Self Determined Success

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Self Determined Success

  1. 1. Self-Determined Success Angela M. Housand, Ph. D. University of North Carolina Wilmington Confratute - University of Connecticut
  2. 2. angelahousand.com &
  3. 3. www.gi%ed.uconn.edu The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented
  4. 4. Watson College of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
  5. 5. This Week I Have the Honor…
  6. 6. Self-Determination: Organismic Integration Cognitive Evaluation Causality Orientation Basic Psychological Needs Goal Contents
  7. 7. Self-Determination: Continuum of Internalizing Motivation Effects of Social Contexts on Motivation Regulating Behaviors Autonomy vs. Control Affect Fulfillment of Basic Psychological Needs Autonomy, Relatedness, & Competence What one strives for Fame/Fortune vs. Relationships/Growth
  8. 8. Motivation To be motivated means to be moved to do something
  9. 9. LEVEL TWO MOTIVATION AND FLOW
  10. 10. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Curiosity Control Optimal Challenge Fantasy Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition)
  11. 11. • Curious • Independent • Attracted to complexity • Originality in thought and action • Willing to take risks • Aware of their own creativeness • Need to produce Creatively Gifted
  12. 12. Internalizing  Mo.va.on (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000) Amo7va7on Intrinsic   Mo7va7on
  13. 13. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: External  Regula7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  14. 14. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Introjec7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  15. 15. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Iden7fica7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  16. 16. • Tied to Student’s Identity • Personally Interesting • Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future • Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield) Personally Meaningful
  17. 17. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Integra7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important Integration Behaviors become central to self-identity (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  18. 18. Internalizing  Mo.va.on (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000) Amo7va7on Intrinsic   Mo7va7on External Regulation Introjection Identification Integration
  19. 19. Motivation is Complex Perception of Competence Experience of Autonomy Sense of Control Willingness to Pursue Goals Persistence when Challenged Enjoyment or Interest
  20. 20. Intrinsic Motivation (Self-Determination Theory) Perception of Competence Experience of Autonomy Sense of Control Willingness to Pursue Goals Persistence when Challenged Enjoyment or Interest Relatedness
  21. 21. RELATEDNESS... Feeling connected to others and having a sense of belonging to a community.
  22. 22. COMPETENCE… Ability to demonstrate one’s capacity for success when faced with a challenge or opportunity.
  23. 23. COMPETENCE… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
  24. 24. Self-efficacy influences: ¨ What activities we select ¨ How much effort we put forth ¨ How persistent we are in the face of difficulties ¨ The difficulty of the goals we set
  25. 25. Increasing Self-efficacy ¨ Past performance ¨ Vicarious experiences (observing others perform) ¨ Verbal persuasion  ¨ Physiological cues
  26. 26. Autonomy The more autonomous (self- determined) a person believes their behavior to be the greater the personal satisfaction and enjoyment from engaging in that behavior.
  27. 27. Self-Determined Learners • Achieve highly • Learn conceptually • Stay in school (Reeve, 2002)
  28. 28. Self-Determined Learners (Reeve, 2002) • Achieve highly • Learn conceptually • Stay in school • In large part, because their teachers support their autonomy rather than control their behavior
  29. 29. What external factors support success?
  30. 30. ONTARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-worth (Reeve, 2002)
  31. 31. ONTARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students (Reeve, 2002) • Preference for optimal challenge • Enjoy optimal challenge • Stronger perceptions of control • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention
  32. 32. ONTARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy- Supportive Teachers (Reeve, 2002) • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-esteem
  33. 33. ONTARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy- Supportive Teachers (Reeve, 2002) • Greater conceptual understanding • Greater flexibility in thinking • More information processing • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention
  34. 34. ONTARGET In Short… (Reeve, 2002) • Autonomously motivated students thrive in educational settings • Students benefit when teachers support their autonomy
  35. 35. • Autonomy support is not: –Permissiveness –Neglect –Independence –Laissez-faire interaction style Avoid Misconceptions
  36. 36. Avoid Misconceptions • Autonomy support and structure are two different classroom elements which have different aims and different effects • They are NOT the same, but can be mutually supportive
  37. 37. • Spend less time holding instructional materials • Provide time for independent work • Provide hints but resist giving answers • Encourage conversation • Listen – even more than you do now Tips for Teachers
  38. 38. • In conversation w/ students • Praise mastery • Respond to student generated questions • Make statements that are empathetic and rich in perspective taking Tips for Teachers
  39. 39. • Avoid • Directives or “Taking Charge” • Steering students toward a right answer • Being critical or evaluative • Motivating through external rewards • Motivating through pressure Tips for Teachers
  40. 40. Parents  and  students rate  controlling  teachers  as   significantly more  competent  than autonomy-­‐suppor.ve  teachers.
