Self-Regulated Learners• Compared with low achieving students, high achievers more frequently: – Set specific learning goals – Use a variety of learning strategies – Self-monitor – Adapt their efforts systematically www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/selfregulation/section4.html
Gifted students tend to be more self-regulated than their average performing peers.Self-Regulated Learners (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)
There still exists a large degree of variation among gifted students in their use of strategies associated with self- regulated learning. Self-Regulated Learners(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Risemberg & Zimmerman, 1992; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)
Self-‐Regulated Learners This varia5on may explain why some gi<ed students become highly produc5ve, contribu5ng members of society and others are in danger of underachievement.
A lthough there are manypossible explanations forwhy one could fail, effortand ability are the mostlikely causes that studentsreport. – Good & Brophy
Teacher Rating of Students Quality of Quality of Work R2 = .66 Ability Work R2 = .63 Effort Student Self-Rating R2 = .11 Quality of Quality of Work R2 = .52 Ability Work Effort (Siegle & McCoach)
How can we, as educators, helpstudents take personal initiative in the process of learning?
How can we help students take responsibility for their own learning?
How can we help students achieve their potential?
Reframe…• I am successful because I am smart• People like me because I am attractive• I get opportunities because I am lucky• I make mistakes because I am a failure• I never win because I am a loser• I get in trouble because the teacher does not like me
Blocks to Feeling in Control• Motivated self-deception – Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety – “Oh, that is not due until next week.” – A month long project• Inaccurate verbalization – Convinced they feel something the do not – “I hate school!”
Blocks to Feeling in Control• Accessibility difficulties – More processing required to form an attitude, more apt to lose track of what the attitude is – “I used to be good at math, but the teacher is giving me a bad grade so I obviously am not good at math.”
Teacher Strategy Insiststudents’ own their feelings “Ifeel angry” vs. “You made me mad”
Teacher Strategy Helpstudents reframe by using verbs instead of adjectives to describe their feelings “I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”
Influence On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2011, 2010, 2009…). Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year. Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.
Significant Influence When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought? Students may feel that external forces control their lives. Modify the exercise: Last five months Last five weeks
Thinking about Achieving• What skills do I need to achieve this?• What help or assistance do I need?• What resources do I need?• What can block progress?• How will I maintain focus in order to achieve this?
Reflecting on Achievement• Did I accomplish what I planned to achieve?• Was I distracted and how did I get back to my task?• Did I plan enough time?• In which situation did I accomplish the most?
Being in the Moment• Can you change the past?• What are you doing now that is working? How can you do more of the same?• When you had a problem like this one before, what good solutions did you work out? Or Have you ever helped someone with a problem like this before?
Sensory Sensi5vity • Greater CNS Arousal – Show greater responsiveness to sensory s5muli in all sensory modali5es – Emits more voluntary motor ac5vity – More reac5ve emo5onally • Might also explain psychomotor and emo5onal overexcitability
Characteris5cs of People with High Sensory Sensi5vity • Sense of being diﬀerent • Need to take frequent breaks during busy days • Conscious arrangement of lives to reduce s5mula5on & unwanted surprise
Characteris5cs of People with High Sensory Sensi5vity • Acknowledge importance of spiritual and inner lives (including dreams) • Sense that diﬃcul5es stemmed from fear of failure due to overarousal – While being observed – Feeling judged – During compe55on
Sensory Sensi5vity of Gi<ed • Tested gi<ed vs. normed sample on the Sensory Proﬁle (Dunn, 1999) • Signiﬁcant diﬀerences on 12 of 14 sensory sec5ons between groups • Gi<ed children are more sensi5ve to their physical environment • More aﬀected by sensory s5muli
Why address sensory sensitivity?• Sensory stimuli create CNS arousal which places demands upon the body• The intensity and duration of arousal affect responses to stimuli• Maximum and prolonged overload of information can be stressful
