Self-Determined Success
Angela M. Housand, Ph. D.
University of North Carolina Wilmington
Confratute - University of Conne...
angelahousand.com
&
www.gi%ed.uconn.edu
The National Research Center
on the Gifted and Talented
Watson College of Education
Angela Housand, Ph.D.
housanda@uncw.edu
This Week I Have the Honor…
Self-Determination:
Organismic Integration
Cognitive Evaluation
Causality Orientation
Basic Psychological Needs
Goal Conte...
Self-Determination:
Continuum of Internalizing Motivation
Effects of Social Contexts on Motivation
Regulating Behaviors
Au...
Motivation
To be motivated means to be moved to do something
LEVEL TWO
MOTIVATION
AND
FLOW
Motivation
(Malone & Lepper, 1987)
Curiosity
Control
Optimal Challenge
Fantasy
Interpersonal
(Cooperation, Competition, & ...
• Curious
• Independent
• Attracted to
complexity
• Originality in
thought and action
• Willing to take risks
• Aware of t...
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on
(Deci	
  &	
  Ryan,	
  1995;	
  Ryan	
  &	
  Deci,	
  2000)
Amo7va7on
Intrinsic	
  
Mo7va7on
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on:
External	
  Regula7on
External
Regulation
Externally
motivated
Punishment/
Reward
Compliance
(D...
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on:
Introjec7on
External
Regulation
Externally
motivated
Punishment/
Reward
Compliance
Introjection...
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on:
Iden7fica7on
External
Regulation
Externally
motivated
Punishment/
Reward
Compliance
Introjection...
• Tied to Student’s
Identity
• Personally
Interesting
• Integral to the
Student’s Vision
of the future
• Viewed as Useful
...
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on:
Integra7on
External
Regulation
Externally
motivated
Punishment/
Reward
Compliance
Introjection
...
Internalizing	
  Mo.va.on
(Deci	
  &	
  Ryan,	
  1995;	
  Ryan	
  &	
  Deci,	
  2000)
Amo7va7on
Intrinsic	
  
Mo7va7on
Ext...
Motivation is Complex
Perception of Competence
Experience of Autonomy
Sense of Control
Willingness to Pursue Goals
Persist...
Intrinsic Motivation
(Self-Determination Theory)
Perception of Competence
Experience of Autonomy
Sense of Control
Willingn...
RELATEDNESS...
Feeling connected to others and having a
sense of belonging to a community.
COMPETENCE…
Ability to demonstrate one’s capacity for
success when faced with a challenge or
opportunity.
COMPETENCE…
Feelings of competence shape a person’s
willingness to actively engage and persist in
different behaviors.
(Ba...
Self-efficacy influences:
¨ What activities we select
¨ How much effort we put forth
¨ How persistent we are in the fac...
Increasing Self-efficacy
¨ Past performance
¨ Vicarious experiences (observing others perform)
¨ Verbal persuasion 
¨ ...
Autonomy
The more autonomous (self-
determined) a person
believes their behavior to be
the greater the personal
satisfacti...
Self-Determined Learners
• Achieve highly
• Learn conceptually
• Stay in school
(Reeve, 2002)
Self-Determined Learners
(Reeve, 2002)
• Achieve highly
• Learn conceptually
• Stay in school
• In large part, because the...
What external
factors support
success?
ONTARGET
Autonomously-Motivated Students
vs.
Control-Motivated Students
• Higher academic achievement
• Higher perceived c...
ONTARGET
Autonomously-Motivated Students
vs.
Control-Motivated Students
(Reeve, 2002)
• Preference for optimal challenge
•...
ONTARGET
Educational Benefits of Autonomy-
Supportive Teachers
(Reeve, 2002)
• Higher academic achievement
• Higher percei...
ONTARGET
Educational Benefits of Autonomy-
Supportive Teachers
(Reeve, 2002)
• Greater conceptual understanding
• Greater ...
ONTARGET
In Short…
(Reeve, 2002)
• Autonomously motivated
students thrive in
educational settings
• Students benefit when
...
• Autonomy support is not:
–Permissiveness
–Neglect
–Independence
–Laissez-faire interaction style
Avoid Misconceptions
Avoid Misconceptions
• Autonomy support and
structure are two different
classroom elements which
have different aims and
d...
• Spend less time holding
instructional materials
• Provide time for independent
work
• Provide hints but resist giving
an...
• In conversation w/ students
• Praise mastery
• Respond to student generated
questions
• Make statements that are
empathe...
• Avoid
• Directives or “Taking Charge”
• Steering students toward a right
answer
• Being critical or evaluative
• Motivat...
Parents	
  and	
  students
rate	
  controlling	
  teachers	
  as	
  
