Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Open Ed2008 An Analysis Of Open

1,969

Published on

Preview of findings from a study by ccLearn on the licensing policies of presumptively "open" educational resource sites, with a particular focus on the remixability (interoperability) of differently …

Preview of findings from a study by ccLearn on the licensing policies of presumptively "open" educational resource sites, with a particular focus on the remixability (interoperability) of differently licensed OER.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,969
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
  • 2. An Analysis of “Open” in Education License policy diversity and implications for the global commons Ahrash N Bissell
  • 3. The world is changing… Tebndxt by Armel
  • 4. “ Content is no longer limited to the books, filmstrips, and videos associated with classroom instruction; networked content today provides a rich immersive learning environment incorporating accessible data using colorful visualizations, animated graphics, and interactive applications.” “ Alongside these technology improvements, “ open educational resources ” offer learning content and software tools that support search, organization, interaction, and distribution of materials.” “ Increasingly,… the Web is being recognized as an enabler for collaborative creation of significant information resources that aggregate contributions from hundreds or thousands of individuals.” What is the future of education…?
  • 5.
    • “ Adopt programs and policies to promote open educational resources . Materials funded by NSF should be made readily available on the web with permission for unrestricted reuse and recombination .”
    http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2008/nsf08204/nsf08204.pdf
  • 6. Text What are Open Edu c ational Resour c es? Michael Reschke cba Digitized materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and re-use for teaching, learning and research.* *UNESCO. 2002. Forum on the impact of Open Courseware for higher education in developing countries. Final report. Paris: UNESCO.
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • By designating a resource as “open”, creators of OER appear to be inviting others to share and adapt such resources.
    • But calling an educational resource “open” does not suffice under copyright law to specify which uses of the resource are legal.
    What is the issue?
  • 9. What makes resources OPEN? Text
    • The ability to:
      • • Access
      • • Share — Copy, Distribute, Display
      • • Adapt — Perform, Translate
      • • Derive — Remix
    The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. But there is substantial variation in site policies…. More permissions = More open.
  • 10.
    • Does this patchwork approach to copyright undermine the effectiveness of OER to be shared and adapted by educators and students?
    b n d a © We decided to analyze the current state of affairs for OER sites and consider the implications for the global education commons.
  • 11. Which sites are “open”?
    • Hard to tell, actually. We coded these sites “presumptively open”.
    • “ The OpenLearn website gives free access to course materials from The Open University. The LearningSpace is open to learners anywhere in the world.”
    •   Open University – OpenLearn – LearningSpace http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/
    • “ LearnHub is free to use. However, teachers may charge a fee for certain courses and for tutoring.”
    •   LearnHub http://learnhub.com/about
  • 12. 1006 sites in database 696 sites – “Closed” 167 sites – US Government 143 sites – “Open”
  • 13. Government educational sites License providers
  • 14. “ Open” educational sites – License providers
  • 15. CC-licensed “open” educational sites
  • 16. “ Open” sites with amended all-rights-reserved licenses. Permissions granted Total © sites with additional permissions 27 Free to use for “educators” 3 Free to use, but only “non-commercially” 21 Free to use, but only for “educational use” 11 Free to use, but not to derive 16 Free to use, but limited to one or a few copies 6 Free to use, but only in a specific region 2 Free to use if shared-alike 6 The terms of use were unclear 6
  • 17. “ Open” sites with amended all-rights-reserved licenses. CC license equivalents Total © sites with additional permissions 27 CC BY 3 CC BY-SA 1 CC BY-NC 0 CC BY-NC-SA 5 CC BY-ND 0 CC BY-ND-NC 16 No equivalent license 2
  • 18. Creative Commons licenses Remixability (interoperability) matrix These CC Licenses ...can be used with these CC Licenses CC BY CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC-ND CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-NC-SA CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-ND CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA CC BY-SA CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA
  • 19. Creative Commons licenses Remixability matrix
  • 20. © Again – The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. But this basic schema does not map perfectly to remixability... More permissions = More open.
  • 21. © This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
  • 22. © This would be the equivalent schema but with remixability as the dominant determinant of “openness”.
  • 23. OER Galaxies diagram by David Wiley ( http://opencontent.org/blog ) Silos (or galaxies) of OER…?
  • 24.
    • Start with the presumption than WIDE OPEN is the default and most desirable state.
    • Only add user constraints as is necessary or desirable, recognizing that there are significant (opportunity) costs involved.
    • Make the machines do the work (integrate CC and associated metadata properly using ccREL).
    What recommendations ? Text
  • 25. Ideally, OER in the global education commons should be: • easy to identify • minimally encumbered • fully adaptable Tebnaxt http://www.flickr.com/photos/mimax/303567279/ by Max
  • 26. The O pen D atabase of E ducational P rojects and O rganizations Identify potential collaborators Network Add your project Add additional info Search by various properties ODEPO Project
    • Licensing Information
    • Open Education Organizations
    • Affiliated Projects and Organizations
    Find:
  • 27. learn.creativecommons.org Send comments to: ahrash@creativecommons.org

×