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Organize and Self-Regulate for Success

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    Organize and Self-Regulate for Success Organize and Self-Regulate for Success Presentation Transcript

    • Helping Students Get Organized & Self-Regulate Behavior for 21st Century Success Angela M. Housand, Ph. D. University of North Carolina WilmingtonConfratute – University of Connecticut
    • NRC The National Research CenterG/T on the Gifted and Talented www.gi%ed.uconn.edu  
    • Joe Renzulli and Sally ReisAnd other amazing people…
    • Traded in My Last Name
    • angelahousand.com
    • Graduated and Got a Job… Watson School of Education Angela Housand, Ph.D. housanda@uncw.edu
    • This Week I Have the Honor…
    • What hinders student success?
    • This Week:Self-Regulation & Gifted StudentsRegulation of AffectRegulation of BehaviorRegulation of CognitionSelf-Determined Success
    • Self-Regulated Learning Students are self-regulated when they are, “metacognatively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process.” (Zimmerman 1989, p. 329)
    • Active engagement in the learning process produces increases in academic performance.(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Ames, 1984; Corno, 1986, 1989; Dweck, 1986; Schunk & Rice; 1985,1987, 1991; Zimmerman, 1989; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)
    • Self-Regulated Learning•  Multi-faceted construct –  Metacognition –  Strategic Action –  Motivation•  Enabling self-determined achievement (Boekaerts 1997; Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; Butler & Winne, 1995; Corno, 2001; Flavell, 1979; Perry, Phillips, & Hutchinson, 2006; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998; Winne, 1995; Winne & Perry 2000; Zimmerman, 1989, 1990, 2000)
    • Self-Regulated Learning•  Goal Setting •  Self-Monitoring•  Planning •  Appropriate•  Self-Motivation Help-Seeking•  Attention Control •  Self-Evaluation•  Effective •  Self-Reflection Strategy Use (Boekaerts 1997; Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; Butler & Winne, 1995; Corno, 2001; Flavell, 1979; Perry, Phillips, & Hutchinson, 2006; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998; Winne, 1995; Winne & Perry 2000; Zimmerman, 1989, 1990, 2000)
    • Self-Regulated Learners•  Compared with low achieving students, high achievers more frequently: –  Set specific learning goals –  Use a variety of learning strategies –  Self-monitor –  Adapt their efforts systematically www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/selfregulation/section4.html
    • •  Personal Effort •  Intrinsic Motivation •  Goal Orientation •  Self-efficacy •  Age •  Gender(Blair & Razza, 2007; McWhaw & Abrami, 2001; Miles & Stine-Morrow,2004; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988, 1990)
    • Gifted students tend to be more self-regulated than their average performing peers.Self-Regulated Learners (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)
    • There still exists a large degree of variation among gifted students in their use of strategies associated with self- regulated learning. Self-Regulated Learners(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Risemberg & Zimmerman, 1992; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)
    • Self-­‐Regulated  Learners    This  varia5on  may  explain   why  some  gi<ed  students   become  highly   produc5ve,  contribu5ng   members  of  society  and   others  are  in  danger  of   underachievement.    
    • A lthough there are manypossible explanations forwhy one could fail, effortand ability are the mostlikely causes that studentsreport. – Good & Brophy
    • Teacher Rating of Students Quality of Quality of Work R2 = .66 Ability Work R2 = .63 Effort Student Self-Rating R2 = .11 Quality of Quality of Work R2 = .52 Ability Work Effort (Siegle & McCoach)
    • How can we, as educators, helpstudents take personal initiative in the process of learning?
    • How can we help students take responsibility for their own learning?
    • How can we help students achieve their potential?