significantly
more	
  competent	
  than
autonomy-­‐sup...
Person	
  Environment	
  Fit
• Person	
  /	
  Environment	
  fit	
  is	
  the	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
a	
  person	
  o...
Good	
  Environmental	
  Fit	
  Occurs	
  When:
A	
  person	
  adjusts	
  to	
  their	
  surroundings
AND
Adapts	
  the	
 ...
Why	
  Do	
  We	
  
Ask	
  Kids	
  To	
  
UNPLUG	
  At	
  
School?
From the standpoint
of the child…he is
unable to apply in
daily life what he is
learning at school.
That is the isolation
...
Motivation
(Malone & Lepper, 1987)
Self-Determination
(Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000)
Curiosity Goal Pursuit
Control Autonomy
Op...
LEARNING
CONTRACTS
Clear	
  Expecta,ons
Authen,c	
  Audience
A	
  Timeline	
  with
Feedback	
  Opportuni,es	
  Built-­‐in
Clear	
  Content	
  &	
  Resources
Accountability
Clear	
  Strategies	
  &	
  Skills
Accountability
• Agreement	
  between	
  teacher	
  &	
  student
• Student	
  independence	
  &	
  autonomy
• Increased	
  student	
  res...
Motivation
(Malone & Lepper, 1987)
Self-
Determination
(Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000)
Learning
Contracts
Curiosity Goal Pursuit...
Mihaly	
  
Csikszentmihalyi
Apathy
Flow	
  Channel
To Experience FLOW...
...the task must
provide clear goals and feedback.
To Experience FLOW...
...one must
become immersed in the activity.
To Experience FLOW...
...the task must
be challenging and require skill.
To Experience FLOW...
...one must
learn to enjoy immediate experience.
To Experience FLOW...
...one must
loose one’s sense of self.
Apathy
Flow	
  Channel
Increasing	
  Skills
Increasing	
  Skills
Increasing	
  Challenge
Increasing	
  Challenge
Regulation of Affect
Reframe…
• I am successful because I am smart
• People like me because I am attractive
• I get opportunities because I am ...
Reframe
• I am successful because…
Reframe
• People like me because…
Reframe
• I make mistakes because…
Blocks to Feeling in Control
• Motivated self-deception
– Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety
– “Oh, that is not due ...
Blocks to Feeling in Control
• Accessibility difficulties
– More processing required to form an attitude,
more apt to lose...
Teacher Strategy
 Insist students’ own their feelings
“I feel angry”
vs.
“You made me mad”
Teacher Strategy
 Help students reframe by using
verbs instead of adjectives to
describe their feelings
 “I am successfu...
Influence
£On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five
years vertically (2011, 2010, 2009…).
£Next to each year, list ...
Significant Influence
£When you reflect on your experience, do
you find that you had more control than you
thought?
£Stu...
Thinking about Achieving
• What skills do I need to achieve this?
• What help or assistance do I need?
• What resources do...
Reflecting on Achievement
• Did I accomplish what I planned to
achieve?
• Was I distracted and how did I get back to
my ta...
Being in the Moment
• Can you change the past?
• What are you doing now that is working?
How can you do more of the same?
...
Addressing	
  the	
  
Surface
Behavior	
  is	
  
External	
  
Under	
  the	
  
Surface
Need	
  for	
  
Internaliza.on
Overexcitabilities
— Characteristics that reveal
a heightened response to
stimuli
— Found more frequently in
gifted popu...
} People with SOR respond to sensation faster,
with more intensity, or for a longer duration
than those with typical sens...
} Behavioral responses
◦ Impulsivity
◦ Aggression
◦ Withdrawal
◦ Avoidance of sensation
} Emotional Responses
◦ Irritabi...
Sensory	
  Sensi.vity
• Greater	
  CNS	
  Arousal
– Show	
  greater	
  responsiveness	
  
to	
  sensory	
  s.muli	
  in	
 ...
Characteris7cs	
  of	
  People	
  with
• Sense	
  of	
  being	
  different
• Need	
  to	
  take	
  frequent	
  
breaks	
  d...
Characteris7cs	
  of	
  People	
  with
• Acknowledge	
  importance	
  
of	
  spiritual	
  and	
  inner	
  lives	
  
(inclu...
Sensory	
  Sensi.vity	
  of	
  GiHed
• Tested	
  giZed	
  vs.	
  normed	
  sample	
  on	
  the	
  
