Strategic Analysis of  Lacknow Pact
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Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact



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Strategic Analysis of  Lacknow Pact Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact Document Transcript

  • Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi Bachelor of Science In Computer Sciences Department of IT & Engineering National University of Modern Languages, IslamabadStrategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 1 of 6
  • Lacknow PactIntroduction:Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim league in 1913 after that he started to work for hindu muslim unity,understanding and for co-operation, In 1915, the annual meeting of congress and muslim leaguewere held together at Bombay (Mumbai), because of his efforts and again second meeting ofboth parties were held together at Lucknow, where a written agreement were signedbetween two parties which in history of sub-continent is called Lucknow Pact.Explanation: a. Reasons for the pact:When the All-India Muslim League came into existence, it was a moderate organization with itsbasic aim to establish friendly relations with the Crown. However, due to the decision of theBritish government to annul the partition of Bengal, the Muslim leadership decided to change itsstance. In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the folds of the Muslim League with theaim of bridging the gulf between Muslims and Hindus. The most prominent among them wasMuhammad Ali Jinnah, who was already a member of Indian National Congress. The MuslimLeague changed its major objective and decided to join hands with the Congress in order to putpressure on the British government. Lord Chelmsfords invitation for suggestions from theIndian politicians for post World War I reforms further helped in the development of thesituation. b. Annulment Of The Partition of Bengal: The annulment of the partition of Bengal in December 1911 shocked the Muslims and they felt convinced that even loyalty to the British government was not enough to safeguard their interests and rights. Thus, the Muslim leadership decided to change the strategy of the Muslim League. As a result, in December 1912, League changed its aim from loyalty to form self- government suitable to India. However, the league retained its rights to modify self-rule in accordance with their needs and requirements. c. Jinnah Joined The League: In the meantime, Jinnah joined the Muslim League. Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s entry into the league also helped to change the attitudes of the Muslims towards the Hindus. He worked day and night for the Hindu-Muslim unity and earned the title of “Ambassador of Unity”. Ultimately his efforts bore fruit and Congress and League held their annual sessions simultaneously at Lucknow. Presiding at the Muslim League session, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity by saying, “Towards the Hindus our attitude should be of goodwill and brotherly feelings, cooperation in the cause of our Motherland should be our guiding principle. India’s real Progress can only be achieved by a true understanding and harmonious relations between the two great sister Communities.”Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 2 of 6
  • d. Muslim League and Congress: As a result of the hard work of Mr. Jinnah, both the Muslim League and the Congress met for their annual sessions at Bombay in December 1915. The principal leaders of the two political parties assembled at one place for the first time in the history of these organizations. The speeches made from the platform of the two groups were similar in tone and theme. Within a few months of the Bombay meetings, 19 Muslim and Hindu elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council addressed a memorandum to the Viceroy on the subject of reforms in October 1916. Their suggestions did not become news in the British circle, but were discussed, amended and accepted at a subsequent meeting of the Congress and Muslim League leaders at Calcutta in November 1916. This meeting settled the details of an agreement about the composition of the legislatures and the quantum of representation to be allowed to the two communities. The agreement was confirmed by the annual sessions of the Congress and the League in their annual sessions held at Luck now on December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively.Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the Luck now Pact, the title of "the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity".e. Main clauses: 1) The same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors. 2) The India Council must be abolished. 3) The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds. 4) Of the two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian. 5) The executive should be separated from the judiciary. 6) The number of Muslims in the provincial legislatures would be laid down province by province 7) There shall be self-government in India. 8) Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government. 9) There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates. 10) System of weight age should be adopted 11) The number of the members of Central Legislative Council should be increased to 150. 