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Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas
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Substance abuse prof. fareed minhas

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  • 1. Prof. Fareed A.Minhas Head, Institute of Psychiatry Rawalpindi Medical College Rawalpindi
  • 2. Substance use disorder (DSM IV) Disorders due to psychoactive drug use (ICD 10) Conditions arising from the abuse of alcohol, psychoactive drugs and other chemicals such as volatile solvents
  • 3. DSM IV ICD 10 Intoxication Intoxication Abuse Harmful use Dependence Dependence syndrome Withdrawal Withdrawal state Withdrawal delirium Withdrawal with delirium Psychotic disorders Psychotic disorder Dementia Amnestic Disorder Amnestic syndrome Mood disorders Residual and late- Anxiety disorders -onset psychotic disorder Sexual dysfunctions Other mental and
  • 4. INTOXICATION – transient syndrome due to recent substance ingestion that produces clinically significant psychological and physical impairment ABUSE – maladaptive patterns of substance use that impair health DEPENDENCE – certain physiological and psychological phenomena induced by repeated taking of a substance (strong desire, neglect to other sources of satisfaction, development of tolerance and a physical withdrawal state)
  • 5. TOLERANCE – state in which, after repeated administration, a drug produces a decreased effect or increasing doses are required to produce the same effect WITHDRAWAL – state is a group of symptoms and signs occurring when a drug is reduced in amount or withdrawn, lasting for a limited time ESCALATION – refers to a phenomenon when a person taking so called softer drugs moves on to harder drugs
  • 6. DSM IV ICD 10 Alcohol Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Other stimulants such as caffeine Cannabis Cannabinoids Cocaine Cocaine Hallucinogens Hallucinogens Inhalents Volatile solvents Nicotine Tobacco Opioids Opioids Phencyclidine Sedatives/Hypnotics Sedatives/Hypnotics Multiple drug use
  • 7. Availability of drugs A vulnerable personality Adverse Social circumstances
  • 8. EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM – - Atleast 300,000 ppl in UK have this problem - Ppl with drinking problems have a 2 to 3 percent greater chance of dying - 1 in 5 admissions in acute medical wards in UK is directly or indirectly related to alcohol - Admissions to psychiatric hospitals for this purpose have increased 25 fold TERMINOLOGY OF DRINKING HEAVY BINGE DRINKERS PROBLEM DRINKERS DRINKERS
  • 9. DETECTION – History Absenteeism from work Unexplained dyspepsia or GI bleeds Admissions for accidents Fits, turns or falls Signs Plethoric face with/without telangiectases Blood shot conjuctivae Smell of stale alcohol Facial resemblance to Cushing’s Syndrome Marked tremors and other signs of disease
  • 10. ‘At risk’ factors Marital discord Days off work An affected relative having similar problems High-risk occupations eg. Salesmen Associated physical/mental conditions Markers Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin HDL Cholesterol Blood/Urinary Alcohol
  • 11. Rapid reinstatement Of syndrome on drinking After a period of abstinence Relief from withdrawal By further drinking Withdrawal symptoms The subjective Awareness of a Compulsion to drink ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE SYNDROME Increased tolerance To alcohol. Need for More to achieve Same results A narrowing of the Drinking repertoire Primacy of drinking Over other activities
  • 12. SYMPTOMS OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE – Unable to keep a drink limit/Difficulty avoiding getting drunk Spending considerable time drinking Missing meals/Memory lapses, blackouts Restless without drink/Trembling after drinking Organizing day around drink Morning retching and vomiting Sweating at night/Withdrawal fits Morning drinking/Increased tolerance Hallucinations/ frank delirium tremens DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL
  • 13. Any THREE of the following : Tremor of outstretched hands, tongue or eyelids Sweating Nausea / retching/ vomiting Tachycardia or hypertension Anxiety Psychomotor agitation Headache Insomnia Malaise or weakness Transient visual, auditory or tactile hallucinations/illusions Grandmal convulsions
