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    2chapter11 2chapter11 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics
    • Gregor Mendel’s Work
      • Mendel worked with garden peas, which used parts of their flowers to reproduce by self-pollination.
      • These peas were true-breeding, meaning that they would produce more peas that would be more identical to themselves.
      B.H.
    • Genes & Dominance
      • Mendel studied the traits of pea plants. Traits are specific characteristics that determine an individual.
      • Parents with different traits had hybrid offspring.
      • Mendel came up with two conclusions:
      • factors that determine biological inheritance, are past from one generation to the next otherwise known as genes.
      • the principle of dominance shows that some alleles are dominant and others recessive
      D.C.
    • Genetics and Probability
      • Probability is the likelihood that a particular event will occur.
      • It can predict genetic outcome of genetic crosses.
      B.H
    • Punnett Squares
      • Gene combinations that form a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a punnett square.
      • Organisms with identical alleles are homozygous(true-breeding)
      • Organisms with different alleles are heterozygous(hybrids)
      • Phenotypes determine physical characteristics
      • Genotype determines genetic makeup
      D.C
    • Dominant Alleles
      • If one allele is not completely dominant over another, its called incomplete dominance.
      • Organisms with dominant alleles for a particular trait will always have that form.
      B.H.
    • Recessive Alleles
      • Organisms with recessive alleles will always have that trait only if the dominant allele is eliminated
      D.C
    • Meiosis
      • There are two stages in meiosis; Meiosis I and Meiosis II. There are also eight phases.
      • Meiosis is the process of reduction division. The chromosomes in each cell is cut in half.
      B.H
    • Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis
      • Mitosis is the creation of diploid cells
          • Meiosis produces haploid cells
      D.C
    • Gene Linkage
      • Thomas Morgan did research on fruit flies and found that they were linked.
      • Gene linkage are traits that are inherited together.
      • Each chromosome is a group of linked genes.
      B.H
    • Gene Maps .
      • Alfred Sturtevant came up with the idea that the rate of crossing-over separated linked genes.
      • Gene maps show relative locations of genes on a chromosome.
      • His idea has been used to construct genetic maps
      D.C.
    • THE END…
      • BY:
      • Brenda Huynh
      • &
      • Deanna Calhoun