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  • 1. Vector born diseases DR RAHIM IQBAL MBBS(Pb).MPH(H.S.A) Senior Demonstrator Rawalpindi Medical college Rawalpindi 1
  • 2. Vector born diseases Vector It is defined as an arthropod or any living carrier (e.g. snail) that transport an infectious agent to a susceptible individuals. The transmission by a vector may mechanical or biological 2
  • 3. Arthropods-borne diseasesArthropods Diseases transmittedMosquito Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue, Yellow FeverHousefly Typhoid, Diarrhea, Gastro-enteritis Amoebiasis, Poliomyelitis, TrachomaSand fly Kalaazar, Sand fly fever, Oraya FeverTsetse fly Sleeping SicknessLouse Epidemic Typhus, Relapsing feverRat Flea Plague, endemic typhusBlack Fly Onchocerciasis 3
  • 4. Arthropods-borne diseasesHard tick Viral Hemorrhagic fever, Tick Paralysis , Viral EncephalitisSoft Tick Q fever, Relapsing FeverItch Mite ScabiesCyclops Guinea-worm disease, Fish tape wormCockroach Enteric pathogens 4
  • 5. LYMPHATICFILARISIS 5
  • 6. LYMPHATIC FILARIASISThe term “LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS” coversinfection with three closely related nematodeworms – W. bancrofti, B. malayi and B. timori. Allthree infections are transmitted to man by thebites of infective mosquitoes. All three parasiteshave basically similar life cycles in man. 6
  • 7. HUMAN FILARIAL INFECTIONS ORGANISM VECTORS DISEASE PRODUCEDWuchereia bancrofti Culex Mosquitoes Lymphatic filariasisBrugia malaya Mansonia -”- -”- -”-Brugia timori Anopheles -”- -”- -”- Mansonia -”-Onchocera volvulus Simultum flies Subcutaneous nodules; River blindnessLoa loa Chrysops flies Recurrent, transient subcutaneous swellingsT. Perstans Culicoides Probably rarely any clinical illnessT. Streptocerca -”- -”- -”-Mansonella ozzardi -”- 7 -”- -”-
  • 8. AGENT FACTORSa) Periodicityb) Life Cyclec) Reservoir of infection 8
  • 9. HOST FACTORSa) Ageb) Sexc) Migrationd) Immunitye) Social Factors 9
  • 10. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSa) Climateb) Drainagec) Town Planning 10
  • 11. VECTORS OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS 11
  • 12. MODE OF TRANSMISSIONFilariasis is transmitted by the bite of infectedvector mosquitoes. The parasite is depositednear the site of puncture. It passes through thepunctured skin or may penetrate the skin on itsown and finally reach the lymphatic system. Thedynamics of transmission depends upon theman mosquito contact (e.g. infective biting rate). 12
  • 13. 1). Incubation period 8 to 16 months 2). Clinical manifestations a) lymphatic filariasis b)occult filariasis 13
  • 14. 1. LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS: a). Asymptomatic microfilaraemia b). Asymptomatic microfilaraemia c). Stage of acute manifestations d). Stage of chronic obstructive lesions2. OCCULT FILARIASIS: The tem occult or cryptic filariasis refers to filarial infections in which the classical clinical manifestations are not present and Mf are not found in the blood. 14
  • 15. FILARIA SURVEY The size of the sample to be examined I a filaria survey varies with the type of survey, whether it is a routine survey or survey for evaluation.1. Mass Blood Survey * The thick film * Membrane filter concentration method * DEC provocation test2. Clinical Survey3. Xenodiagnosis4. Entomological Survey 15
  • 16. ASSESSMENT OF FILARIACONTROL PROGRAMMES 16
  • 17. 1. Clinical Parameters2. Parasitological -”- a). Microfilaria Rate b). Filarial Endemicity Rate c). Microfilarial Density d). Average Infestation Rate3. Entomological Parameters 17
  • 18. Control measures• CHEMOTHERAPY: a). Diethylcarbamazine b). Filaria control in the community (i). Mass Therapy (ii). Selective treatment (iii). DEC medicated salt (iv). Ivermectin 18
  • 19. 1. VECTOR CONTROL: a). Antilarval measures (i). Chemical control (ii). Removal of Pistia Plant (iii). Minor environmental measures b). Anti-adult measures c). Personal Prophylaxis 19
  • 20. LEISHMANIASIS 20
  • 21. LEISHMANIASIS“Leishmaniasis are a group of protozoal diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmnania, and transmitted to man by the bite of female phlebotomine sandfly.” they are responsible for various syndromes in human beings1. kalaazar or visceral leishmaniasis (VL) 2. cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) 3. mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) 4. anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) 5. zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) 21
  • 22. AGENT FACTORS: a). Agents b). Reservoirs of infectionHOST FACTORS: a). Age b). Sex c). Population Movement d). Socio-economic status e). Occupation f). Immunity 22
  • 23. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: a). Altitude b). Season c). Rural Areas d). Vectors e). Development projectsMODE OF TRANSMISSION:From man to man by the bite of female phlebotominesandfly or P. argentipes 23
  • 24. INCUBATION PERIOD1to 4 months range is 10 days to 2 yearsClinical Features: 1). Kala Azar (VL) 2). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 3). Mucocutaneous LeishmaniasisLaboratory diagnosis: 1). Parasitological diagnosis 2). Aldehyde test 3). Serological tests 4). Leishmanin (Montenegro) test 5). Haematological findings 24
  • 25. CONTROL MEASURES1 Control of reservoir: * Treatment * Animal reservoirs2. Sandfly control3. Personal prophylaxis 25
  • 26. SCABIES 26
  • 27. SCABIES• Discovered – 1687• Sarcoptes Scabiei / Acarus Scabiei – very small• The female parasite burrows into the epidermis where it breeds and causes the condition known as scabies / itch.• Species of germs – infest animals like dogs, cattle & horse. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. DIAGNOSIS OF SCABIESThe main diagnostic features of scabies are:a). The patient complains of itching which is worse at night.b). Examination reveals follicular lesions at the affected sitec). Secondary infection leads to crusted papules and pustulesd). The diagnosis is probable if the other members of the household are affectede). Confirmation of the diagnosis may be made by searching for the parasite in the skin debris under microscope. 29
  • 30. Treatment of scabies1. Benzyl Benzoate2. HCH3. Tetmosol 30
  • 31. GENERAL VIEWNam Causative Ho Reservo Mode ofe of Agent st ir TransmissionDisease Sarcoptes Man •Man 1. Direct TransmissionScabi Scabiei or •Sometime Direct close freees Acarus Scabiei s Domestic contact with infected (Itch Mite) Animals person. Via a). Hand shaking b). Embracing c). Sleeping together etc. 1. Indirect Transmission It is via using non 31 living things
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