  • 14. TREATMENT – Raise awareness of the problem Increase motivation to change Withdraw alcohol (controlled drinking) Support and advice CBT (Social skills, relapse prevention) Marital therapy Medication (Diazepam/chlormethiazole/Disulfiram or Acamprosate)
  • 15.  Psychological dependence  Glue-sniffing – adolescents. Tolerance develops in weeks or months  Intoxication characterized by euphoria, excitement, floating sensation, dizziness, slurred speech and ataxia  Acute intoxication – amnesia + visual hallucinations  There is risk of tissue damage including that to bone marrow, brain, liver and kidneys which can prove fatal
  • 16.  Derived directly from opium poppy: Morphine/Codeine  Semi-synthetic  Heroine / Diacetylmorphine Synthetic  Methadone/Meperidine/Dihydrocodeine  Uses  Pain relief; suppression of cough; treatment of acute myocardial infarction and also diarrhea  Effects  Pleasant mood and a euphoric detachment  Causes of death in narcotics addicts  Heart disease (including infective endocarditis) Tuberculosis Glomerulonephritis Tetanus/Malaria/Hepatitis B
  • 17.  NARCOTIC ABSTINENCE SYNDROME – Yawning/Rhinorrhea/Lacrimation Pupillary dilatation Sweating/Piloerection/Restlessness 12 – 16 HRS AFTER DOSE Muscle twitches/Aches and pains Abdominal cramps/Vomiting/Diarrhea Hypertension Insomnia/Anorexia/Agitation Profuse sweating/Weight loss 24 – 72 HRS AFTER LAST OPIATE DOSE
  • 18. Abrupt withdrawal is highly dangerous. May result in a mental disorder, similar to alcohol withdrawal, may lead to seizure & sometimes to death.   Withdrawal symptoms may not appear for several days. Anxiety, restlessness, and disturbed sleep anorexia, nausea.   May progress to vomiting, hypotension, pyrexia, tremulousness, major Seizures, disorientation & hallucinations.
  • 19.  Elevate mood, increase wakefulness, give an enhanced sense of mental and physical energy  Pleasurable stimulation & excitement potential of misuse  Cocaine, amphetamines, Synthetic (Phenmetrazine diethylpropon), Khat, Caffeine   
  • 20.  Effects similar to these Amphetamines  Strong Psychological dependence  Excitation,dilated pupils, tremulousness  Dizziness and sometimes convulsions  Confusion, depression, paranoid psychosis and formication
  • 21.  Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), Diazepam (Valium), Lorazepam (Ativan) and Nitrazepam (Mogadon)  Cause: Sedation, anxiety relief and Muscle relaxation Withdrawal Symptoms: Anxiety, restlessness, tachycardia and sensory disturbances
  • 22. Produce strange, intense, & transcendental effects,which gives them ‘recreational’ popularity Peyote, mescaline, ‘Magic mushroom’ LSD:lysergic acid diethyl-amide Do not give rise to dependence in true sense, nonetheless use is intensely hazardous
  • 23. Effects vary with dose, persons expectation , mood, & social setting Exaggerates pre-existing mood: exhilaration, depression or anxiety Increased enjoyment of aesthetic experience & distortion of time & space Reddening of the eyes, dry mouth, irritation of respiratory treat & coughing
  • 24.  No definite withdrawal Syndrome  No evidence of Tolerance. No serious side effects amongst intermittent users  No evidence of teratogenecity. Not safe in first trimester  Psychosis: disagreement
  • 25. PRE-COMTEMPLATION: Misuser doesn’t see the problem; others recognize it CONTEMPLATION: Individual weighs pros/cons. Considers change is needed DECISION POINT: Where the decision is made to act on this issue ACTION USER: Choose necessary strategy for change
  • 26. MAINTENANCE GAINS: Are maintained and consolidated RELAPSE: Return to previous pattern of behavior
  • 27. 1.DETOXIFICATION 2.INSISTENCE ON ABSTINENCE 3.INVOLVEMENT OF FAMILY 4.TOXICOLOGY SCREENS (periodic urine screens are often essential in identifying relapse and noncompliance) 5.SELF-HELP GROUPS
  • 28. 6. SANCTIONED TREATMENT (patient forced to remain in therapy by a legal sanction e.g. drivers/professional license) 7. CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING (This approach provides a powerful negative contingency for leaving treatment or relapsing or a positive contingency for remaining drug free)

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