    • Self-Regulation Requires•  Regulation of affect•  Regulation of behavior•  Regulation of cognition (Boekaerts 1997; Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; Butler & Winne, 1995; Corno, 2001; Flavell, 1979; Perry, Phillips, & Hutchinson, 2006; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998; Winne, 1995; Winne & Perry 2000; Zimmerman, 1989, 1990, 2000)
    • Dr. Carol Dweck: Fixed Mindset vs. Growth MindsetMindset
    • Fixed Mindset: Believe traits are fixed or unchangeable Quantity of talent orMindset intelligence finite
    • Growth Mindset: Believe traits can be developed w/ effort Accomplishment comes from practiceMindset and learning
    • Students must think about how the way they think andThinking what they think affects their about success.Thinking
    • Regulation of Affect
    • Reframe…•  I am successful because I am smart•  People like me because I am attractive•  I get opportunities because I am lucky•  I make mistakes because I am a failure•  I never win because I am a loser•  I get in trouble because the teacher does not like me
    • Reframe•  I am successful because…
    • Reframe•  People like me because…
    • Reframe•  I make mistakes because…
    • Blocks to Feeling in Control•  Motivated self-deception –  Denying a state exists to reduce anxiety –  “Oh, that is not due until next week.” –  A month long project•  Inaccurate verbalization –  Convinced they feel something the do not –  “I hate school!”
    • Blocks to Feeling in Control•  Accessibility difficulties –  More processing required to form an attitude, more apt to lose track of what the attitude is –  “I used to be good at math, but the teacher is giving me a bad grade so I obviously am not good at math.”
    • Teacher Strategy  Insiststudents’ own their feelings  “Ifeel angry” vs. “You made me mad”
    • Teacher Strategy  Helpstudents reframe by using verbs instead of adjectives to describe their feelings  “I am successful because I am smart.” vs. “I am successful because I work hard.”
    • Influence On a clean sheet of paper, list the past five years vertically (2011, 2010, 2009…). Next to each year, list the most important event that occurred in your life during that year. Estimate the percentage of control or influence you had over each event.
    • Significant Influence When you reflect on your experience, do you find that you had more control than you thought? Students may feel that external forces control their lives. Modify the exercise:  Last five months  Last five weeks
    • Thinking about Achieving•  What skills do I need to achieve this?•  What help or assistance do I need?•  What resources do I need?•  What can block progress?•  How will I maintain focus in order to achieve this?
    • Reflecting on Achievement•  Did I accomplish what I planned to achieve?•  Was I distracted and how did I get back to my task?•  Did I plan enough time?•  In which situation did I accomplish the most?
    • Being in the Moment•  Can you change the past?•  What are you doing now that is working? How can you do more of the same?•  When you had a problem like this one before, what good solutions did you work out? Or Have you ever helped someone with a problem like this before?
    • Addressing  the   Surface   Behavior  is   External    
    • Under  the   Surface   Need  for  Internaliza5on  
    • Overexcitabilities Characteristics that reveal a heightened response to stimuli Found more frequently in gifted population than general population Dabrowski and Piechowski
    •   People with SOR respond to sensation faster, with more intensity, or for a longer duration than those with typical sensory responsivity  Considered a Sensory Modulation Disorder by some
    •   Behavioral responses ◦  Impulsivity ◦  Aggression ◦  Withdrawal ◦  Avoidance of sensation  Emotional Responses ◦  Irritability ◦  Moodiness ◦  Inconsolability ◦  Poor Socialization
    • Sensory  Sensi5vity  •  Greater  CNS  Arousal   –  Show  greater  responsiveness   to  sensory  s5muli  in  all   sensory  modali5es   –  Emits  more  voluntary  motor   ac5vity   –  More  reac5ve  emo5onally  •  Might  also  explain   psychomotor  and  emo5onal   overexcitability  
    • Characteris5cs  of  People  with   High  Sensory  Sensi5vity   •  Sense  of  being  different   •  Need  to  take  frequent   breaks  during  busy  days   •  Conscious  arrangement   of  lives  to  reduce   s5mula5on  &  unwanted   surprise  
    • Characteris5cs  of  People  with   High  Sensory  Sensi5vity   •  Acknowledge  importance   of  spiritual  and  inner  lives   (including  dreams)   •  Sense  that  difficul5es   stemmed  from  fear  of   failure  due  to  overarousal   –  While  being  observed   –  Feeling  judged   –  During  compe55on  