Sensory	
  Profile	
  (D...
Why address sensory sensitivity?
• Sensory stimuli create CNS arousal which
places demands upon the body
• The intensity a...
Why address sensory sensitivity?
• To reduce stressors
• To positively enhance the experience of the
highly sensitive gift...
Mindfulness
§ Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D.
§ From the field of behavioral medicine
§ Used to control
§ Stress
§ Pain
§ Illn...
Mindfulness Attitudes
§ Non-judging
§ Impartial witness to our own experience
§ Cultivates emotional intelligence
§ Pa...
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to monitor one’s
own and other’s feelings
and emotions, to
discriminate among them
and ...
Mindfulness Attitudes
§ Trust
§ Developing a trust of yourself and your
feelings
§ Non-striving
§ Seems counter intuit...
Mindfulness Attitudes
§ Letting Go
§ Put aside the tendency to elevate some life
experiences and reject others
§ Cultiv...
Goal of Mindfulness
§ Achieve a state of stability and calm
§ Increase self-discipline
§ Increase feelings of well-bein...
Mindfulness How To
§ Release Tension
§ Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor
§ Allow arms to hang straight down w...
Mindfulness How To
§ Mind Training
§ Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor
§ Close your eyes if it feels comforta...
Mindfulness How To
§ Focusing the mind is easier said than
done
§ Requires consistent practice
§ Short and frequent
§ ...
Mindfulness
§ Training the mind
§ “I’m here to train my mind”
§ “I’m here to work on my mind”
§ Awake and calm
§ Pres...
Mindfulness
§ Connecting the mind and body
§ Feet flat on the floor
§ sitting up straight – string pulling from the
top...
Motivation
(Malone & Lepper, 1987)
Self-
Determinatio
n
(Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000)
Learning
Contracts
FLOW
(Csikszentmihaly...
10,000
Smithsonian American Art Museum
E
NDURINGLY
NGAGING
XPERIENCES
A LITTLE
GAMIFICATION
Mindset
Dr. Carol Dweck:
Fixed Mindset
vs.
Growth Mindset
Mindset
Fixed Mindset:
Believe traits are fixed
or unchangeable
Quantity of talent or
intelligence finite
Mindset
Growth Mindset:
Believe traits can be
developed w/ effort
Accomplishment
comes from practice
and learning
Thinking about
Thinking
Students must think
about how the way
they think and what
they think affects
their success.
“While most games contain a clear reward system for players (moving up a level, receiving badges or points, etc.),
what ma...
GAMIFICATION:
The use of game
elements and
game-design
techniques in
non-game
contexts.
POINTS BADGES LEADER
BOARDS
POINTS
Effectively Keep Score
Determine WIN State
Connection Between Progress
and Reward
Provide Feedback
External Display...
BADGES
Goals to Strive Toward
Guidance About Possibilities
Visual Markers of
Accomplishment
Status Symbols
Tribal Markers
LEADER
BOARDS
ENGAGE
GAMIFICATION OFFERS CHOICE
COLLABORATION
CONTENT
CHOICE
-Alfie Kohn
DEFINE LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
2. Delineate Target Behaviors
DELINEATE TARGET BEHAVIORS
DESCRIBE YOUR PLAYERS
DEVISE
ACTIVITY
CYCLES
DON’T
FORGET
THE
FUN!
DEPLOY
APPROPRIATE
TOOLS
129
Motivation
(Malone & Lepper, 1987)
FLOW
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1975)
Learning
Contracts
Gamification
(McGonigal, 2010)
Curiosit...
PLATFORMS
FOR
GAMIFICATION
Watson College of Education
Angela Housand, Ph.D.
housanda@uncw.edu
STAR
Legacy
CHALLENGE
PERSPECTIVES
& RESOURCES
THOUGHTS
ASSESSMENT
WRAP UP
Edmodo is a free, secure, social learning platform for
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Self Determined Success
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Self Determined Success

