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Strategic Analysis of Khilafat Movement (Updated Version)
 

Strategic Analysis of Khilafat Movement (Updated Version)

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"This Presentation was presented by me in the Seminar Held by IT-Department presided by Department of Pakistan Studies on November 15,2012 at National University of Modern Languages,Islamabad. "
------- Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi

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    Strategic Analysis of Khilafat Movement (Updated Version) Strategic Analysis of Khilafat Movement (Updated Version) Presentation Transcript

    • STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT BY Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi BSCS-1st Semester 1 National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
    • OUTLINE:1. Introduction2. Background3. Historical Perspective a) Ottoman Caliphate b) Khilafat In South Asia c) Collapse d) Legacy4. Demands of The Khilafat Committee5. Aims and Objectives of Khilafat Movement6. Establishment of All-India Khilafat movement7. Congress support to Khilafat movement8. Non-cooperation movement9. Hijrat movement10. End of Khilafat movement 211. Chauri Chura incident
    • OUTLINE:12. End of caliphate13. Causes Of The Failure Of Khilafat Movement14. Effects Of Khilafat Movement a) Economic, social and political effects on muslims b) Political training of muslims c) Credit Side Of Khilafat Movement d) Adverse Side Of The Khilafat Movement15. Strategic Analysis16. Conclusion17. Bibliographic Search 3
    • KHILAFAT MOVEMENT (1919-1924)1. Introduction: The Khilafat movement was started by Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, both brothers, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Hasrat Mohani and Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari. It was started in 1919 to support the Ottoman Caliphate and was short lived, ending in 1924 by the overthrow of the Caliph by Kemal Ataturk in Turkey. It was briefly supported by Gandhi as an alliance of sorts was formed to gain Indian independence which was then Part of the British Raj. Khilafat movement was launched by Muslims of South Asia to force British government to protect the Ottoman Empire after World War 1.2. Background: After the First World War in 1918, British and its allied powers decided to divide Turkey among themselves. Turkey supported Germany in the First World War. Germany lost the war and Turkey had to face the music. British and its allies also resolved to dissolve the designation of Khilafat. The designation of Khilafat always remained holy and sacred in the Muslim history. Khalifa is considered the vicegerent of Allah on the Earth. Therefore, the Muslims became infuriated on this unholy act of the British government. Maulana 4 Mohammad Ali Johar and Maulana Shaukat Ali Johar along with other Muslim leaders started a movement called the Khilafat movement.
    • 3. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:a. Ottoman Caliphate The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Severs (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of Ottoman Empire and gave Greece a powerful position in Anatolia, to the distress of the Turks. They called for help and the movement was the result. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained. The cause of the Ottoman monarch evoked religious passion and sympathy amongst Indian Muslims. Being a Caliph, the Ottoman emperor was nominally the supreme religious and political leader of all Muslims across the world. 5
    • b. Khilafat in South Asia After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement.c. Collapse In wake of these disturbances, the Ali brothers began distancing themselves from Gandhi and the Congress. The Ali brothers criticised Gandhis extreme commitment to non-violence and severed their ties with them after he suspended all non-cooperation movement after the killing of 23 policemen at Chauri Chaura in 1922. Although holding talks with the British and continuing their activities, the Khilafat struggle weakened as Muslims were divided between working for the Congress, the Khilafat cause and the Muslim League. The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa Kemals forces, who overthrew the Ottoman rule to establish a pro-Western, secular republic in independent Turkey. He abolished the Calif role and sought no help from Indians. The Khilafat leadership fragmented on different political lines. Syed Ata ullah shah Bukhari created Majlis-e-Ahrar-e -Islam with the support of Chaudary Afzal Haq .Leaders such as Dr. Ansari, Maulana Azad and Hakim Ajmal Khan remained strong supporters of Gandhi and the Congress. The Ali brothers joined the Muslim League 6
    • They would play a major role in the growth of the Leagues popular appeal and the subsequent Pakistan Movement. There was, however, a Caliphate Conference in Jerusalem in 1931 following Turkeys abolition of the Khilafat, to determine what should be done about the caliphate. People from villages such as Aujla Khurd the main contributors to the cause.d. Legacy The Khilafat struggle evokes controversy and strong opinions. By critics, it is regarded as a political agitation based on a pan-Islamic, fundamentalist platform and being largely indifferent to the cause of Indian independence. Critics of the Khilafat see its alliance with the Congress as a marriage of convenience. Proponents of the Khilafat see it as the spark that led to the non-cooperation movement in India and a major milestone in improving Hindu-Muslim relations, while advocates of Pakistan and Muslim separatism see it as a major step towards establishing the separate Muslim state. The Ali brothers are regarded as founding-fathers of Pakistan, while Azad, Dr. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Khan are widely celebrated as national heroes in India. Jats were the only group who were with the Ali brothers the whole time. Other tribes such as Rajputs surrendered. Main tribes of Jats included Metlas and Aujla. 7