Why address sensory sensitivity?• To reduce stressors• To positively enhance the experience of the highly sensitive gifted individual• To be responsive to unique needs• To promote healthy working environments• To increase the sustainability of focus and effort in productive endeavors
Mindfulness Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D. From the field of behavioral medicine Used to control Stress Pain Illness Initial research conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center
Mindfulness Attitudes Non-judging Impartial witness to our own experience Cultivates emotional intelligence Patience Things unfold in their own time Delay of gratification Beginner’s Mind What we think we “know” impedes understanding Avoiding pre-conceived notions
Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189)
Mindfulness Attitudes Trust Developing a trust of yourself and your feelings Non-striving Seems counter intuitive Focusing on being clarifies what to strive for Acceptance Seeing things as they are Enables one to act appropriately no matter what is happening around them
Mindfulness Attitudes Letting Go Put aside the tendency to elevate some life experiences and reject others Cultivates emotional intelligence Mindfulness is mind training. “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind” “I am here to work on my mind”
Goal of Mindfulness Achieve a state of stability and calm Increase self-discipline Increase feelings of well-being Reduce feelings of dysphoria Increase self-awareness
Mindfulness How To Release Tension Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor Allow arms to hang straight down with hands about 10-12 inches from body Close your eyes if it feels comfortable Identify areas of tension in your mind or body As you identify areas of tension, allow them to dissolve and flow down the arms and out the finger tips
Mindfulness How To Mind Training Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor Close your eyes if it feels comfortable Bring your attention to your breath Nose, mouth, lungs, or belly – wherever you sense your breath Do not control breath, just observe Maintain your attention on your breathing When your mind wanders, simply let the thought go and return your focus to your breath
Mindfulness How To Focusing the mind is easier said than done Requires consistent practice Short and frequent 5 to 15 minutes daily Don’t force it! When students loose focus, the time is up Work to extend time each day
Mindfulness Training the mind “I’m here to train my mind” “I’m here to work on my mind” Awake and calm Present mentally and physically Focus on the breath – observe, don’t control – just observe “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind”
Mindfulness Connecting the mind and body Feet flat on the floor sitting up straight – string pulling from the top of the head Presence – feel your feet, legs, abdomin, shoulders, arms, hands, neck, head Creates a feeling of physical stability
Informa1on Overload Cogni5ve overs5mula5on that interferes with our ability to “think” (Toﬄer, 1970, p. 350)
Accelerating rate of new information Ease of duplication and transmission Increase in the available sources of information Contradictions and inaccuracies Lacking strategies to process information
1. Identify Your Priorities 2. Set Goals 3. Manage Time & Materials 4. Be Discerning 5. Reflect & Evaluate
Writing Prompt I would like to improve… Some people are unhappy with… I want to learn more about… An idea I would like to try… Something I think would really make a difference is… Something I would like to change is…
Unrealistic Goals Goals set by other people May be in conflict with student values, beliefs, or desires Insufficient Information Need realistic understanding of what is being attempted Always Expecting Best Focus on raising student’s average performance and increasing consistency
Insufficient Goals Fear of Failure Fear prevents risk taking Failure is a positive: shows where room for improvement exists Taking it “too easy” Will not achieve anything of worth
"Happiness does not come from doing easy work but from theafterglow of satisfaction that comes after the achievement of a difficult task that demanded our best." -Theodore Isaac Rubin
Teacher Strategy Help students set goals that are slightly out of their immediate reach, but not so far that they cannot achieve them Helpsstudents set goals that require your help
The greater danger for mostof us lies not in setting ouraim too high and falling short;but in setting our aim too low,and achieving our mark. -Michelangelo
