celiac disease

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celiac disease

  1. 1. CELIAC DISEASE Dr. Tehreem Aftab House Officer MU-1
  2. 2. •Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy. •Celiac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat, rye and barley •This condition has several other names including: celiac sprue, non-tropical sprue,  endemic sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy
  3. 3. • The prevalence of clinically diagnosed disease is 0.05–0.27% • Prevalance in childeren 0.33 and 1.06% • Prevalance in adults 0.18–1.2%
  4. 4. • Celiac disease appears to be polyfactorial, both in that more than one genetic factor can cause the disease and also more than one factor is necessary for the disease to manifest in a patient.
  5. 5. 1. Genetics • The vast majority of celiac patients have one of two types of HLA DQ • Two of these variants—DQ2 and DQ8—are associated with celiac disease • The reason these genes produce an increase in risk of celiac disease is that the receptors formed by these genes bind to gliadin peptides more tightly than other forms of the antigen-presenting receptor.
  6. 6. 2. Prolamins • The majority of the proteins in food responsible for the immune reaction in celiac disease are the prolamins. These are storage proteins rich in proline and glutamine • Prolamins disrupt tight junctions between enterocytes which allow large amino acids to enter circulation and stimulate immune response
  7. 7. 3. Tissue Transglutaminase • Anti-transglutaminase antibodies to the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) are found in an overwhelming majority of cases. • Tissue transglutaminase modifies gluten peptides into a form that may stimulate the immune system more effectively.
  8. 8. 4. Villous atrophy and malabsorption • The inflammatory process, mediated by T cells, leads to disruption of the structure and function of the small bowel's mucosal lining, and causes malabsorption as it impairs the body's ability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K from food. • Lactose intolerance may be present due to  the decreased bowel surface  reduced production of lactase but typically resolves once the condition is treated
  9. 9. 5. Risk modifiers • Infection by Rota virus • Human intestinal adeno virus • That smoking is protective against adult onset coeliac disease • Timing of the exposure to gluten in childhood is an important risk modifier • Prolonging breastfeeding until the introduction of gluten-containing grains into the diet is associated with a 52% reduced risk of developing celiac disease in infancy
  10. 10. 1. GIT • Diarrhoea which is pale, voluminous and malodorous • Abdominal pain and cramping, bloatedness with abdominal distention • lactose intolerance • adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of small bowel • Ulcerative jejunitis and stricturing
  11. 11. 2. Malabsorption-related • • • • • • Weight loss Fatigue Anemia Abnormal coagulation due to deficiency of vitamin K, Bacterial overgrowth Calcium and vitamin D malabsorption (and compensatory secondary hyperparathyroidism) may cause osteopenia (decreased mineral content of the bone) or osteoporosis (bone weakening and risk of fractures)
  12. 12. 3. Miscellaneous • IgA deficiency • an increased risk of infections and autoimmune disease • Dermatitis herpetiformis; this itchy cutaneous condition has been linked to a transglutaminase enzyme in the skin, features small bowel changes identical to those in celiac disease and occurs more often (in 2%) in patients with celiac disease. • Epilepsy, ataxia (coordination problems), myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and schizophrenia • Growth failure and/or pubertal delay • Miscarriage and infertility. • Hyposplenism (a small and under active spleen) • Other auto-immune disorders     diabetes mellitus type 1 autoimmune thyroiditis primary biliary cirrhosis microscopic colitis
  13. 13. Routine Lab Test • • • • • • Full blood count Electrolytes Calcium Vitamin B12 and Folic acid levels Prothrombin time
  14. 14. Serologic Test • Tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies • Antibodies against endomysium • Antibodies against reticulin (ARA) or gliadin (AGA) • Guidelines recommend that a total serum IgA level is checked in parallel, as coeliac patients with IgA deficiency may be unable to produce the antibodies on which these tests depend
  15. 15. HLA genetic typing Test sensitivity specificity HLA-DQ2 94% 73% HLA-DQ8 12% 81%
  16. 16. Endoscopy Endoscopic still of duodenum of patient with celiac disease showing scalloping of folds.
  17. 17. • Most patients with celiac disease have a small bowel that appears normal on endoscopies; however, five concurrent endoscopic findings have been associated with a high specificity for celiac disease:  scalloping of the small bowel folds  paucity in the folds  a mosaic pattern to the mucosa -cracked-mud appearance  prominence of the sub mucosal blood vessels  a nodular pattern to the mucosa
  18. 18. • The classic pathology changes of celiac disease in the small bowel are categorized by the "Marsh classification"  Marsh stage 0: normal mucosa  Marsh stage 1: increased number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes, usually exceeding 20 per 100 enterocytes  Marsh stage 2: proliferation of the crypts of Lieberkuhn  Marsh stage 3: partial or complete villous atrophy  Marsh stage 4: hypoplasia of the small bowel architecture
  19. 19. By diet • Presently, the only effective treatment is a lifelong GLUTEN FREE DIET • Rice, soyabean, potato and corn flour are safe • No medication exists that will prevent damage, or prevent the body from attacking the gut when gluten is present. • Strict adherence to the diet allows the intestines to heal, leading to resolution of all symptoms in most cases and, depending on how soon the diet is begun, can also eliminate the heightened risk of osteoporosis and intestinal cancer
  20. 20. Refractory Disease This may be because • The disease has been present for so long that the intestines are no longer able to heal on diet alone • The patient is not adhering to the diet • Because the patient is consuming foods that are inadvertently contaminated with gluten • In this case steroids and immunosuppresents should be considered
  21. 21. Experimental treatments • Genetically engineered wheat species, or wheat species that have been selectively bred to be minimally immunogenic • A combination of enzymes (prolyl endopeptidase and a barley glutamine-specific cysteine endopeptidase (EP-B2)) that degrade the putative 33-mer peptide in the duodenum. This combination would enable celiac disease patients to consume gluten-containing products
  22. 22. • • • • Intestinal T-cell lymphoma Carcinoma of small intestine Ulcerative jejunitis Complications of nutritional deficiency Anemia Osteoporosis Osteomalacia Peripheral neuropathy
  23. 23. • Prognosis is excellent if properly diagnosed and treated • In some patients it becomes refractory to gluten withdrawal and it carries a poor prognosis • These patients may have developed ulcerative jejunitis or T-cell lymphoma(10% of patients)
  24. 24. • Regarding celiac disease all are true except: a) All patients of celiac disease have dermatitis herpetiformis b) all patients of dermatitis herpetiformis have evidence of celiac disease on intestinal biopsy c) Dermatitis herpetiformis does not respond to gluten free diet d) Drug of choice for dermatitis herpetiformis is Dapsone  Answer : a & c
  25. 25. • In addition to celiac disease villous atrophy can be caused by: a. b. c. d. e. Giardiasis Lymphoma Whipple disease Both a and c All of the above  Answer : e
  26. 26. • All are true about celiac disease except: a. Celiac disease is most commonly confused with IBS b. 10% of adults with iron deficiency anemia have un diagnosed celiac disease c. It is one of the most frequently diagnosed disease d. Celiac disease not responding to gluten free diet has poor prognosis  Answer : c

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