  41. 41. Person  Environment  Fit • Person  /  Environment  fit  is  the  degree  to  which   a  person  or  their  personality  is  compa7ble  with   their  environment
  42. 42. Good  Environmental  Fit  Occurs  When: A  person  adjusts  to  their  surroundings AND Adapts  the  environment  to  fit  their  needs
  43. 43. Why  Do  We   Ask  Kids  To   UNPLUG  At   School?
  44. 44. From the standpoint of the child…he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school - its isolation from life. -John Dewey
  45. 45. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self-Determination (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Curiosity Goal Pursuit Control Autonomy Optimal Challenge Competence Fantasy Achievement Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness
  46. 46. LEARNING CONTRACTS
  47. 47. Clear  Expecta,ons Authen,c  Audience
  48. 48. A  Timeline  with Feedback  Opportuni,es  Built-­‐in
  49. 49. Clear  Content  &  Resources Accountability
  50. 50. Clear  Strategies  &  Skills Accountability
  51. 51. • Agreement  between  teacher  &  student • Student  independence  &  autonomy • Increased  student  responsibility • Provides  freedom  in  acquiring  skills
  52. 52. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self- Determination (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Learning Contracts Curiosity Goal Pursuit Clear Expectations Control Autonomy Benchmarks & Defined Responsibility Optimal Challenge Competence Defined Content & Skills Fantasy Achievement Achievement Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness Authentic Audience
  53. 53. Mihaly   Csikszentmihalyi
  54. 54. Apathy Flow  Channel
  55. 55. To Experience FLOW... ...the task must provide clear goals and feedback.
  56. 56. To Experience FLOW... ...one must become immersed in the activity.
  57. 57. To Experience FLOW... ...the task must be challenging and require skill.
  58. 58. To Experience FLOW... ...one must learn to enjoy immediate experience.
  59. 59. To Experience FLOW... ...one must loose one’s sense of self.
  60. 60. Apathy Flow  Channel Increasing  Skills Increasing  Skills Increasing  Challenge Increasing  Challenge
  61. 61. Regulation of Affect
  62. 62. Reframe… • I am successful because I am smart • People like me because I am attractive • I get opportunities because I am lucky • I make mistakes because I am a failure • I never win because I am a loser • I get in trouble because the teacher does not like me
  63. 63. Reframe • I am successful because…
  64. 64. Reframe • People like me because…
  65. 65. Reframe • I make mistakes because…
  66. 66. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Motivated self-deception – Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety – “Oh, that is not due until next week.” – A month long project • Inaccurate verbalization – Convinced they feel something the do not – “I hate school!”
  67. 67. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Accessibility difficulties – More processing required to form an attitude, more apt to lose track of what the attitude is – “I used to be good at math, but the teacher is giving me a bad grade so I obviously am not good at math.”
  68. 68. Teacher Strategy  Insist students’ own their feelings “I feel angry” vs. “You made me mad”
  69. 69. Teacher Strategy  Help students reframe by using verbs instead of adjectives to describe their feelings  “I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”
  70. 70. Influence £On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2011, 2010, 2009…). £Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year. £Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.
  71. 71. Significant Influence £When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought? £Students may feel that external forces control their lives. £Modify the exercise: £Last five months £Last five weeks
  72. 72. Thinking about Achieving • What skills do I need to achieve this? • What help or assistance do I need? • What resources do I need? • What can block progress? • How will I maintain focus in order to achieve this?
  73. 73. Reflecting on Achievement • Did I accomplish what I planned to achieve? • Was I distracted and how did I get back to my task? • Did I plan enough time? • In which situation did I accomplish the most?
  74. 74. Being in the Moment • Can you change the past? • What are you doing now that is working? How can you do more of the same? • When you had a problem like this one before, what good solutions did you work out? Or Have you ever helped someone with a problem like this before?