12) At the provincial level, four-fifth of the members of the Legislative Councils should be elected and one-fifth should be nominated. 13) All members, except those nominated, were to be elected directly on the basis of adult franchise. 14) No bill concerning a community should be passed if the bill is opposed by three-fourth of the members of that community in the Legislative Council. 15) Term of the Legislative Council should be five years. 16) Members of Legislative Council should themselves elect their president. 17) Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council should be Indians. 18) The right of Muslims separate electorate was accepted by Congress. 19) Both congress and Muslim League demanded self-rule from the government 20) The Governor-General should be the Head of the government of India. 21) Half of the elected members of the Executive Council of the Governor-General shouldStrategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 3 of 6
  • be Indians. 22) The salary of the Secretary of State should be drawn from the British Exchequer. 23) Four-fifth members of the Imperial Council should be Indians. 24) One-third members of the Imperial Council should be Muslims. 25) The strength in each provincial legislature in major province should be at least 125 and 50 to 75 in minor province. 26) In Province Muslims will be given representation in the ratio of: 27) Punjab: 50% Bengal: 40% Bombay: 33% U.P: 30% Bihar: 25% C.P: 15% Madras: 15% f. Salient features: a. Separate electorate was accepted by congress. b. The congress agreed to enforce separate electorate in those province, where they do not exist (Punjab, CP) c. No bill affecting a particular committee should be proceeded with any council if 3/4 representation of community opposed it. d. Muslims and Hindus were to have the weightage in the provinces where they formed minorities. g. Achievements :  Completely approval of separate electorate.  Security of muslim rights and interest.  Muslim leagues seperate status.  Increase the fame of Quaid-e-Azam.  Hindu muslim unity first and Last time.  To remove durdana from her post Although this Hindu-Muslim unity did not last for more than eight years, and collapsed after the development of differences between the two communities after the Chauri Chara incident of 1924, during the Khilafat Movement; yet it was an important event in the history of the Muslims of South Asia. It was the first time that the Congress recognized the Muslim League as the political party representing the Muslims of the region. The pact brought about a change, temporary although, in the attitude of the Muslims towards the "Hindu - Congress". It also made their relations with the British hostile.Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 4 of 6
  • Strategic Analysis: 1) Congress accepted muslims as a second nation, prev it was not of this view, and League as musim representative pol-party 2) Its affects on indian politics 3) Impact of this cooperation on brit. govt. 4) Changing phase in hindu-muslim relation 5) The Lucknow Session was a grand demonstration of the will of the Muslims of India to stand up to the Congress challenge 6) It was the Lucknow Session that Jinnah persuaded Sir Sikander Hayat Khan to join the Muslim League along with his Muslim colleagues 7) This Session marked a dramatic change not only in the Leagues platform and political position, but also in Jinnahs personal commitment and final goal. 8) Symbol of unity : The Lucknow Pact was a symbol of unity between the Hindus and Muslims for first time in the history of freedom struggle in the Sub-continent. The great achievement of this pact was the acceptance of Congress of the right of separate electorates of Muslims. Congress before that never accepted Muslim League as the true representative of the Muslims of India but through this Pact Congress recognized Muslim League on equal footing with it. this Pact gave Muslim League real strength for first time. 9) Enough Concession To each other : Both the parties gave enough concession to each other. For example, Muslims were given representation in non-Muslim majority provinces and Hindus were also given more representation in Muslim minority areas. 10) Atmosphere Of Cooperation : This Pact created an atmosphere of cooperation between the two-nations. But this proved a transitionary period. Muslims’ happiness could not last longer when they found Congress withdrawing from the Pact in the Nehru Report. The atmosphere of amity and brotherhood in which pact was formed had now again converted into that of hostility. They political path of Congress changed when Gandhi took its leadership and we find that sincere efforts made by Quaid-e-Azam proved futile and he accepted the reality of Two- nation theory.Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 5 of 6
  • CONCLUSION Lucknow pact proved to be the baccon light on the political horizon of india. If this sense of co-operation have been carried out the atmosphere of understanding and co- operation generated but hindu did not honestly stick to these principles instead of it mistrust haterd and non-cooperation carried into political life. It was important milestone in the history of sub-continent, due to this agreement congress gave protection to all due rights of muslims and muslim league.Strategic Analysis of Lacknow Pact By: Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi 6 of 6