  1. 1. Self-Determined Success Angela M. Housand, Ph. D. University of North Carolina Wilmington Confratute - University of Connecticut
  2. 2. angelahousand.com &
  3. 3. www.gi%ed.uconn.edu The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented
  4. 4. Watson College of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
  5. 5. This Week I Have the Honor…
  6. 6. Self-Determination: Organismic Integration Cognitive Evaluation Causality Orientation Basic Psychological Needs Goal Contents
  7. 7. Self-Determination: Continuum of Internalizing Motivation Effects of Social Contexts on Motivation Regulating Behaviors Autonomy vs. Control Affect Fulfillment of Basic Psychological Needs Autonomy, Relatedness, & Competence What one strives for Fame/Fortune vs. Relationships/Growth
  8. 8. Motivation To be motivated means to be moved to do something
  9. 9. LEVEL TWO MOTIVATION AND FLOW
  10. 10. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Curiosity Control Optimal Challenge Fantasy Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition)
  11. 11. • Curious • Independent • Attracted to complexity • Originality in thought and action • Willing to take risks • Aware of their own creativeness • Need to produce Creatively Gifted
  12. 12. Internalizing  Mo.va.on (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000) Amo7va7on Intrinsic   Mo7va7on
  13. 13. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: External  Regula7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  14. 14. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Introjec7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  15. 15. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Iden7fica7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  16. 16. • Tied to Student’s Identity • Personally Interesting • Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future • Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield) Personally Meaningful
  17. 17. Internalizing  Mo.va.on: Integra7on External Regulation Externally motivated Punishment/ Reward Compliance Introjection Act to gain approval Do not fully understand purpose Identification Behaviors become personally important Integration Behaviors become central to self-identity (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)
  18. 18. Internalizing  Mo.va.on (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000) Amo7va7on Intrinsic   Mo7va7on External Regulation Introjection Identification Integration
  19. 19. Motivation is Complex Perception of Competence Experience of Autonomy Sense of Control Willingness to Pursue Goals Persistence when Challenged Enjoyment or Interest
  20. 20. Intrinsic Motivation (Self-Determination Theory) Perception of Competence Experience of Autonomy Sense of Control Willingness to Pursue Goals Persistence when Challenged Enjoyment or Interest Relatedness
  21. 21. RELATEDNESS... Feeling connected to others and having a sense of belonging to a community.
  22. 22. COMPETENCE… Ability to demonstrate one’s capacity for success when faced with a challenge or opportunity.
  23. 23. COMPETENCE… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
  24. 24. Self-efficacy influences: ¨ What activities we select ¨ How much effort we put forth ¨ How persistent we are in the face of difficulties ¨ The difficulty of the goals we set
  25. 25. Increasing Self-efficacy ¨ Past performance ¨ Vicarious experiences (observing others perform) ¨ Verbal persuasion  ¨ Physiological cues
  26. 26. Autonomy The more autonomous (self- determined) a person believes their behavior to be the greater the personal satisfaction and enjoyment from engaging in that behavior.
  27. 27. Self-Determined Learners • Achieve highly • Learn conceptually • Stay in school (Reeve, 2002)
  28. 28. Self-Determined Learners (Reeve, 2002) • Achieve highly • Learn conceptually • Stay in school • In large part, because their teachers support their autonomy rather than control their behavior
  29. 29. What external factors support success?
  30. 30. ONTARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-worth (Reeve, 2002)
  31. 31. ONTARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students (Reeve, 2002) • Preference for optimal challenge • Enjoy optimal challenge • Stronger perceptions of control • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention
  32. 32. ONTARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy- Supportive Teachers (Reeve, 2002) • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-esteem
  33. 33. ONTARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy- Supportive Teachers (Reeve, 2002) • Greater conceptual understanding • Greater flexibility in thinking • More information processing • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention
  34. 34. ONTARGET In Short… (Reeve, 2002) • Autonomously motivated students thrive in educational settings • Students benefit when teachers support their autonomy