    • 4. DEMANDS OF THE KHILAFAT MOVEMENT: The demands of the Khilafat committee were as under: i) The Turkish Empire should not be dismembered. ii) The institution of Caliphate must be retained. iii) The Holy place should remain in the custody of Turkish Government.5. Aims and Objectives of Khilafat Movement: The Muslims demanded that:- “Jazirat-ul-Arab including Mesopotamia, Arabia, Syria and Palestine with the Holy places situated therein must always remain under the direct suzerainty of the Khilafat.” The Khilafat Movement aimed at presenting the Ottoman Empire and the continuity of the temporal power of Khalifa to protect Muslim lands without any mandate. Mohammad Ali put forward the demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring: “ The Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the Khalifa shall have sufficient temporal power for the defence of the Faith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive, Muslim control without mandate or protection and that the Khalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of the Holy places.” 8
    • 6. ESTABLISHMENT OF ALL-INDIA KHILAFAT MOVEMENT (ON MARCH 20, 1919): All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:  No participation in victory celebrations  Non Cooperation with the Government  Boycott of British goods The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Johar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920. 9
    • 7. CONGRESS SUPPORT TO KHILAFAT MOVEMENT: Leaders of many struggling countries in Asia, locked in the battle for freedom, were conscious of the fact that their struggle was a part of the general struggle in all colonial countries. They extended support to each other. Sun Yat Sen once offered to make over the funds he had collected for revolutionary struggle in China to the Philippine revolutionaries and was willing to postpone the uprisings he had planned in China so that the cause of independence of the Philippines could be furthered. Perhaps more than any other country, the Indian National Congress leadership was clear from a very early stage in demonstrating solidarity with the other struggling, colonial peoples. This feeling of oneness and of a common struggle was instinctively felt by Dadabhai Naoroji, Bannerjee, Gokhale, Tilak, Lajpat Rai and other leaders of the time. Under the leadership of Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru, this became a matter of faith as well as of policy. 10
    • 8. NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT: The Nagpur Session of the Congress (Dec. 1920) approved non cooperation with Government but Jinnah opposed and left the Congress on 13th April 1923, because he was against the use of extra-constitutional means of protests. The country was passing through a critical period and both the Congress and the Muslim League fully felt the necessity of mutual co-operation to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two movements met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country-wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Gandhi. So the two movements, one led by Maulana Muhammad Ali and the other by Mr. Gandhi merged into one and it was directed against the British Government. The policy of ‘progressive, non-violent, non-cooperation’ was to be given effect to in the following manner: a) Renunciation of all Government titles. b) Boycott of courts and educational institutions c) Resign from jobs d) Later resign from police and military jobs e) Refusal to pay taxes. f) Boycott of foreign goods. 11
    • 9. HIJRAT MOVEMENT (1920-21) The Indian ulama (religious leaders) declared India ‘Darul Harab.’ Darul Harab means the place (country) where Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices. In the said situation, the Muslims should migrate to the nearest safe place. The ulama issued verdicts to go to Darul Islam, Afghanistan. There was an impression that King of Afghanistan would welcome them. So the migration took place at large scale. Initially Afghans welcomed them. Later, they closed the border and pushed the migrants back to the Indian territories. It resulted in loss of lives and money. Many died during this mission. Some went to Soviet Union from Afghanistan because they had nothing in India now. 12
    • 10. END OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT: a. Moplah Revolt Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub Continent even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, they revolted against Hindu landlords whose treatment was very brutal with them. Later this clash changed as Moplahs versus the Police and Hindu. This embittered the Hindu-Muslim relations. There was an increase in violence day by day and the Chora Chori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and 21 policemen were killed. Gandhi suddenly called off the movement without consulting other leaders. b. Developments in Turkey In 1922 Attaturk emerged as a national leader and restricted powers of Sultan. Next he was appointed Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly. In March 1924, Khilafat was abolished. This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. They sent delegations to Turkey but failed to achieve their objectives. 13
    • 11. CHAURA CHURI INCIDENT : Chaura Chauri is a small village in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. On February 5,1922, the police stationed there fired at a group of demonstrators. The demonstrators retaliated by burning down the police station, which caused the death of twenty-two policemen. Gandhiji had all through the movement emphasized on peace and non violence. This incident deeply hurt him and he called off the movement. On March 10,1922, he was arrested and sentenced to six years imprisonment. The national movement during the years AD 1905-1922 turned into a popular movement largely due to the efforts of Gandhiji. In the following years, he was the person who symbolized the attempts of the Indians to secure freedom from British rule. 14
