotransmitter receptor GABA produces action potentials by activating a cell surface receptor that is part of an ion channel. By binding to a GABA A receptor, a neuron opens a chloride-selective ion channel that is part of the receptor. This allows the negatively charged chloride ions to move in the neuron. However for some cell surface receptors, ligand-receptor interactions are not related to the cell response. The activated receptor must first interact with other proteins inside the cell before the effect of the action potential is produced.
    • Duct and Ductless Glands
      • Duct and ductless glands differ because ductless glands secrete their product directly on a surface, unlike duct glands which empty into a duct. Many endocrine glands are ductless glands. This only makes sense because they secrete the hormones they produce directly into the blood or lymph system so it will be circulated to the entire body. The pineal gland, the thymus gland, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the spleen, and the two adrenal glands are all ductless glands.
    • Anterior Pituitary
      • The anterior pituitary is the back part of the pituary gland, and is a main playmaker in the endocrine system. Under the instruction of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary produces and secretes several peptide hormones that regulate physiological processes including stress, growth, and reproduction. Six different hormones released by endocrine cells from the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary.
    • The Hypothalamus
      • The hypothalamus’s main job is to regulate certain metabolic processes. This region on the underside of the brain, has a major role in the integration of the vertebrate endocrine and nervous systems. Besides conducting hormone production in the anterior pituitary gland, it also receives information from nerves throughout the body and other parts of the brain, initiating these endocrine signals appropriate to the environmental conditions.
    • Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
      • The thyroid stimulate and maintain metabolic processes. The thyroid also lowers blood calcium.
      • The parathyroid raises blood calcium level.
    • Iodine Deficiency
      • Iodine deficiency can cause many major problems because of the basic and obvious reason that Iodine is an essential micronutrient. (also known as trace element) The thyroid hormones thyroxin and triodotyronine contain iodine. In places where there is little iodine in the diet, typically in remote inland areas where there are no marina foods, or perhaps where people eat little in general, iodine deficiency is developed. When this happens, one can develop goiter and cretinism , resulting in developmental delays and other health problems. This includes a low amount of hormones in the blood, due to lack of iodine to make them, giving rise to high levels of the pituitary hormone TSH, which in turn stimulates abnormal growth of the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency also causes mental retardation and an IQ lowered by ten to fifteen points.
      • Cretinism is a condition associated with iodine deficiency and goiter, commonly characterized by mental deficiency, deafness, squint, disorders of stance, and delayed growth.
    • Thymus Gland
      • The Thymus Gland located in the thoracic cavity of the vertebrate where maturation of the T cells is completed
    • Pancreas and Blood Regulation
      • The Pancreas uses both insulin and glucagon to lower and raise glucose concentration in the blood
      • Insulin: When the blood glucose exceeds a certain level insulin is released and its effects lower blood glucose concentration
      • Glucagon: When blood glucose drop drops below the set point, glucagon is released, and its effects increase blood glucose concentration
    • Adrenal Gland
      • The Adrenal Gland are adjacent to the kidneys and in mammals each adrenal gland is made up of two glands with different cell types and functions; The adrenal cortex, or outer portion, and the adrenal medulla, or central part.
      • The Adrenal Gland is stimulated by epinephrine and norepinephrine.
    • Epinephrine
      • When epinephrine is released by the Adrenal Gland it gives rapid bioenergetics boost, Increase rate and stroke volume of heart beat, increased blood supply to the heart, brain and skeletal muscle.
    • Role of Gonadotropic Hormones in Male and Females
      • The Gonadotropic Hormones are FSH and LH. The Synthesis of both estrogens and androgens is controlled by gonadotropins, FSH and LH, from the anterior pituitary gland.
    • Secondary Sex Trait Hormones
      • The hormones that are responsible for the secondary sex traits in male and females are androgen, estrogen and progestin.