  35. 35. • Autonomy support is not: –Permissiveness –Neglect –Independence –Laissez-faire interaction style Avoid Misconceptions
  36. 36. Avoid Misconceptions • Autonomy support and structure are two different classroom elements which have different aims and different effects • They are NOT the same, but can be mutually supportive
  37. 37. • Spend less time holding instructional materials • Provide time for independent work • Provide hints but resist giving answers • Encourage conversation • Listen – even more than you do now Tips for Teachers
  38. 38. • In conversation w/ students • Praise mastery • Respond to student generated questions • Make statements that are empathetic and rich in perspective taking Tips for Teachers
  39. 39. • Avoid • Directives or “Taking Charge” • Steering students toward a right answer • Being critical or evaluative • Motivating through external rewards • Motivating through pressure Tips for Teachers
  40. 40. Parents  and  students rate  controlling  teachers  as   significantly more  competent  than autonomy-­‐suppor.ve  teachers.
  41. 41. Person  Environment  Fit • Person  /  Environment  fit  is  the  degree  to  which   a  person  or  their  personality  is  compa7ble  with   their  environment
  42. 42. Good  Environmental  Fit  Occurs  When: A  person  adjusts  to  their  surroundings AND Adapts  the  environment  to  fit  their  needs
  43. 43. Why  Do  We   Ask  Kids  To   UNPLUG  At   School?
  44. 44. From the standpoint of the child…he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school - its isolation from life. -John Dewey
  45. 45. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self-Determination (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Curiosity Goal Pursuit Control Autonomy Optimal Challenge Competence Fantasy Achievement Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness
  46. 46. LEARNING CONTRACTS
  47. 47. Clear  Expecta,ons Authen,c  Audience
  48. 48. A  Timeline  with Feedback  Opportuni,es  Built-­‐in
  49. 49. Clear  Content  &  Resources Accountability
  50. 50. Clear  Strategies  &  Skills Accountability
  51. 51. • Agreement  between  teacher  &  student • Student  independence  &  autonomy • Increased  student  responsibility • Provides  freedom  in  acquiring  skills
  52. 52. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self- Determination (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Learning Contracts Curiosity Goal Pursuit Clear Expectations Control Autonomy Benchmarks & Defined Responsibility Optimal Challenge Competence Defined Content & Skills Fantasy Achievement Achievement Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness Authentic Audience
  53. 53. Mihaly   Csikszentmihalyi
  54. 54. Apathy Flow  Channel
  55. 55. To Experience FLOW... ...the task must provide clear goals and feedback.
  56. 56. To Experience FLOW... ...one must become immersed in the activity.
  57. 57. To Experience FLOW... ...the task must be challenging and require skill.
  58. 58. To Experience FLOW... ...one must learn to enjoy immediate experience.
  59. 59. To Experience FLOW... ...one must loose one’s sense of self.
  60. 60. Apathy Flow  Channel Increasing  Skills Increasing  Skills Increasing  Challenge Increasing  Challenge
  61. 61. Regulation of Affect
  62. 62. Reframe… • I am successful because I am smart • People like me because I am attractive • I get opportunities because I am lucky • I make mistakes because I am a failure • I never win because I am a loser • I get in trouble because the teacher does not like me
  63. 63. Reframe • I am successful because…
  64. 64. Reframe • People like me because…
  65. 65. Reframe • I make mistakes because…
  66. 66. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Motivated self-deception – Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety – “Oh, that is not due until next week.” – A month long project • Inaccurate verbalization – Convinced they feel something the do not – “I hate school!”
  67. 67. Blocks to Feeling in Control • Accessibility difficulties – More processing required to form an attitude, more apt to lose track of what the attitude is – “I used to be good at math, but the teacher is giving me a bad grade so I obviously am not good at math.”
  68. 68. Teacher Strategy  Insist students’ own their feelings “I feel angry” vs. “You made me mad”
  69. 69. Teacher Strategy  Help students reframe by using verbs instead of adjectives to describe their feelings  “I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”
  70. 70. Influence £On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2011, 2010, 2009…). £Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year. £Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.
  71. 71. Significant Influence £When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought? £Students may feel that external forces control their lives. £Modify the exercise: £Last five months £Last five weeks
