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  • 1. Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease By: Lisa Lee & Thanh Huynh
  • 2. Infectious Disease by: Lisa
    • A disease is a change in the body that isn’t an injury and causes the body to not function correctly.
    • Diseases can be inherited, caused by materials in the environment, and can be caused by bacteria viruses and fungi.
    • Diseases can be spread by coughing, sneezing, or physical contact.
    • It can also be spread through contaminated water or food and infected animals.
  • 3. Fighting Infectious Diseases by: Thanh
    • You can fight infectious diseases by antibiotics.
    • It is a compound that kills the bacteria without hurting the cells of a human or animal.
    • They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms.
  • 4. The Immune System by: Lisa
    • The most important nonspecific defense is the skin.
    • With the skin, very few pathogens can enter the body, and the oils and sweat glands kills a lot of bacteria.
    • The inflammatory response is also a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage from an injury or infection.
    • If pathogens enter the body, the inflammatory response may have you experience a fever.
  • 5. Humoral Immunity by: Thanh
    • Humoral Immunity is an immunity that are against pathogens.
    • Antibodies is a protein that ruins pathogens.
    • It is the basic functional unit of the humoral immunity.
    • When the body is exposed to a pathogen millions of B and T cells make antibodies to the pathogens.
  • 6. Immune System Disorders by: Lisa
    • Overreactions of the immune system are allergies.
    • They happen when antigens from allergens bind to mast cells.
    • When the body makes a mistake in the immune system, it bothers its own cells and makes an autoimmune disease.
  • 7. AIDS by: Thanh
    • Aids stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
    • Once it enters the body, it attaches to receptors in the T cells.
    • HIV then replicates within the cells so it is most likely to bind to antibodies.
    • HIV then kills most of the helper T cells.
  • 8. Cancer by: Lisa
    • Starts when something goes wrong with controls of the normal cell growth and division.
    • A single cell called a tumor can grow and divide uncontrollably.
    • Not all tumors are cancerous.
    • Malignant cancerous tumors invade and ruin the surrounding healthy tissue.
    • Cancer cells spread and absorb nutrients from other cells, block nerve connections, and stop organs they invade from functioning properly.
  • 9. Causes of Cancer by: Thanh
    • Caused by defects in the genes that controls cell growth and division.
    • Inherited by viruses in the body, or can have mutations in the DNA.
    • Some cancers can enter cells and interrupt the normal process of mitosis.
    • Radiation like sunlight, x-rays, and nuclear radiation can cause cancer by mutations in the DNA.
    • Carcinogens are chemical compounds that trigger mutation in the DNA of normal cells.
  • 10. Fighting Cancer by: Lisa
    • Best way to fight cancer is to prevent it.
    • For example, you can reduce the risk of lung cancer by not smoking.
    • If cancer is detected, the chances of treating it can be as high as 90%
    • Treatments are surgery, radiation therapy, and drug therapy.
  • 11. Cancer