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2chapter11 2chapter11 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics
  • Gregor Mendel’s Work
    • Mendel worked with garden peas, which used parts of their flowers to reproduce by self-pollination.
    • These peas were true-breeding, meaning that they would produce more peas that would be more identical to themselves.
    B.H.
  • Genes & Dominance
    • Mendel studied the traits of pea plants. Traits are specific characteristics that determine an individual.
    • Parents with different traits had hybrid offspring.
    • Mendel came up with two conclusions:
    • factors that determine biological inheritance, are past from one generation to the next otherwise known as genes.
    • the principle of dominance shows that some alleles are dominant and others recessive
    D.C.
  • Genetics and Probability
    • Probability is the likelihood that a particular event will occur.
    • It can predict genetic outcome of genetic crosses.
    B.H
  • Punnett Squares
    • Gene combinations that form a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a punnett square.
    • Organisms with identical alleles are homozygous(true-breeding)
    • Organisms with different alleles are heterozygous(hybrids)
    • Phenotypes determine physical characteristics
    • Genotype determines genetic makeup
    D.C
  • Dominant Alleles
    • If one allele is not completely dominant over another, its called incomplete dominance.
    • Organisms with dominant alleles for a particular trait will always have that form.
    B.H.
  • Recessive Alleles
    • Organisms with recessive alleles will always have that trait only if the dominant allele is eliminated
    D.C
  • Meiosis
    • There are two stages in meiosis; Meiosis I and Meiosis II. There are also eight phases.
    • Meiosis is the process of reduction division. The chromosomes in each cell is cut in half.
    B.H
  • Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis
    • Mitosis is the creation of diploid cells
        • Meiosis produces haploid cells
    D.C
  • Gene Linkage
    • Thomas Morgan did research on fruit flies and found that they were linked.
    • Gene linkage are traits that are inherited together.
    • Each chromosome is a group of linked genes.
    B.H
  • Gene Maps .
    • Alfred Sturtevant came up with the idea that the rate of crossing-over separated linked genes.
    • Gene maps show relative locations of genes on a chromosome.
    • His idea has been used to construct genetic maps
    D.C.
  • THE END…
    • BY:
    • Brenda Huynh
    • &
    • Deanna Calhoun