  72. 72. Thinking about Achieving • What skills do I need to achieve this? • What help or assistance do I need? • What resources do I need? • What can block progress? • How will I maintain focus in order to achieve this?
  73. 73. Reflecting on Achievement • Did I accomplish what I planned to achieve? • Was I distracted and how did I get back to my task? • Did I plan enough time? • In which situation did I accomplish the most?
  74. 74. Being in the Moment • Can you change the past? • What are you doing now that is working? How can you do more of the same? • When you had a problem like this one before, what good solutions did you work out? Or Have you ever helped someone with a problem like this before?
  75. 75. Addressing  the   Surface Behavior  is   External  
  76. 76. Under  the   Surface Need  for   Internaliza.on
  77. 77. Overexcitabilities — Characteristics that reveal a heightened response to stimuli — Found more frequently in gifted population than general population — Dabrowski and Piechowski
  78. 78. } People with SOR respond to sensation faster, with more intensity, or for a longer duration than those with typical sensory responsivity } Considered a Sensory Modulation Disorder by some Sensory Overresponsivity (SOR)
  79. 79. } Behavioral responses ◦ Impulsivity ◦ Aggression ◦ Withdrawal ◦ Avoidance of sensation } Emotional Responses ◦ Irritability ◦ Moodiness ◦ Inconsolability Sensory Overresponsivity (SOR)
  80. 80. Sensory  Sensi.vity • Greater  CNS  Arousal – Show  greater  responsiveness   to  sensory  s.muli  in  all  sensory   modali.es – Emits  more  voluntary  motor   ac.vity – More  reac.ve  emo.onally • Might  also  explain   psychomotor  and  emo7onal  
  81. 81. Characteris7cs  of  People  with • Sense  of  being  different • Need  to  take  frequent   breaks  during  busy  days • Conscious  arrangement   of  lives  to  reduce   s7mula7on  &  unwanted   surprise
  82. 82. Characteris7cs  of  People  with • Acknowledge  importance   of  spiritual  and  inner  lives   (including  dreams) • Sense  that  difficul;es   stemmed  from  fear  of   failure  due  to  overarousal – While  being  observed – Feeling  judged – During  compe;;on
  83. 83. Sensory  Sensi.vity  of  GiHed • Tested  giZed  vs.  normed  sample  on  the   Sensory  Profile  (Dunn,  1999) • Significant  differences  on  12  of  14  sensory   sec7ons  between  groups • GiZed  children  are  more  sensi7ve  to  their   physical  environment • More  affected  by  sensory  s7muli  
  84. 84. Why address sensory sensitivity? • Sensory stimuli create CNS arousal which places demands upon the body • The intensity and duration of arousal affect responses to stimuli • Maximum and prolonged overload of information can be stressful
  85. 85. Why address sensory sensitivity? • To reduce stressors • To positively enhance the experience of the highly sensitive gifted individual • To be responsive to unique needs • To promote healthy working environments • To increase the sustainability of focus and effort in productive endeavors
  86. 86. Mindfulness § Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D. § From the field of behavioral medicine § Used to control § Stress § Pain § Illness § Initial research conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center
  87. 87. Mindfulness Attitudes § Non-judging § Impartial witness to our own experience § Cultivates emotional intelligence § Patience § Things unfold in their own time § Delay of gratification § Beginner’s Mind § What we think we “know” impedes understanding § Avoiding pre-conceived notions
  88. 88. Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189)
  89. 89. Mindfulness Attitudes § Trust § Developing a trust of yourself and your feelings § Non-striving § Seems counter intuitive § Focusing on being clarifies what to strive for § Acceptance § Seeing things as they are § Enables one to act appropriately no matter what is happening around them
  90. 90. Mindfulness Attitudes § Letting Go § Put aside the tendency to elevate some life experiences and reject others § Cultivates emotional intelligence § Mindfulness is mind training. § “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind” § “I am here to work on my mind”
  91. 91. Goal of Mindfulness § Achieve a state of stability and calm § Increase self-discipline § Increase feelings of well-being § Reduce feelings of dysphoria § Increase self-awareness
  92. 92. Mindfulness How To § Release Tension § Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor § Allow arms to hang straight down with hands about 10-12 inches from body § Close your eyes if it feels comfortable § Identify areas of tension in your mind or body § As you identify areas of tension, allow them to dissolve and flow down the arms and out the finger tips
