Chapter 7


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Chapter 7

  1. 1. The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Axial Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eighty bones segregated into three regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bony thorax </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. The Skull <ul><li>The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and facial bones </li></ul><ul><li>Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Facial bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide openings for the passage of air and food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor the facial muscles of expression </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. External Lateral Aspects of the Skull Figure 7.3a (a) Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar margins Mandible Mental foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Mandibular angle Coronoid process Zygomatic process Temporal bone
  4. 4. Anterior Aspects of the Skull Figure 7.2a (a) Parietal bone Frontal squama of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate Inferior nasal concha Vomer bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone
  5. 5. Sphenoid Bone Figure 7.6b
  6. 6. Nasal Cavity Figure 7.10a
  7. 7. Nasal Cavity Figure 7.10b
  8. 8. Paranasal Sinuses Figure 7.11
  9. 9. Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Not actually part of the skull, but lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck </li></ul><ul><li>Only bone of the body that does not articulate directly with another bone </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during swallowing and speech </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vertebral Column <ul><li>Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible curved structure results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical vertebrae – 7 bones of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic vertebrae – 12 bones of the torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar vertebrae – 5 bones of the lower back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrum – bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Vertebral Column Figure 7.13
  12. 12. General Structure of Vertebrae Figure 7.15
  13. 13. Cervical Vertebrae <ul><li>Seven vertebrae (C1-C7) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>C3-C7 are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, triangular vertebral foramina </li></ul><ul><li>Each transverse process contains a transverse foramen </li></ul>Table 7.2.2
  14. 14. Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) <ul><li>The atlas has no body and no spinous process </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses </li></ul><ul><li>The superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles </li></ul>Figure 7.16a, b
  15. 15. Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) <ul><li>The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Unique to the axis is the dens, or odontoid process, which projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas </li></ul><ul><li>The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas </li></ul>Figure 7.16c
  16. 16. Vertebral Column: Ligaments Figure 7.14a
  17. 17. Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Figure 7.14b
  18. 18. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Table 7.2.2
  19. 19. Sacrum <ul><li>Sacrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of five fused vertebrae (S 1 -S 5 ), which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It articulates with L 5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfaces of the hip bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major markings include the sacral promontory, transverse lines, alae, dorsal sacral foramina, sacral canal, and sacral hiatus </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Coccyx <ul><li>Coccyx (Tailbone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases three to five) fused vertebrae that articulate superiorly with the sacrum </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sacrum and Coccyx: Anterior View Figure 7.18a
  22. 22. Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) Figure 7.19a
  23. 23. Structure of a Typical True Rib <ul><li>Bowed, flat bone consisting of a head, neck, tubercle, and shaft </li></ul>Figure 7.20a
  24. 24. Structure of a Typical True Rib <ul><li>Bowed, flat bone consisting of a head, neck, tubercle, and shaft </li></ul>Figure 7.20b
  25. 25. Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) <ul><li>The pectoral girdles consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulae </li></ul><ul><li>They attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movement </li></ul><ul><li>They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) Figure 7.22a
  28. 28. Clavicles (Collarbones) Figure 7.22b, c
  29. 29. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Figure 7.22d
  30. 30. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Figure 7.22f
  31. 31. Humerus of the Arm Figure 7.23
  32. 32. Bones of the Forearm Figure 7.24
  33. 33. Radius and Ulna Figure 7.24
  34. 34. Hand <ul><li>Skeleton of the hand contains wrist bones (carpals), bones of the palm (metacarpals), and bones of the fingers (phalanges) </li></ul>Figure 7.26a
  35. 35. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Table 7.4.1
  36. 36. Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure <ul><li>Female pelvis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True pelvis defines birth canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure <ul><li>Male pelvis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted less forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted for support of heavier male build and stronger muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Image from Table 7.4
  39. 39. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Table 7.4.2
  40. 40. Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Less movable; curves ventrally More movable; straighter Coccyx Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral Wider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Sacrum Large; closer together Small; farther apart Acetabula 50˚–60˚ 80˚–90˚ Pubic arch/angle Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Lighter, thinner, and smoother Bone thickness Male Female Characteristic
  41. 41. Pelvic Girdle (Hip) Figure 7.27a
  42. 42. Ilium: Lateral View Figure 7.27b
  43. 43. Ilium: Medial View Figure 7.27c
  44. 44. Femur Figure 7.28b
  45. 45. Tibia and Fibula Figure 7.29
  46. 46. Foot <ul><li>The skeleton of the foot includes the tarsus, metatarsus, and the phalanges (toes) </li></ul><ul><li>The foot supports body weight and acts as a lever to propel the body forward in walking and running </li></ul>Figure 7.31a
  47. 47. Tarsus Figure 7.31b, c
  48. 48. Arches of the Foot Figure 7.32
  49. 49. Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull <ul><li>Skull bones such as the mandible and maxilla are unfused </li></ul>Figure 7.33
  50. 50. Developmental Aspects: Growth Rates <ul><li>At birth, the cranium is huge relative to the face </li></ul><ul><li>Mandible and maxilla are foreshortened but lengthen with age </li></ul><ul><li>The arms and legs grow at a faster rate than the head and trunk, leading to adult proportions </li></ul>Figure 7.34
  51. 51. Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature <ul><li>Only thoracic and sacral curvatures are present at birth </li></ul><ul><li>The primary curvatures are convex posteriorly, causing the infant spine to arch like a four-legged animal </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary curvatures – cervical and lumbar – are convex anteriorly and are associated with the child’s development </li></ul>
  52. 52. Developmental Aspects: Old Age <ul><li>Intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated, and less elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of disc herniation increases </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of stature by several centimeters is common after age 55 </li></ul><ul><li>Costal cartilages ossify causing the thorax to become rigid </li></ul><ul><li>All bones lose mass </li></ul>