Goal Setting Plan (Based on Heacox, 1991)1. What is one area of your class performance that you really want to improve? (This is your long termgoal. It may take you several weeks, months, or even a whole school year to improve this goal.)This goal is important to me because:2. What is one thing that you can do NOW to help you reach your long-term goal? (This is your short-term goal. You should be able to accomplish this goal in 2-4 weeks.)3. What steps do you need to reach your short-term goal?4. What things or people might keep you from reaching your goal? These are your obstacles.5. What can you do to get around your obstacles? These are your solutions.7. What special materials or help do you need to reach your goal? These are your resources.8. How will you reward yourself when you achieve your goal? These are your incentives.9. How and when will you check on your progress toward your goal? Who will help you to check onyour progress?Checkpoint 1 Date: ____________________________________________________Checkpoint 2 Date: ____________________________________________________ I am committed to working toward achieving my short term goal.Students signature: Todays date:Witness (Teachers) signature:
What school related goals would you like to work How do you expect to achieve these goals? toward during the next grading period? a. a. b. b.HOW DO YOU PLAN TO GET THERE? c. c. WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO During this school year? a. a. b. b. Goal Setting or… After high school? AND a. a. b. b. How do you hope to achieve these goals? What personal goals would you like to achieve in the a. next six months? b. a. c. b. c. a. Within the next year or two? b. a. b. From Motivating Achievers, Carolyn Coil, Pieces of Learning
Staying the Course"" Periodically review goals and modify to reﬂect changing priorities and experience"" Involve others in the goal: Inform, discuss, and share"" Engage with successful, motivated people who also set goals"" Create a “Goals Collage”"
Setting a New Goal• If goal was achieved easily, make next goal harder• If goal took to long to achieve, make next goal a little easier• If something was learned that leads to need for revision of other goals, do so• If skills were lacking, set goals to learn necessary skills
Intended Project(s):How, when, and wherewill you share andcommunicate the resultsof your project with otherpeople?What Format Will YourProject Take? "What will your product be?Project Description:What do you hope to findout or learn? "
Getting Started:What skills, resources andmaterials will I need?Who is the intendedaudience?
Organizational Strategies• The Environment Speciﬁc location for work Location should be distraction-free Set aside a speciﬁc time Daily, regardless of whether there is homework or not Supplies and resources available and accessible
Organizational Strategies• The Environment Speciﬁc location for work Location should be distraction-free Set aside a speciﬁc time Daily, regardless of whether there is homework or not Supplies and resources available and accessible• Still true, but…
Organizational Strategies• The Environment Speciﬁc location for work, but realize the digital environment is complex Location should be distraction-free Set aside a speciﬁc time, and work to increase focus Daily, but “down time” is good too Supplies and resources available online and students need access to the internet
Honor Diversity of Style!" Help students ﬁnd an organizational system the ﬁts their “style”"" Encourage them to develop their own systems"" Allow trial and error: Have patience to give system ideas a fair chance"
Every man should have a built-in automatic crap detector operatinginside of him.
Metacognition One’s knowledge of his or her own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flavell, 1976). Knowledge about when and how to use specific strategies for learning and problem solving
Teacher Strategy Provideexplicit instruction on thinking about thinking (metacognitive awareness) Provideopportunities for students to practice metacognition
Teacher Strategy Engage students in complex tasks: Extend over time Allow for variation in expression style Integrate multiple processes (Cognitive and procedural)
• What will I need to work on my project?• Where will I work?• Who will I work with?• What might hinder my process?
• Am I accomplishing what I planned?• Is this taking longer than I thought?• Am I on task or am I being distracted?
• Did I accomplish what I planned to do?• Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?• Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?• In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
Teacher Strategy Encourage risk-taking Ensure that students are sufficiently challenged so they have opportunities to fail
Teacher Strategy Encourage risk-taking Ensure that students are sufficiently challenged so they have opportunities to fail YES, let them fail!