  93. 93. Mindfulness How To § Mind Training § Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor § Close your eyes if it feels comfortable § Bring your attention to your breath § Nose, mouth, lungs, or belly – wherever you sense your breath § Do not control breath, just observe § Maintain your attention on your breathing § When your mind wanders, simply let the thought go and return your focus to your breath
  94. 94. Mindfulness How To § Focusing the mind is easier said than done § Requires consistent practice § Short and frequent § 5 to 15 minutes daily § Don’t force it! § When students loose focus, the time is up § Work to extend time each day
  95. 95. Mindfulness § Training the mind § “I’m here to train my mind” § “I’m here to work on my mind” § Awake and calm § Present mentally and physically § Focus on the breath – observe, don’t control – just observe § “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind”
  96. 96. Mindfulness § Connecting the mind and body § Feet flat on the floor § sitting up straight – string pulling from the top of the head § Presence – feel your feet, legs, abdomin, shoulders, arms, hands, neck, head § Creates a feeling of physical stability
  97. 97. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) Self- Determinatio n (Deci & Ryan, 1980; 2000) Learning Contracts FLOW (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) Curiosity Goal Pursuit Clear Expectations Clear Goal Control Autonomy Benchmarks & Defined Responsibility Adjust Performance Based on Feedback Optimal Challenge Competence Defined Content & Skills Balance Challenge & Skill Level Fantasy Achievement Achievement Enjoyment Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Relatedness Authentic Audience Transcend Self
  98. 98. 10,000
  99. 99. Smithsonian American Art Museum
  100. 100. E NDURINGLY NGAGING XPERIENCES
  101. 101. A LITTLE GAMIFICATION
  102. 102. Mindset Dr. Carol Dweck: Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset
  103. 103. Mindset Fixed Mindset: Believe traits are fixed or unchangeable Quantity of talent or intelligence finite
  104. 104. Mindset Growth Mindset: Believe traits can be developed w/ effort Accomplishment comes from practice and learning
  105. 105. Thinking about Thinking Students must think about how the way they think and what they think affects their success.
  106. 106. “While most games contain a clear reward system for players (moving up a level, receiving badges or points, etc.), what may be most appealing to educators is that games provide students A SAFE PLACE TO LEARN FROM FAILURE. In games, exploration is inherent and there are generally no high-stakes consequences. Children are able to EXPERIMENT AND TAKE RISKS TO FIND SOLUTIONS without the feeling that they are doing something wrong. GAMES ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO MAKE AND LEARN FROM MISTAKES, which is a particularly important concept in the K-12 setting.” GAME BASED LEARNING
  107. 107. GAMIFICATION: The use of game elements and game-design techniques in non-game contexts.
  108. 108. POINTS BADGES LEADER BOARDS
  109. 109. POINTS Effectively Keep Score Determine WIN State Connection Between Progress and Reward Provide Feedback External Display of Progress Data for Game Designer
  110. 110. BADGES Goals to Strive Toward Guidance About Possibilities Visual Markers of Accomplishment Status Symbols Tribal Markers
  111. 111. LEADER BOARDS
  112. 112. ENGAGE
  113. 113. GAMIFICATION OFFERS CHOICE
  114. 114. COLLABORATION CONTENT CHOICE -Alfie Kohn
  115. 115. DEFINE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  116. 116. 2. Delineate Target Behaviors DELINEATE TARGET BEHAVIORS
  117. 117. DESCRIBE YOUR PLAYERS
  118. 118. DEVISE ACTIVITY CYCLES
  119. 119. DON’T FORGET THE FUN!
  120. 120. DEPLOY APPROPRIATE TOOLS
  121. 121. 129
  122. 122. Motivation (Malone & Lepper, 1987) FLOW (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) Learning Contracts Gamification (McGonigal, 2010) Curiosity Clear Goal Clear Expectations Clear Objective Control Adjusted Performance Benchmarks & Responsibility Blissful Productivity Optimal Challenge Balance Challenge & Skill Level Defined Content & Skills Urgent Optimism Fantasy Enjoyment Achievement Epic Win Interpersonal (Cooperation, Competition, & Recognition) Transcend Self Authentic Audience Social Fabric
  123. 123. PLATFORMS FOR GAMIFICATION
  124. 124. Watson College of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
  125. 125. STAR Legacy CHALLENGE PERSPECTIVES & RESOURCES THOUGHTS ASSESSMENT WRAP UP
  126. 126. Edmodo is a free, secure, social learning platform for teachers, students, schools, and districts. FREE! FEATURES: Groups Messages Assignments Calendar Poll Student Emails NOT required!
  127. 127. http://help.edmodo.com/teachers/ how-to-createmanage-badges/
  128. 128. http://help.edmodo.com/teachers/ how-to-createmanage-badges/

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