    • Sensory  Sensi5vity  of  Gi<ed  •  Tested  gi<ed  vs.  normed  sample  on  the   Sensory  Profile  (Dunn,  1999)  •  Significant  differences  on  12  of  14  sensory   sec5ons  between  groups  •  Gi<ed  children  are  more  sensi5ve  to  their   physical  environment  •  More  affected  by  sensory  s5muli    
    • Why address sensory sensitivity?•  Sensory stimuli create CNS arousal which places demands upon the body•  The intensity and duration of arousal affect responses to stimuli•  Maximum and prolonged overload of information can be stressful
    • Why address sensory sensitivity?•  To reduce stressors•  To positively enhance the experience of the highly sensitive gifted individual•  To be responsive to unique needs•  To promote healthy working environments•  To increase the sustainability of focus and effort in productive endeavors
    • Mindfulness  Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D.  From the field of behavioral medicine  Used to control   Stress   Pain   Illness  Initial research conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center
    • Mindfulness Attitudes  Non-judging   Impartial witness to our own experience   Cultivates emotional intelligence  Patience   Things unfold in their own time   Delay of gratification  Beginner’s Mind   What we think we “know” impedes understanding   Avoiding pre-conceived notions
    • Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189)
    • Mindfulness Attitudes  Trust   Developing a trust of yourself and your feelings  Non-striving   Seems counter intuitive   Focusing on being clarifies what to strive for  Acceptance   Seeing things as they are   Enables one to act appropriately no matter what is happening around them
    • Mindfulness Attitudes  Letting Go   Put aside the tendency to elevate some life experiences and reject others   Cultivates emotional intelligence  Mindfulness is mind training.   “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind”   “I am here to work on my mind”
    • Goal of Mindfulness  Achieve a state of stability and calm  Increase self-discipline  Increase feelings of well-being  Reduce feelings of dysphoria  Increase self-awareness
    • Mindfulness How To  Release Tension   Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor   Allow arms to hang straight down with hands about 10-12 inches from body   Close your eyes if it feels comfortable   Identify areas of tension in your mind or body   As you identify areas of tension, allow them to dissolve and flow down the arms and out the finger tips
    • Mindfulness How To  Mind Training   Sit comfortably, spine erect, feet on floor   Close your eyes if it feels comfortable   Bring your attention to your breath   Nose, mouth, lungs, or belly – wherever you sense your breath   Do not control breath, just observe   Maintain your attention on your breathing   When your mind wanders, simply let the thought go and return your focus to your breath
    • Mindfulness How To  Focusing the mind is easier said than done   Requires consistent practice  Short and frequent   5 to 15 minutes daily  Don’t force it!   When students loose focus, the time is up   Work to extend time each day
    • Mindfulness  Training the mind  “I’m here to train my mind”  “I’m here to work on my mind”  Awake and calm  Present mentally and physically  Focus on the breath – observe, don’t control – just observe  “I am not thinking about that right now, I am observing – training my mind”
    • Mindfulness  Connecting the mind and body  Feet flat on the floor  sitting up straight – string pulling from the top of the head  Presence – feel your feet, legs, abdomin, shoulders, arms, hands, neck, head  Creates a feeling of physical stability
    • Regulation of Behavior
    • h]p://www.21stcenturyskills.org/  
    • 72  
    • 3,339 3,339
    • Technology Creates a WorldThat is Massively Interconnected 75  
    • (Internet World Stats, 2009)
    • (De Moor, 2008)
    • (NPR March 16, 2011)
    • Digital Natives
    • Informa1on  Overload  Cogni5ve  overs5mula5on  that  interferes  with  our  ability  to  “think”  (Toffler,  1970,  p.  350)  
    •   Accelerating rate of new information  Ease of duplication and transmission  Increase in the available sources of information  Contradictions and inaccuracies  Lacking strategies to process information
    • 1. Identify Your Priorities 2. Set Goals 3. Manage Time & Materials 4. Be Discerning 5. Reflect & Evaluate
    • Writing Prompt   I would like to improve…   Some people are unhappy with…   I want to learn more about…   An idea I would like to try…   Something I think would really make a difference is…   Something I would like to change is…
    • Slifeweb.com  
    • Why Goal Setting?Planned  direc5on  for  efforts  Provides  clarity  for  assessment  Opportunity  to  take  responsibility  
    • What doesgoal settinglook like foradults?
    • What is your personal definition of success?