MotivationTo be motivated means to be moved to do something
Internalizing Mo5va5on: External Regula5on External Regula5on Introjec5on Iden5fca5on Itegra5on Externally Act to gain Behaviors Behaviors mo5vated approval become become Punishment/ Do not fully personally central to Reward understand important iden5ty Compliance purpose (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Internalizing Mo5va5on: Introjec5on External Regula5on Introjec5on Iden5fca5on Itegra5on Externally Act to gain Behaviors Behaviors mo5vated approval become become Punishment/ Unknown personally central to Reward purpose important iden5ty Compliance (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Internalizing Mo5va5on: Iden5ﬁca5on External Regula5on Introjec5on Iden5ﬁca5on Integra5on Externally Act to gain Behaviors Behaviors mo5vated approval become become Punishment/ Do not fully personally central to Reward understand important iden5ty Compliance purpose (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
• Tied to Student’s Identity• Personally Interesting• Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future• Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
Internalizing Mo5va5on: Integra5on External Regula5on Introjec5on Iden5ﬁca5on Integra5on Externally Act to gain Behaviors Behaviors mo5vated approval become become Punishment/ Do not fully personally central to Reward understand important self-‐iden5ty Compliance purpose (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
Internalizing Mo5va5on Intrinsic Amo5va5on Mo5va5on External Regula5on Introjec5on Iden5ﬁca5on Integra5on Externally Act to gain Behaviors Behaviors mo5vated approval become become Punishment/ Do not fully personally central to Reward understand important self-‐iden5ty Compliance purpose (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
MotivationDiminished perception of competence(self-efficacy), autonomy(meaningfulness), or control(environmental perception) leads tolower motivation and a decreasedwillingness to pursue goals and persistin their attainment, thus limitingoverall educational growth.
COMPETENCE… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
SELF-EFFICACY… An individual’s personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in a specific context. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
Self-efficacy influences: What activities we select How much effort we put forth How persistent we are in the face of difficulties The difficulty of the goals we set
Self-Determined Learners• Achieve highly• Learn conceptually• Stay in school (Reeve, 2002)
Self-Determined Learners• Achieve highly• Learn conceptually• Stay in school• In large part, because their teachers support their autonomy rather than control their behavior (Reeve, 2002)
ON TARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-worth (Reeve, 2002)
ON TARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students • Preference for optimal challenge • Enjoy optimal challenge • Stronger perceptions of control • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention (Reeve, 2002)
ON TARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy-Supportive Teachers • Higher academic achievement • Higher perceived competence • More positive emotionality • Higher self-esteem (Reeve, 2002)
ON TARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy-Supportive Teachers • Greater conceptual understanding • Greater flexibility in thinking • More information processing • Greater creativity • Higher rates of retention (Reeve, 2002)
ON TARGET In Short… • Autonomously motivated students thrive in educational settings • Students benefit when teachers support their autonomy (Reeve, 2002)
Avoid Misconceptions• Autonomy support is not: – Permissiveness – Neglect – Independence – Laissez-faire interaction style
Avoid Misconceptions• Autonomy support and structure are two different classroom elements which have different aims and different effects• They are NOT the same, but can be mutually supportive
Person Environment Fit • Person / Environment ﬁt is the degree to which a person or their personality is compa5ble with their environment
Good Environmental Fit Occurs When: A person adjusts to their surroundings AND Adapts the environment to ﬁt their needs
Teacher Strategy Spend less time holding instructional materials Provide time for independent work Provide hints but resist giving answers Encourage conversation Listen – even more than you do now
Teacher Strategy In conversation w/ students Praise mastery Respond to student generated questions Make statements that are empathetic and rich in perspective taking
Teacher Strategy Avoid Directives or “Taking Charge” Steering students toward a right answer Being critical or evaluative Motivating through external rewards Motivating through pressure
Teacher Strategy Students benefit from being listened to Students suffer from being bossed
Parents and students rate controlling teachers as signiﬁcantly more competent than autonomy-‐suppor5ve teachers.
Teacher Strategy Provide clear expectations for student behavior and performance Create classroom structures that are consistent and provide access to materials Have systems in place for recurring activities
Failure is Part of the ProcessResiliencePerseverance