Total Fossil remains of over 32 individuals Mostly from the cave Sima de los Huesos in the Atapuerca Mountains of Spain.Found in: Estimated geologic age: Europe 125,000 -880,000 years ago Africa Asia
Geologic Specimen Sex/Age Discovery Date Discovery Location Age Arago 2 Caune de l’Arago, F 450 Ka 1964-1974 (lower jaw) Tautavel, France 10/15/1978 and 10/23/1978 Bodo Bodo d’Ar, n/a 600 Ka by: Alemayhew Asfaw, (cranium) Ethiopia Paul Whitehead, andMajor Finds Craig Wood Mauer 1 n/a 500-400 10/21/1907 Quarry near (lower jaw) Adult Ka by: D. Hartmann Mauer, Germany Sigrist gravel pit, Steinheim F 07/24/1933 Steinheim, 250 Ka (skull: 1100 cc) Adult by: Karl Sigrist, Jr. Wurttemberg, Germany Sima de los Atapuerca 5 M 500-350 July 1992, July 1993 Huesos, Sierra de (skull: 1125 cc) Adult Ka by: Juan-Luis Arsuaga Atapuerca, Spain Broken Hill 1 n/a 06/17/1921 Limestone Cave, 300 Ka (skull: 1300 cc) Adult by: Tom Zwigelaar Kabwe, Zambia
Sexual Dimorphism: comparable to those of modernskeletons with the exception of greater tooth size differences.Pelvis: similar to Neanderthals, similar gait. 157 cm (5 ft. 2 in) 175.3 cm (5 ft. 7 in)
2-1-2-3 with thick enamel.Wider cheek teeth and broaderlower front teeth (front to back) than Neanderthals. Wisdom teeth = earlier Canine development = later than modern humans. Tooth wear suggests that diet was at least 80% plant material and teeth were used as a “third hand”.
Cranial Capacity1100 cc – 1400 ccAverage: 1200 ccPronounced brow ridgeWide eye socketsWide nose bridgeNo chin
Measurements of earcanals and base ofskull indicate modernhearing ability.Increased amount ofcranial flexingsuggests dimensionalchange in larynx andvocal tract andincreased capabilityfor speech. Skull endocasts show a more developed language center in the brain than H. erectus.
Levallois technique(Prepared Core)1st step: Fagonnage Shape the core by removing flakes.2nd step: Debitage Remove multiple sharpened flakes from the prepared core.Tools for butchering, animalskin preparation, andwoodworking found.
Nine spruce spears found in Schöningen, Germany.Over six ft. long and balanced near the front for throwing.
Active hunting vs. scavengingCommunication needed forgroup hunting. Large animals with tool marks on bones = butchered. Carnivore teeth marks on top of tool marks indicate that man got to the carcasses first.
May have been cannibalisticor performed ritualistic fleshremoval.Did not consistently burytheir dead.Atapuerca “Pit of Bones”:29 of 32 individuals werebetween the ages of ten andnineteen.Speculated epidemic orselection of corpses.No art or symbolic objectsfound.
Altruistic Evidence of caring for the sick and elderly.Elvis: 45 yr. old man, pelvis and spine indicate severe hunchback. Twelve yr. old child with deformed skull found. Other remains show signs of infection or abscesses.
Homo heidelbergensis Skilled hunter and tool maker. Language/Communication ability increasing.Social Attitudes becoming closer to those of modern humans. Ancestor to Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.
ImagesChazan, M. (1997).Redefining Levallois. Journal of Human Evolution, 33, 719-735. Retrieved from http://journals.ohiolink.edu/ejc/article.cgi?issn=00472484&issue= v33i0006&article=719_rl. Slide: 8Evanson, T. (2012, May). Homo heidelbergensis endocast- Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Homo_heidelbergensis_endocast_-_Smithsonian_Museum_of_Natural_History_- _2012-05-17.jpgLynch, J., & Barrett L. (2003). Walking With Cavemen. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc. Slides: 4,9,10,11,12,13Sawyer, G.J., & Deak, V. (2007). The Last Human, A guide to twenty-two species of extinct humans. New York: Nèvraumont Publishing Company. Slides: 1,2Trueba, J. Atapuerca.tv. Retrieved from http://www.atapuerca.tv/imagenes/archivo /191.jpg. Slide: 6Wagner, G. (2010, November). PNAS. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/ 107/46/19726/F1.expansion.html. Slide: 5