    • Unrealistic Goals  Goals set by other people   May be in conflict with student values, beliefs, or desires  Insufficient Information   Need realistic understanding of what is being attempted  Always Expecting Best   Focus on raising student’s average performance and increasing consistency
    • Insufficient Goals  Fear of Failure   Fear prevents risk taking   Failure is a positive: shows where room for improvement exists  Taking it “too easy”   Will not achieve anything of worth
    • "Happiness does not come from doing easy work but from theafterglow of satisfaction that comes after the achievement of a difficult task that demanded our best." -Theodore Isaac Rubin
    • Teacher Strategy  Help students set goals that are slightly out of their immediate reach, but not so far that they cannot achieve them  Helpsstudents set goals that require your help
    • The greater danger for mostof us lies not in setting ouraim too high and falling short;but in setting our aim too low,and achieving our mark. -Michelangelo
    • SpecificMeasurableAttainableRealisticTime-bound
    • Privacy &Security
    • Categorize fordifferent types of goals.
    • What steps will Itake to achievemy goal?
    • Accountability: Share Reminders
    • MonitorProgress
    • Reflect &Evaluate
    • Specific Written Measureable Completion Check Box Time Bound Deadline Driven Prioritized PrioritizedPeriodically Reviewed Revised RegularlyAccountable to Others Its Your Job
    • DO’s and DON’Ts of To Do Lists
    • Goal Setting Plan (Based on Heacox, 1991)1. What is one area of your class performance that you really want to improve? (This is your long termgoal. It may take you several weeks, months, or even a whole school year to improve this goal.)This goal is important to me because:2. What is one thing that you can do NOW to help you reach your long-term goal? (This is your short-term goal. You should be able to accomplish this goal in 2-4 weeks.)3. What steps do you need to reach your short-term goal?4. What things or people might keep you from reaching your goal? These are your obstacles.5. What can you do to get around your obstacles? These are your solutions.7. What special materials or help do you need to reach your goal? These are your resources.8. How will you reward yourself when you achieve your goal? These are your incentives.9. How and when will you check on your progress toward your goal? Who will help you to check onyour progress?Checkpoint 1 Date: ____________________________________________________Checkpoint 2 Date: ____________________________________________________ I am committed to working toward achieving my short term goal.Students signature: Todays date:Witness (Teachers) signature:
    • What school related goals would you like to work How do you expect to achieve these goals? toward during the next grading period? a. a. b. b.HOW DO YOU PLAN TO GET THERE? c. c. WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO During this school year? a. a. b. b. Goal Setting or… After high school? AND a. a. b. b. How do you hope to achieve these goals? What personal goals would you like to achieve in the a. next six months? b. a. c. b. c. a. Within the next year or two? b. a. b. From Motivating Achievers, Carolyn Coil, Pieces of Learning
    • Staying the Course""  Periodically review goals and modify to reflect changing priorities and experience""  Involve others in the goal: Inform, discuss, and share""  Engage with successful, motivated people who also set goals""  Create a “Goals Collage”"
    • Cyclical and Ongoing
    • Setting a New Goal•  If goal was achieved easily, make next goal harder•  If goal took to long to achieve, make next goal a little easier•  If something was learned that leads to need for revision of other goals, do so•  If skills were lacking, set goals to learn necessary skills
    • Attainment
    • Infrastructure  
    • Infrastructure  
    • Infrastructure  
    • Infrastructure  
    • Infrastructure  
    • Infrastructure
    • OneLaptop perChild
    • (Eduventures, 2008)
    • (Valcke, et al, 2008)
    • Measuring Time on Task
    • SET A GOAL TAKE A BREAK STAY ON TARGETREWARD YOURSELF
    • Calendar Ideas for Students" • Task monitoring • Set “reminders” • Use with iGoogle • Track project timelines • Organize “TO DO” Lists
    • Calendar Ideas for Teachers  Create group calendars  Provide assignment due dates  Set project timelines  Existing location for parent information
    • BE EFFICIENT
    • Managing the Madness of Email ESTABLISH EMAIL TIME ZONES STRIVE TO ONLY TOUCH IT ONCEDOES YOUR PHONE REALLY HELP?DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TO JUNK MAIL
    • “GET YOURSELF A FOLDER.”
    • • Annotate,  Archive,   My  Library   Organize   • Build  a  Personal  Learning  My  Network   Network   • Create  a  Group  Knowledge   My  Groups   Repository   • Research,  Share,  Community   Collaborate  
    • Dropbox is software that syncs yourfiles online and across your computers."
    • How Much Space? 2GB FREEInstall on Invite Share Install another a friend or a on yourcomputer. colleague. folder. phone.
