An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
The world  is changing… Tebndxt by Armel
“ Content is no longer limited to the books, filmstrips, and videos associated with classroom instruction; networked conte...
<ul><li>“ Adopt programs and policies to promote  open educational resources . Materials funded by NSF should be made read...
Text What are Open Edu c ational Resour c es?  Michael Reschke  cba Digitized materials offered freely and openly for educ...
 
<ul><li>By designating a resource as “open”, creators of OER appear to be inviting others to share and adapt such resource...
What   makes  resources   OPEN?   Text <ul><li>The ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>•  Access   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Does this patchwork approach to copyright undermine the effectiveness of OER to be shared and adapted by educators...
Which sites are “open”? <ul><li>Hard to tell, actually. We coded these sites “presumptively open”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The...
1006 sites in database 696 sites – “Closed” 167 sites – US Government 143 sites – “Open”
Government educational sites License providers
“ Open” educational sites – License providers
CC-licensed “open” educational sites
“ Open” sites with amended  all-rights-reserved  licenses.  Permissions granted Total © sites with additional permissions ...
“ Open” sites with amended  all-rights-reserved  licenses.  CC license equivalents Total © sites with additional permissio...
Creative Commons licenses Remixability (interoperability) matrix These  CC Licenses ...can be used with these   CC License...
Creative Commons licenses Remixability matrix
© Again –  The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given.  But this basic schema does not map perfectly ...
© This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
© This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
OER Galaxies diagram by David Wiley ( http://opencontent.org/blog )  Silos (or galaxies) of OER…?
<ul><li>Start with the presumption than WIDE OPEN is the default and most desirable state. </li></ul><ul><li>Only add user...
Ideally, OER in the global education commons should be:    • easy to identify •  minimally encumbered •  fully adaptable T...
The  O pen  D atabase of  E ducational  P rojects and  O rganizations Identify potential collaborators Network Add your pr...
learn.creativecommons.org Send comments to: ahrash@creativecommons.org
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Open Ed2008 An Analysis Of Open

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Preview of findings from a study by ccLearn on the licensing policies of presumptively "open" educational resource sites, with a particular focus on the remixability (interoperability) of differently licensed OER.

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Open Ed2008 An Analysis Of Open

  1. 1. An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
  2. 2. An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
  3. 3. The world is changing… Tebndxt by Armel
  4. 4. “ Content is no longer limited to the books, filmstrips, and videos associated with classroom instruction; networked content today provides a rich immersive learning environment incorporating accessible data using colorful visualizations, animated graphics, and interactive applications.” “ Alongside these technology improvements, “ open educational resources ” offer learning content and software tools that support search, organization, interaction, and distribution of materials.” “ Increasingly,… the Web is being recognized as an enabler for collaborative creation of significant information resources that aggregate contributions from hundreds or thousands of individuals.” What is the future of education…?
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Adopt programs and policies to promote open educational resources . Materials funded by NSF should be made readily available on the web with permission for unrestricted reuse and recombination .” </li></ul>http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2008/nsf08204/nsf08204.pdf
  6. 6. Text What are Open Edu c ational Resour c es? Michael Reschke cba Digitized materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and re-use for teaching, learning and research.* *UNESCO. 2002. Forum on the impact of Open Courseware for higher education in developing countries. Final report. Paris: UNESCO.
  7. 8. <ul><li>By designating a resource as “open”, creators of OER appear to be inviting others to share and adapt such resources. </li></ul><ul><li>But calling an educational resource “open” does not suffice under copyright law to specify which uses of the resource are legal. </li></ul>What is the issue?
  8. 9. What makes resources OPEN? Text <ul><li>The ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Share — Copy, Distribute, Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Adapt — Perform, Translate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Derive — Remix </li></ul></ul>The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. But there is substantial variation in site policies…. More permissions = More open.
  9. 10. <ul><li>Does this patchwork approach to copyright undermine the effectiveness of OER to be shared and adapted by educators and students? </li></ul>b n d a © We decided to analyze the current state of affairs for OER sites and consider the implications for the global education commons.
  10. 11. Which sites are “open”? <ul><li>Hard to tell, actually. We coded these sites “presumptively open”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The OpenLearn website gives free access to course materials from The Open University. The LearningSpace is open to learners anywhere in the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>  Open University – OpenLearn – LearningSpace http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>“ LearnHub is free to use. However, teachers may charge a fee for certain courses and for tutoring.” </li></ul><ul><li>  LearnHub http://learnhub.com/about </li></ul>
  11. 12. 1006 sites in database 696 sites – “Closed” 167 sites – US Government 143 sites – “Open”
  12. 13. Government educational sites License providers
  13. 14. “ Open” educational sites – License providers
  14. 15. CC-licensed “open” educational sites
  15. 16. “ Open” sites with amended all-rights-reserved licenses. Permissions granted Total © sites with additional permissions 27 Free to use for “educators” 3 Free to use, but only “non-commercially” 21 Free to use, but only for “educational use” 11 Free to use, but not to derive 16 Free to use, but limited to one or a few copies 6 Free to use, but only in a specific region 2 Free to use if shared-alike 6 The terms of use were unclear 6
  16. 17. “ Open” sites with amended all-rights-reserved licenses. CC license equivalents Total © sites with additional permissions 27 CC BY 3 CC BY-SA 1 CC BY-NC 0 CC BY-NC-SA 5 CC BY-ND 0 CC BY-ND-NC 16 No equivalent license 2
  17. 18. Creative Commons licenses Remixability (interoperability) matrix These CC Licenses ...can be used with these CC Licenses CC BY CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC-ND CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC-SA CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-ND CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-SA CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA
  18. 19. Creative Commons licenses Remixability matrix
  19. 20. © Again – The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. But this basic schema does not map perfectly to remixability... More permissions = More open.
  20. 21. © This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
  21. 22. © This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
  22. 23. OER Galaxies diagram by David Wiley ( http://opencontent.org/blog ) Silos (or galaxies) of OER…?
  23. 24. <ul><li>Start with the presumption than WIDE OPEN is the default and most desirable state. </li></ul><ul><li>Only add user constraints as is necessary or desirable, recognizing that there are significant (opportunity) costs involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the machines do the work (integrate CC and associated metadata properly using ccREL). </li></ul>What recommendations ? Text
  24. 25. Ideally, OER in the global education commons should be: • easy to identify • minimally encumbered • fully adaptable Tebnaxt http://www.flickr.com/photos/mimax/303567279/ by Max
  25. 26. The O pen D atabase of E ducational P rojects and O rganizations Identify potential collaborators Network Add your project Add additional info Search by various properties ODEPO Project <ul><li>Licensing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Open Education Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliated Projects and Organizations </li></ul>Find:
  26. 27. learn.creativecommons.org Send comments to: ahrash@creativecommons.org
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