    • 12. END OF CALIPHATE: After Hijrat Movement, the Muslims had to come back to the Sub-continent but now they had lost their hearth and home. They had to face the severe circumstances in the Khilafat movement. In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk assumed power in Turkey and abolished the institution of Khilafat himself lf. This act of him really disappointed Muslims. Thus the Khilafat Movement came to an end without achieving its goals.13. Causes Of The Failure Of Khilafat Movement: Gandhi also joined Muslims in their Khilafat Movement. In fact, he wants to protect the British government and needed autonomy of India through this movement. Therefore, he joined the Khilafat Movement for achieving his coveted plan. Apparently, he was showing that he was sincere to the Muslim cause. Quaid-e-Azam admonished the Muslims that this movement should not be started but Muslims were not listening to him. Non-cooperation movement, Hijrat movement, Moplah revolt and the Chaura Chauri tragedy did a great loss to Muslim properties, wealth and lives. After the tragedy of Chaura Chauri, Gandhi left the Khilafat movement saying that he did not like violence. 15
    • 14. Effects Of Khilafat Movement: a) Credit Side Of Khilafat Movement It trained Muslims for political action and agitation.• It trained Muslims for political action and agitation.• It united the extremists and modernists on one platform.• They learned that Hindus can never be friends of Muslims. Their differences are too deep- rooted to• The Muslims got acquainted of their political power.• It made Muslims politically conscious• It destroyed the myth of Muslims loyalty to the British.b. Adverse Side Of Khilafat Movement:• Muslims became more interested in national affairs than international one.• Hijrat movement cost millions of rupees and millions of families.• Muslim emotionalism gave nothing to them. Khilafat was abolished not by British but by Turks themselves.• Religious leaders for the time being vanished from political arena. 16
    • 15. Strategic Analysis: The Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its objectives of restoration of caliphate. Muslims of India were very discouraged and disappointed on its failure. Yet the Khilafat Movement had some favorable effects on Muslims of India in the long run.• The movement gave a general awareness and created self-confidence among the Muslims.• It awakened their sense of political understanding.• They started taking parts in nation politics and also learnt methods of protesting, arranging and holding mass meetings and fighting for their rights.• Educated Muslims, students and Ulemas started taking interest in politics.• This movement created a number of political workers who later started taking interest in politics and played an important and active role in the Pakistan Movement.• This movement created a number of political workers who later started taking interest in politics and played an important and active role in the Pakistan Movement.• These workers had direct contact with the masses. Now they were able to boldly present their demands to the British Government.• The Khilafat Movement gave a boost to Muslim journalism and many important Urdu magazines and newspapers came out voicing the demands of Muslims. 17
    • Strategic Analysis:• The magazines and newspapers contributed a great deal towards political awakening and advocating their demands of Pakistan Movement later on.• The members of the Khilafat Movement were more concerned with the fate of the Khalifa than the western powers and people of Turkey.• The Hindus and the Muslims had different aims. The Hindus wanted independence from the British while the Muslims had the aim of gaining power back to the caliph.• The movement also created a strong anti-british feeling. This made Ghandi call of the campaign before Kemal Ataturk abolished the movement.• The outcomes of Khilafat Movement were huge. It left both good and bad effects.• It results in protest and rallies on street of subcontinent.• There was an increase in violence day by day. It results in collapse of Hindu Muslims Alliance.• A huge number of people were involved in this movement, ma b this was also a reason of civil disobedience.• Because of some violent incidence in the country which resulted in the deaths of many Hindus, Muslims and British people, Mahatama Gandhi G called off his Non-Cooperation Movement. This was a major jolt to the Khilafat Movement 18
    • 16. CONCLUSION: Every movement against the British rule left its good as well as bad effects on the people. After Khilafat Movement Muslims of the Sub-continent become united, strong and conscious about their separate identity which led them towards final destination. This was the real credit which Muslims derived from Khilafat Movement. 19
    • 17. BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCH: Web Reference• http://ww.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khilafat_Movement• http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/pakistan-affairs/51264- my-notes-plz-check-2.html• http://storyofpakistan.com/khilafat-movement/• http://notesonpakistan.blogspot.com/2009/05/khilafat-movement.html• http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/316624/Khilafat-movement Books Reference• Pakistan Studies, Dr.Abdul Qadeer khan• History of Pakistan studies• Pakistan Studies Lecture Notes 20
    • CONTACT ME ! www.facebook.com/m.ahsan.qureshi Skype : ahsanqureshi011 21
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