4chapter40

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4chapter40

  1. 1. Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease By Tom Yao
  2. 2. Disease <ul><li>A disease is change that disrupts body functions other than injury </li></ul><ul><li>All diseases are caused by germs </li></ul><ul><li>Vectors are organisms that carry diseases </li></ul>A electron colored virus
  3. 3. Non-specific Defenses <ul><li>Skin repels germs from entering, along with hair, mucus, and tears </li></ul><ul><li>Interferon- a protein that inhibits protein synthesis and viral reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory Response-The body’s reacting to an injury </li></ul>A cell nucleus infected by an unidentified disease
  4. 4. Disease Specific Defenses <ul><li>Antigen- A maker which identifies a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody- A protein that helps destroy pathogens by clumping them </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic- A chemical that targets one disease </li></ul>An antibody
  5. 5. Immunity Types <ul><li>Humoral Immunity-Immunity against disease in body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Mediated Immunity- When Killer T-cells attack a virus in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Immunity-B-cells and T-cells remember a virus and attack on sight </li></ul><ul><li>Active Immunity- Receiving a vaccine </li></ul>A white blood cell that produces antibodies
  6. 6. Allergies <ul><li>Allergies- Antigens binding to mast cells </li></ul><ul><li>Histamines- A protein which increases blood flow to an area </li></ul><ul><li>Antihistamines- A chemical that counteracts Histamines </li></ul>A mast cell
  7. 7. Autoimmune Disease <ul><li>Autoimmune Disease- When the body attacks it’s own cells </li></ul><ul><li>The body’s failure to distinguish between body cells and pathogens </li></ul>Streptococcus Bacteria
  8. 8. AIDS/HIV <ul><li>HIV cell attaches to Helper T-cell </li></ul><ul><li>Viral RNA becomes viral DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Viral DNA becomes part of body DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Viral DNA changes into two strands of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Both strands go to help make new HIV cell </li></ul>An HIV Virus
  9. 9. Cancer <ul><li>Cancer- Uncontrollable division of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor- Mass of cancerous cells </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant- A tumor that spreads </li></ul><ul><li>Metastasis- The spread of cancerous tumors </li></ul>Dividing Cancer Cell
  10. 10. Fighting Cancer <ul><li>Surgery- Using tools to physically remove a tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation- Using radiation to kill cells in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Drug- Chemicals that will kill the cells </li></ul>Brain Cancer Cells

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