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Homo heidelbergensis

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  • 1. HomoheidelbergensisSpecimen Nicknames:Heidelberg ManBoxgrove ManRhodesian ManElvis
  • 2. Total Fossil remains of over 32 individuals Mostly from the cave Sima de los Huesos in the Atapuerca Mountains of Spain.Found in: Estimated geologic age: Europe 125,000 -880,000 years ago Africa Asia
  • 3. Geologic Specimen Sex/Age Discovery Date Discovery Location Age Arago 2 Caune de l’Arago, F 450 Ka 1964-1974 (lower jaw) Tautavel, France 10/15/1978 and 10/23/1978 Bodo Bodo d’Ar, n/a 600 Ka by: Alemayhew Asfaw, (cranium) Ethiopia Paul Whitehead, andMajor Finds Craig Wood Mauer 1 n/a 500-400 10/21/1907 Quarry near (lower jaw) Adult Ka by: D. Hartmann Mauer, Germany Sigrist gravel pit, Steinheim F 07/24/1933 Steinheim, 250 Ka (skull: 1100 cc) Adult by: Karl Sigrist, Jr. Wurttemberg, Germany Sima de los Atapuerca 5 M 500-350 July 1992, July 1993 Huesos, Sierra de (skull: 1125 cc) Adult Ka by: Juan-Luis Arsuaga Atapuerca, Spain Broken Hill 1 n/a 06/17/1921 Limestone Cave, 300 Ka (skull: 1300 cc) Adult by: Tom Zwigelaar Kabwe, Zambia
  • 4. Sexual Dimorphism: comparable to those of modernskeletons with the exception of greater tooth size differences.Pelvis: similar to Neanderthals, similar gait. 157 cm (5 ft. 2 in) 175.3 cm (5 ft. 7 in)
  • 5. 2-1-2-3 with thick enamel.Wider cheek teeth and broaderlower front teeth (front to back) than Neanderthals. Wisdom teeth = earlier Canine development = later than modern humans. Tooth wear suggests that diet was at least 80% plant material and teeth were used as a “third hand”.
  • 6. Cranial Capacity1100 cc – 1400 ccAverage: 1200 ccPronounced brow ridgeWide eye socketsWide nose bridgeNo chin
  • 7. Measurements of earcanals and base ofskull indicate modernhearing ability.Increased amount ofcranial flexingsuggests dimensionalchange in larynx andvocal tract andincreased capabilityfor speech. Skull endocasts show a more developed language center in the brain than H. erectus.
  • 8. Levallois technique(Prepared Core)1st step: Fagonnage Shape the core by removing flakes.2nd step: Debitage Remove multiple sharpened flakes from the prepared core.Tools for butchering, animalskin preparation, andwoodworking found.
  • 9. Nine spruce spears found in Schöningen, Germany.Over six ft. long and balanced near the front for throwing.
  • 10. Active hunting vs. scavengingCommunication needed forgroup hunting. Large animals with tool marks on bones = butchered. Carnivore teeth marks on top of tool marks indicate that man got to the carcasses first.
  • 11. May have been cannibalisticor performed ritualistic fleshremoval.Did not consistently burytheir dead.Atapuerca “Pit of Bones”:29 of 32 individuals werebetween the ages of ten andnineteen.Speculated epidemic orselection of corpses.No art or symbolic objectsfound.
  • 12. Altruistic Evidence of caring for the sick and elderly.Elvis: 45 yr. old man, pelvis and spine indicate severe hunchback. Twelve yr. old child with deformed skull found. Other remains show signs of infection or abscesses.
  • 13. Homo heidelbergensis Skilled hunter and tool maker. Language/Communication ability increasing.Social Attitudes becoming closer to those of modern humans. Ancestor to Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.
  • 14. ImagesChazan, M. (1997).Redefining Levallois. Journal of Human Evolution, 33, 719-735. Retrieved from http://journals.ohiolink.edu/ejc/article.cgi?issn=00472484&issue= v33i0006&article=719_rl. Slide: 8Evanson, T. (2012, May). Homo heidelbergensis endocast- Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Homo_heidelbergensis_endocast_-_Smithsonian_Museum_of_Natural_History_- _2012-05-17.jpgLynch, J., & Barrett L. (2003). Walking With Cavemen. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc. Slides: 4,9,10,11,12,13Sawyer, G.J., & Deak, V. (2007). The Last Human, A guide to twenty-two species of extinct humans. New York: Nèvraumont Publishing Company. Slides: 1,2Trueba, J. Atapuerca.tv. Retrieved from http://www.atapuerca.tv/imagenes/archivo /191.jpg. Slide: 6Wagner, G. (2010, November). PNAS. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/ 107/46/19726/F1.expansion.html. Slide: 5