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2chapter12
 

2chapter12

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    2chapter12 2chapter12 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12: DNA and RNA Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
    • Discoveries about DNA
      • Avery (and other scientists):
      • experimented with destroying different parts of heat killed bacteria, and found out that:
      • DNA is a nucleic acid
      • DNA store genetic information
      • DNA transmits genetic information to the next generation
      Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
      • Hershey and Chase:
      • Experimented with bacteriophages.
      • Bacteriophages are viruses that inject their genetic material into the cell.
      • They found that the genetic material was DNA
      Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
      • Watson and Crick:
      • made a model of DNA which was a double helix, like this picture:
      Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
    • DNA replication
      • The DNA molecule unzips into two strands
      • Each strand produces a new strand
      • The enzyme used is called DNA polymerase
      Elana Jacobs-Pontecorvo
    • Types of RNA
      • Messenger RNA: sends messages from DNA to rest of the cell.
      • Ribosomal RNA: Makes up ribosomes
      • Transfer RNA: Help construct proteins.
      Olenka Alvarado
    • Transcription
      • 1. The enzyme, RNA polymerase, separates the DNA strands.
      • 2. Nucleotides are made into a strand of RNA, by using a strand of DNA as a model.
      Olenka Alavarado
    • Translation: process of cell making proteins
      • mRNA enters cytoplasm and attaches to ribosome, starts translation.
      • tRNA with an amino acid on top attaches to the mRNA strand with the anticodon that matches its codon.
      • ribosomes form peptide bond between the amino acids
      • tRNA leaves and the cell is left with a protein chain
      Olenka Alvarado
    • Mutations
      • A) Gene Mutations: change in a single gene
      • -Point Mutations: affect one nucleotide
      • -Frameshift Mutations: affects all amino acids after the change (insertion or deletion of nucleotide)
      • B)Chromosomal Mutations: changes in structure or number of chromosomes
      Olenka Alvarado
    • Gene Regulation
      • Lac genes: turned off by repressors and on by lactose
      • Eukaryotic Genes: individually controlled.
      Olenka Alvarado