    • I
    • Intended Project(s):How, when, and wherewill you share andcommunicate the resultsof your project with otherpeople?What Format Will YourProject Take? "What will your product be?Project Description:What do you hope to findout or learn? "
    • Getting Started:What skills, resources andmaterials will I need?Who is the intendedaudience?
    • Timeline:• Start Date• Completion Date• Progress Report• Dates• Meetings with theteacher!
    • Organizational Strategies•  The Environment  Specific location for work  Location should be distraction-free  Set aside a specific time  Daily, regardless of whether there is homework or not  Supplies and resources available and accessible
    • Organizational Strategies•  The Environment  Specific location for work  Location should be distraction-free  Set aside a specific time  Daily, regardless of whether there is homework or not  Supplies and resources available and accessible•  Still true, but…
    • Organizational Strategies•  The Environment  Specific location for work, but realize the digital environment is complex  Location should be distraction-free  Set aside a specific time, and work to increase focus  Daily, but “down time” is good too  Supplies and resources available online and students need access to the internet
    • Think Mobility
    • Honor Diversity of Style!"   Help students find an organizational system the fits their “style”""   Encourage them to develop their own systems""   Allow trial and error: Have patience to give system ideas a fair chance"
    • Every man should have a built-in automatic crap detector operatinginside of him.
    • + 5 Types of Evaluation 1.  Understanding 2.  Relevancy 3.  Accuracy 4.  Reliability 5.  Bias (Coiro, 2006)
    • http://www.google.com/educators
    • www.wdyl.com" Trends Books Sketchup YouTube Translate Groups Patent Search Earth Voice Calendar Blog Search Gmail Image Search Maps Moderator
    • agoogleaday.com"
    • Students Ask:
    • Students Ask:
    • 1. Identify Your Priorities 2. Set Goals 3. Manage Time & Materials 4. Be Discerning 5. Reflect & Evaluate
    • Regulation of Cognition
    • Metacognition One’s knowledge of his or her own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flavell, 1976). Knowledge about when and how to use specific strategies for learning and problem solving
    • Teacher Strategy  Provideexplicit instruction on thinking about thinking (metacognitive awareness)  Provideopportunities for students to practice metacognition
    • Teacher Strategy  Engage students in complex tasks:  Extend over time  Allow for variation in expression style  Integrate multiple processes (Cognitive and procedural)
    • Individualized Projects
    • •  What will I need to work on my project?•  Where will I work?•  Who will I work with?•  What might hinder my process?
    • •  Am I accomplishing what I planned?•  Is this taking longer than I thought?•  Am I on task or am I being distracted?
    • •  Did I accomplish what I planned to do?•  Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?•  Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?•  In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
    • Teacher Strategy  Encourage risk-taking  Ensure that students are sufficiently challenged so they have opportunities to fail
    • Teacher Strategy  Encourage risk-taking  Ensure that students are sufficiently challenged so they have opportunities to fail  YES, let them fail!
    • MotivationTo be motivated means to be moved to do something
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on   Intrinsic  Amo5va5on   Mo5va5on   (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on:   External  Regula5on  External  Regula5on   Introjec5on   Iden5fca5on   Itegra5on   Externally   Act  to  gain   Behaviors   Behaviors   mo5vated   approval   become   become   Punishment/   Do  not  fully   personally   central  to   Reward   understand   important   iden5ty   Compliance   purpose     (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on:   Introjec5on  External  Regula5on   Introjec5on   Iden5fca5on   Itegra5on   Externally   Act  to  gain   Behaviors   Behaviors   mo5vated   approval   become   become   Punishment/   Unknown     personally   central  to   Reward   purpose     important   iden5ty   Compliance   (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on:   Iden5fica5on  External  Regula5on   Introjec5on   Iden5fica5on   Integra5on   Externally   Act  to  gain   Behaviors   Behaviors   mo5vated   approval   become   become   Punishment/   Do  not  fully   personally   central  to   Reward   understand   important   iden5ty   Compliance   purpose     (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • •  Tied to Student’s Identity•  Personally Interesting•  Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future•  Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on:   Integra5on  External  Regula5on   Introjec5on   Iden5fica5on   Integra5on   Externally   Act  to  gain   Behaviors   Behaviors   mo5vated   approval   become   become   Punishment/   Do  not  fully   personally   central  to   Reward   understand   important   self-­‐iden5ty   Compliance   purpose     (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • Internalizing  Mo5va5on   Intrinsic  Amo5va5on   Mo5va5on   External  Regula5on   Introjec5on   Iden5fica5on   Integra5on   Externally   Act  to  gain   Behaviors   Behaviors   mo5vated   approval   become   become   Punishment/   Do  not  fully   personally   central  to   Reward   understand   important   self-­‐iden5ty   Compliance   purpose     (Deci  &  Ryan,  1995;  Ryan  &  Deci,  2000)  
    • MotivationDiminished perception of competence(self-efficacy), autonomy(meaningfulness), or control(environmental perception) leads tolower motivation and a decreasedwillingness to pursue goals and persistin their attainment, thus limitingoverall educational growth.