  75. 75. Addressing  the   Surface Behavior  is   External  
  76. 76. Under  the   Surface Need  for   Internaliza.on
  77. 77. Overexcitabilities — Characteristics that reveal a heightened response to stimuli — Found more frequently in gifted population than general population — Dabrowski and Piechowski
  78. 78. } People with SOR respond to sensation faster, with more intensity, or for a longer duration than those with typical sensory responsivity } Considered a Sensory Modulation Disorder by some Sensory Overresponsivity (SOR)
  79. 79. } Behavioral responses ◦ Impulsivity ◦ Aggression ◦ Withdrawal ◦ Avoidance of sensation } Emotional Responses ◦ Irritability ◦ Moodiness ◦ Inconsolability Sensory Overresponsivity (SOR)
  80. 80. Sensory  Sensi.vity • Greater  CNS  Arousal – Show  greater  responsiveness   to  sensory  s.muli  in  all  sensory   modali.es – Emits  more  voluntary  motor   ac.vity – More  reac.ve  emo.onally • Might  also  explain   psychomotor  and  emo7onal  
  81. 81. Characteris7cs  of  People  with • Sense  of  being  different • Need  to  take  frequent   breaks  during  busy  days • Conscious  arrangement   of  lives  to  reduce   s7mula7on  &  unwanted   surprise
  82. 82. Characteris7cs  of  People  with • Acknowledge  importance   of  spiritual  and  inner  lives   (including  dreams) • Sense  that  difficul;es   stemmed  from  fear  of   failure  due  to  overarousal – While  being  observed – Feeling  judged – During  compe;;on
  83. 83. Sensory  Sensi.vity  of  GiHed • Tested  giZed  vs.  normed  sample  on  the   Sensory  Profile  (Dunn,  1999) • Significant  differences  on  12  of  14  sensory   sec7ons  between  groups • GiZed  children  are  more  sensi7ve  to  their   physical  environment • More  affected  by  sensory  s7muli  
  84. 84. Why address sensory sensitivity? • Sensory stimuli create CNS arousal which places demands upon the body • The intensity and duration of arousal affect responses to stimuli • Maximum and prolonged overload of information can be stressful
  85. 85. Why address sensory sensitivity? • To reduce stressors • To positively enhance the experience of the highly sensitive gifted individual • To be responsive to unique needs • To promote healthy working environments • To increase the sustainability of focus and effort in productive endeavors
  86. 86. Mindfulness § Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D. § From the field of behavioral medicine § Used to control § Stress § Pain § Illness § Initial research conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center
  87. 87. Mindfulness Attitudes § Non-judging § Impartial witness to our own experience § Cultivates emotional intelligence § Patience § Things unfold in their own time § Delay of gratification § Beginner’s Mind § What we think we “know” impedes understanding § Avoiding pre-conceived notions
  88. 88. Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189)
  89. 89. Mindfulness Attitudes § Trust § Developing a trust of yourself and your feelings § Non-striving § Seems counter intuitive § Focusing on being clarifies what to strive for § Acceptance § Seeing things as they are § Enables one to act appropriately no matter what is happening around them
  90. 90. Mindfulness Attitudes § Letting Go § Put aside the tendency to elevate some life experiences and reject others § Cultivates emotional intelligence § Mindfulness is mind training. § “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind” § “I am here to work on my mind”
  91. 91. Goal of Mindfulness § Achieve a state of stability and calm § Increase self-discipline § Increase feelings of well-being § Reduce feelings of dysphoria § Increase self-awareness
  92. 92. Mindfulness How To § Release Tension § Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor § Allow arms to hang straight down with hands about 10-12 inches from body § Close your eyes if it feels comfortable § Identify areas of tension in your mind or body § As you identify areas of tension, allow them to dissolve and flow down the arms and out the finger tips
  93. 93. Mindfulness How To § Mind Training § Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor § Close your eyes if it feels comfortable § Bring your attention to your breath § Nose, mouth, lungs, or belly – wherever you sense your breath § Do not control breath, just observe § Maintain your attention on your breathing § When your mind wanders, simply let the thought go and return your focus to your breath
