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6chapter39 6chapter39 Presentation Transcript

  • Endocrine and Reproductive Systems The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the blood stream. These products messages throughout the body
  • Hormones
    • The chemicals that “broadcast” messages from the endocrine system are called hormones
    • Hormones affect the activity of the other cells as they travel through the blood stream
    • Target cells are cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
    • It may take several minuets, hours, or days for hormones to take its full affect
  • Glands
    • A gland is an organ that produces and releases a substance
    • Exocrine glands release their secretions through tube like structures called ducts
    • Exocrine glands release tears, sweat, and digestive juices
    • Endocrine glands release their secretions directly into the blood stream
  • Prostaglandins
    • All cells produce small amounts of hormone like substances called prostaglandins
    • They are modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells
    • They usually only affect “local hormones”
  • Complementary Hormone Action
    • 2 hormones with opposite affects regulate the body’s internal enviroment
    • functions depend on the coplementary effects of two organisms
  • Control of the Endocrine System
    • The endocrine system is regulated by the feedback mechanisms that function to maintain homeostasis.
  • Pituitary Gland
    • Bean shaped structure at base of skull.
    • Secretes nine hormones that regulate body controls and endocrine gland functions.
  • Hypothalamus
    • Part of the brain attached above the posterior pituitary.
    • Controls the secretion of the pituitary gland.
  • Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands
    • In the neck, the thyroid is located at the of the neck near the trachea.
    • Regulates the body’s metabolism.
    • Produces thyroxine.
    • There are four parathyroid glands on the surface of the thyroid.
    • The combined hormones from the parathyroid and thyroid glands control and maintain homeostasis of blood calcium levels
    • Produces PTH.
  • Adrenal & Reproductive Glands
    • On top of the kidney the adrenal glands are two pyramid shaped structures
    • Helps the body prepare and deal with stress.
    • The cortex produces more than 2 dozen hormones called corticosteroids
    • The medulla produces 2 hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine.
    • The reproductive glands of the body are called gonads.
    • Produce gametes and secrete sex hormones
    • Males:testes produce sperm
    • Females:ovaries produce eggs
  • Pancreas
    • Located behind the right side of the stomach.
    • The pancreas is a endocrine and exocrine gland
    • Releases insulin and glucagon to maintain blood glucose levels.