    • COMPETENCE… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
    • SELF-EFFICACY… An individual’s personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in a specific context. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
    • Self-efficacy influences:  What activities we select  How much effort we put forth  How persistent we are in the face of difficulties  The difficulty of the goals we set
    • Increasing Self-efficacy  Past performance  Vicarious experiences (observing others perform)  Verbal persuasion   Physiological cues
    • Autonomy
    • Self-Determined Learners•  Achieve highly•  Learn conceptually•  Stay in school (Reeve, 2002)
    • Self-Determined Learners•  Achieve highly•  Learn conceptually•  Stay in school•  In large part, because their teachers support their autonomy rather than control their behavior (Reeve, 2002)
    • ON TARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students •  Higher academic achievement •  Higher perceived competence •  More positive emotionality •  Higher self-worth (Reeve, 2002)
    • ON TARGET Autonomously-Motivated Students vs. Control-Motivated Students •  Preference for optimal challenge •  Enjoy optimal challenge •  Stronger perceptions of control •  Greater creativity •  Higher rates of retention (Reeve, 2002)
    • ON TARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy-Supportive Teachers •  Higher academic achievement •  Higher perceived competence •  More positive emotionality •  Higher self-esteem (Reeve, 2002)
    • ON TARGET Educational Benefits of Autonomy-Supportive Teachers •  Greater conceptual understanding •  Greater flexibility in thinking •  More information processing •  Greater creativity •  Higher rates of retention (Reeve, 2002)
    • ON TARGET In Short… •  Autonomously motivated students thrive in educational settings •  Students benefit when teachers support their autonomy (Reeve, 2002)
    • Avoid Misconceptions•  Autonomy support is not: – Permissiveness – Neglect – Independence – Laissez-faire interaction style
    • Avoid Misconceptions•  Autonomy support and structure are two different classroom elements which have different aims and different effects•  They are NOT the same, but can be mutually supportive
    • Person  Environment  Fit  •  Person  /  Environment  fit  is  the  degree  to  which   a  person  or  their  personality  is  compa5ble  with   their  environment  
    • Good  Environmental  Fit  Occurs  When:   A  person  adjusts  to  their  surroundings   AND   Adapts  the  environment  to  fit  their  needs  
    • Teacher Strategy  Spend less time holding instructional materials  Provide time for independent work  Provide hints but resist giving answers  Encourage conversation  Listen – even more than you do now
    • Teacher Strategy  In conversation w/ students   Praise mastery   Respond to student generated questions   Make statements that are empathetic and rich in perspective taking
    • Teacher Strategy  Avoid   Directives or “Taking Charge”   Steering students toward a right answer   Being critical or evaluative   Motivating through external rewards   Motivating through pressure
    • Teacher Strategy  Students benefit from being listened to  Students suffer from being bossed
    • Parents  and  students   rate  controlling  teachers  as     significantly   more  competent  than  autonomy-­‐suppor5ve  teachers.  
    • Teacher Strategy  Provide clear expectations for student behavior and performance  Create classroom structures that are consistent and provide access to materials  Have systems in place for recurring activities
    • Failure is Part of the ProcessResiliencePerseverance
    • D I G I T A L   IMMIGRANTS   D I V I D E  NATIVES  
    • Why  Do  We  Ask  Kids  To  UNPLUG  At   School?  
    • “From the standpoint of thechild…he is unable to apply indaily life what he is learningat school. That is theisolation of the school - itsisolation from life.” John Dewey
    • Thank You!
    • Questions?
    • What  might  you  reconsider  about  your  classroom  prac5ce?  List  three  poten5al  changes.