  94. 94. Mindfulness How To § Focusing the mind is easier said than done § Requires consistent practice § Short and frequent § 5 to 15 minutes daily § Don’t force it! § When students loose focus, the time is up § Work to extend time each day
  95. 95. Mindfulness § Training the mind § “I’m here to train my mind” § “I’m here to work on my mind” § Awake and calm § Present mentally and physically § Focus on the breath – observe, don’t control – just observe § “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind”
  96. 96. Mindfulness § Connecting the mind and body § Feet flat on the floor § sitting up straight – string pulling from the top of the head § Presence – feel your feet, legs, abdomin, shoulders, arms, hands, neck, head § Creates a feeling of physical stability
  97. 97. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self- Determinatio n (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Learning Contracts FLOW (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) Curiosity Goal Pursuit Clear Expectations Clear Goal Control Autonomy Benchmarks & Defined Responsibility Adjust Performance Based on Feedback Optimal Challenge Competence Defined Content & Skills Balance Challenge & Skill Level Fantasy Achievement Achievement Enjoyment Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness Authentic Audience Transcend Self
  98. 98. 10,000
  99. 99. Smithsonian American Art Museum
  100. 100. E NDURINGLY NGAGING XPERIENCES
  101. 101. A LITTLE GAMIFICATION
  102. 102. Mindset Dr. Carol Dweck: Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset
  103. 103. Mindset Fixed Mindset: Believe traits are fixed or unchangeable Quantity of talent or intelligence finite
  104. 104. Mindset Growth Mindset: Believe traits can be developed w/ effort Accomplishment comes from practice and learning
  105. 105. Thinking about Thinking Students must think about how the way they think and what they think affects their success.
  106. 106. “While most games contain a clear reward system for players (moving up a level, receiving badges or points, etc.), what may be most appealing to educators is that games provide students A SAFE PLACE TO LEARN FROM FAILURE. In games, exploration is inherent and there are generally no high-stakes consequences. Children are able to EXPERIMENT AND TAKE RISKS TO FIND SOLUTIONS without the feeling that they are doing something wrong. GAMES ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO MAKE AND LEARN FROM MISTAKES, which is a particularly important concept in the K-12 setting.” GAME BASED LEARNING
  107. 107. GAMIFICATION: The use of game elements and game-design techniques in non-game contexts.
  108. 108. POINTS BADGES LEADER BOARDS
  109. 109. POINTS Effectively Keep Score Determine WIN State Connection Between Progress and Reward Provide Feedback External Display of Progress Data for Game Designer
  110. 110. BADGES Goals to Strive Toward Guidance About Possibilities Visual Markers of Accomplishment Status Symbols Tribal Markers
  111. 111. LEADER BOARDS
  112. 112. ENGAGE
  113. 113. GAMIFICATION OFFERS CHOICE
  114. 114. COLLABORATION CONTENT CHOICE -Alfie Kohn
  115. 115. DEFINE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  116. 116. 2. Delineate Target Behaviors DELINEATE TARGET BEHAVIORS
  117. 117. DESCRIBE YOUR PLAYERS
  118. 118. DEVISE ACTIVITY CYCLES
  119. 119. DON’T FORGET THE FUN!
  120. 120. DEPLOY APPROPRIATE TOOLS
  121. 121. 129
  122. 122. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) FLOW (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) Learning Contracts Gamification (McGonigal, 2010) Curiosity Clear Goal Clear Expectations Clear Objective Control Adjusted Performance Benchmarks & Responsibility Blissful Productivity Optimal Challenge Balance Challenge & Skill Level Defined Content & Skills Urgent Optimism Fantasy Enjoyment Achievement Epic Win Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Transcend Self Authentic Audience Social Fabric
  123. 123. PLATFORMS FOR GAMIFICATION
  124. 124. Watson College of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
  125. 125. STAR Legacy CHALLENGE PERSPECTIVES & RESOURCES THOUGHTS ASSESSMENT WRAP UP
  126. 126. Edmodo is a free, secure, social learning platform for teachers, students, schools, and districts. FREE! FEATURES: Groups Messages Assignments Calendar Poll Student Emails NOT required!
  127. 127. http://help.edmodo.com/teachers/ how-to-createmanage-badges/
  128. 128. http://help.edmodo.com/teachers/ how-to-createmanage-badges/

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