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    6chapter39 6chapter39 Presentation Transcript

    • Endocrine and Reproductive Systems The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the blood stream. These products messages throughout the body
    • Hormones
      • The chemicals that “broadcast” messages from the endocrine system are called hormones
      • Hormones affect the activity of the other cells as they travel through the blood stream
      • Target cells are cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
      • It may take several minuets, hours, or days for hormones to take its full affect
    • Glands
      • A gland is an organ that produces and releases a substance
      • Exocrine glands release their secretions through tube like structures called ducts
      • Exocrine glands release tears, sweat, and digestive juices
      • Endocrine glands release their secretions directly into the blood stream
    • Prostaglandins
      • All cells produce small amounts of hormone like substances called prostaglandins
      • They are modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells
      • They usually only affect “local hormones”
    • Complementary Hormone Action
      • 2 hormones with opposite affects regulate the body’s internal enviroment
      • functions depend on the coplementary effects of two organisms
    • Control of the Endocrine System
      • The endocrine system is regulated by the feedback mechanisms that function to maintain homeostasis.
    • Pituitary Gland
      • Bean shaped structure at base of skull.
      • Secretes nine hormones that regulate body controls and endocrine gland functions.
    • Hypothalamus
      • Part of the brain attached above the posterior pituitary.
      • Controls the secretion of the pituitary gland.
    • Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands
      • In the neck, the thyroid is located at the of the neck near the trachea.
      • Regulates the body’s metabolism.
      • Produces thyroxine.
      • There are four parathyroid glands on the surface of the thyroid.
      • The combined hormones from the parathyroid and thyroid glands control and maintain homeostasis of blood calcium levels
      • Produces PTH.
    • Adrenal & Reproductive Glands
      • On top of the kidney the adrenal glands are two pyramid shaped structures
      • Helps the body prepare and deal with stress.
      • The cortex produces more than 2 dozen hormones called corticosteroids
      • The medulla produces 2 hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine.
      • The reproductive glands of the body are called gonads.
      • Produce gametes and secrete sex hormones
      • Males:testes produce sperm
      • Females:ovaries produce eggs
    • Pancreas
      • Located behind the right side of the stomach.
      • The pancreas is a endocrine and exocrine gland
      • Releases insulin and glucagon to maintain blood glucose levels.